Search results for 'Moral contractarianism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Julia Tanner (2013). Contractarianism and Secondary Direct Moral Standing for Marginal Humans and Animals. Res Publica 19 (2):1-16.score: 144.0
    It is commonly thought that neo-Hobbesian contractarianism cannot yield direct moral standing for marginal humans and animals. However, it has been argued that marginal humans and animals can have a form of direct moral standing under neo-Hobbesian contractarianism: secondary moral standing. I will argue that, even if such standing is direct, this account is unsatisfactory because it is counterintuitive and fragile.
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  2. Jean Hampton (2007). The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.score: 108.0
    Contractarianism in some form has been at the center of recent debates in moral and political philosophy. Jean Hampton was one of the most gifted philosophers involved in these debates and provided both important criticisms of prominent contractarian theories plus powerful defenses and applications of the core ideas of contractarianism. In these essays, she brought her distinctive approach, animated by concern for the intrinsic worth of persons, to bear on topics such as guilt, punishment, self-respect, family relations, (...)
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  3. Samuel Freeman (2006). Moral Contractarianism as a Foundation for Interpersonal Morality. In James Lawrence Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory. Blackwell Pub.. 6--57.score: 96.0
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  4. Edwin Etieyibo (2013). Bargaining and Agreement in Gauthier's Moral Contractarianism. South African Journal of Philosophy 32 (3):221-233.score: 90.0
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  5. Alejandro Rosas (2004). Mind Reading, Deception and the Evolution of Kantian Moral Agents. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (2):127–139.score: 84.0
    Classical evolutionary explanations of social behavior classify behaviors from their effects, not from their underlying mechanisms. Here lies a potential objection against the view that morality can be explained by such models, e.g. Trivers’reciprocal altruism. However, evolutionary theory reveals a growing interest in the evolution of psychological mechanisms and factors them in as selective forces. This opens up perspectives for evolutionary approaches to problems that have traditionally worried moral philosophers. Once the ability to mind-read is factored-in among the relevant (...)
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  6. Why the international market for pharmaceuticals fails & What to Do About It : A. Comparison of Two Alternative Approaches to Global Ethics (2008). Reflecting the Impact of Ethical Theory : Contractarianism, Ethics, and Economics. Christoph Luetge / Civilising the Barbarians? : On the Apparent Necessity of Moral Surpluses; Soeren Buttkereit and Ingo Pies / Social Dilemmas and the Social Contract; Peter Koslowski / Ethical Economy as the Economy of Ethics and as the Ethics of the Market Economy; Ingo Pies and Stefan Hielscher. In Jesús Conill Sancho, Christoph Luetge & Tatjana Schó̈nwälder-Kuntze (eds.), Corporate Citizenship, Contractarianism and Ethical Theory: On Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Ashgate Pub. Company.score: 78.0
  7. Matt Matravers (2008). Review of Jean Hampton, The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (9).score: 72.0
  8. Andrew I. Cohen (2007). Contractarianism, Other-Regarding Attitudes, and the Moral Standing of Nonhuman Animals. Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):188–201.score: 72.0
  9. Sibyl A. Schwarzenbach (2008). Book Reviews:The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. [REVIEW] Ethics 119 (1):180-184.score: 72.0
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  10. David Boonin-Vail (1993). Contractarianism Gone Wild: Carruthers and the Moral Status of Animals. Between the Species 10 (1):8.score: 72.0
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  11. Jon Mahoney (2009). Jean Hampton, The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 28 (2):120-122.score: 72.0
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  12. Carole Pateman (2009). The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. By Jean Hampton. Edited by Daniel Farnham. Hypatia 24 (1):188-191.score: 72.0
  13. Rex Martin, David Gauthier & Peter Vallentyne (1993). Moral Dealing: Contract, Ethics, and Reason.Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement. Philosophical Quarterly 43 (172):373.score: 72.0
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  14. Jesús Conill Sancho, Christoph Luetge & Tatjana Schó̈nwälder-Kuntze (eds.) (2008). Corporate Citizenship, Contractarianism and Ethical Theory: On Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Ashgate Pub. Company.score: 72.0
    This study provides a representation of the broad spectrum of theoretical work on topics related to business ethics, with a particular focus on corporate citizenship. It considers relations of business and society alongside social responsibility and moves on to examine the historical and systemic foundations of business ethics, focusing on the concepts of social and ethical responsibilities. The contributors explore established theories and concepts and their impact on moral behaviour. Together, the contributions offer varied philosophical theories in approaches to (...)
     
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  15. Blanca Rodríguez López (2005). Homo Economicus e Individuo Liberal: una derivación de la moral a partir del interés propio. Logos: Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica 38 (1):87-115.score: 72.0
    Apoyándose en la Teoría de la Elección Racional y en el contractualismo, Gauthier intenta derivar la moralidad como una restricción en la maximización de la utilidad justificada por la razón a partir de una situación y unos agentes moralmente neutrales. El mantenimiento de los acuerdos satisfactorios sería racionalmente justificable incluso en ausencia de restricciones externas. En este artículo analizamos la argumentación ofrecida por Gauthier en apoyo de su contractualismo moral y defendemos que, en determinadas situaciones, los acuerdos cuyo cumplimiento (...)
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  16. J. Mahoney (2008). Jean Hampton, The Intrinsic Worth of Persons: Contractarianism in Moral and Political Philosophy. Philosophy in Review 28 (2):120.score: 72.0
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  17. Pedro Francés-Gómez (2003). Some Difficulties in Sacconi's View About Corporate Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 42 (2):165 - 180.score: 62.0
    Lorenzo Sacconi's The Social Contract of the Firm (Berlin, Springer, 2000) is a major contribution to the normative theory of the firm. It contains a full-fledged contractarian explanation of the role of Corporate Codes of Ethics. Sacconi proposes a game-theoretical model of the normative structure of the firm, including explicit and implicit contracts binding the members of the organisation, and the so-called constitutional contract: the hypothetical agreement that sets the basic co-operative structure in which the organisation consists. While Sacconi's theory (...)
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  18. Fritz Allhoff (2009). The Evolution of the Moral Sentiments and the Metaphysics of Morals. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (1):97 - 114.score: 60.0
    So-called evolutionary error theorists, such as Michael Ruse and Richard Joyce, have argued that naturalistic accounts of the moral sentiments lead us to adopt an error theory approach to morality. Roughly, the argument is that an appreciation of the etiology of those sentiments undermines any reason to think that they track moral truth and, furthermore, undermines any reason to think that moral truth actually exists. I argue that this approach offers us a false dichotomy between error theory (...)
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  19. Georgia Testa (2003). Gauthier and the Capacity for Morality. Res Publica 9 (3):223-242.score: 60.0
    In Morals by Agreement, David Gauthier tries to provide a justification of morality from morally neutral premises within the constraints of an instrumental conception of reason. But his reliance on this narrow conception of reason creates problems, for it suggests that moral motivation is self-interested. However, Gauthier holds that to act morally is to act for the sake of morality and others, not oneself. An individual who so acts has what he calls an affective capacity for morality. He attempts (...)
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  20. Nicholas Southwood (2010). Contractualism and the Foundations of Morality. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
    Contractualism has a venerable history and considerable appeal. Yet as an account of the foundations or ultimate grounds of morality it has been thought by many philosophers to be subject to fatal objections. This book argues otherwise. It begins by detailing and diagnosing the shortcomings of the main existing models of contractualism, “Hobbesian” contractualism (or contractarianism) and “Kantian” contractualism. It then proposes a novel, "deliberative" model, based on an interpersonal, deliberative conception of practical reason. It argues that the deliberative (...)
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  21. Robert Bass (2000). Pure Contractarianism: Promise, Problems, Prospects. Journal of Value Inquiry 34 (2-3):319-332.score: 54.0
    Several different positions are classified as contractarian. Though there are variations among them, they all include the assumption that practical or action-guiding principles, among which are principles of moral justification and of political legitimacy, somehow have their basis in consent. A contractarian may or may not believe that there are other practical principles that are based on or justified by something besides consent. If he believes there are any others, there will be delicate issues to address as to whether (...)
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  22. Janice Richardson (2007). On Not Making Ourselves the Prey of Others: Jean Hampton's Feminist Contractarianism. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 15 (1):33-55.score: 54.0
    This article assesses Jean Hampton’s feminist contractarianism by considering the way in which she draws together the contradictory positions of Hobbes and Kant to produce a test for exploitation in personal relationships. The ways in which this work fits with her other analysis of retribution, gratitude and self-worth are examined. Hampton’s work is evaluated in the context of Carole Pateman’s argument that moral theories distract from the political analysis of who has a voice in relationships. Hampton’s work presumes (...)
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  23. Kenneth R. Westphal (forthcoming). ‘Constructivism, Contractarianism and Basic Obligations: Kant and Gauthier’. In J.-C. Merle (ed.), Reading Kant’s Doctrine of Right.score: 54.0
    Gauthier’s contractarianism begins with an idea of a rational deliberator but ‘finds no basis for postulating a moral need for the justification of one’s actions to others. The role of agreement is to address each person’s demand that the constraints of society be justified to him, not a concern that he justify himself to his fellows’ (Gauther 1997, 134–5). He contrasts his view with Scanlon’s contractualism, according to which agreement with others is the core of morality and each (...)
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  24. Daniel Beck (2014). Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross‐Cultural Bioethics. Developing World Bioethics 14 (2).score: 54.0
    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, (...)
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  25. Daniel Loewe (2010). Obligaciones Hacia Generaciones Futuras: El Caso Contractual. Veritas 55 (1).score: 54.0
    Neste texto, investiga-se a extensão diacrônica da comuni- dade moral no âmbito de teorias contratualistas. Para isso, examinam-se críticas à possibilidade lógica de sustentar obrigações em relação a gerações futuras e se abordam modelos argumentativos contratualistas de justificação dessas obrigações que se baseiam no interesse próprio e na imparcialidade. De acordo com essa pesquisa, a melhor defesa dessas obrigações se pode articular recorrendo a esse último tipo de contratualismo.
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  26. Mark Rowlands (1997). Contractarianism and Animal Rights. Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (3):235–247.score: 42.0
    It is widely accepted, by both friends and foes of animal rights, that contractarianism is the moral theory least likely to justify the assigning of direct moral status to non-human animals. These are not, it is generally supposed, rational agents, and contractarian approaches can grant direct moral status only to such agents. I shall argue that this widely accepted view is false. At least some forms of contractarianism, when properly understood, do, in fact, entail that (...)
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  27. Geoffrey Sayre-McCord, Contemporary Contractarian Moral Theory.score: 42.0
    Contractarianism, as a general approach to moral and political thought, has perspective I offer, however, is not scrupulously historical. I smooth over a good deal of the twists and turns that due care to the historical record would had a long and distinguished history -- its roots are easily traced as far back as..
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  28. Timothy Chappell, Ethics and Experience: Life Beyond Moral Theory.score: 42.0
    Ethics and Experience presents a wide-ranging and thought-provoking introduction to the question famously posed by Socrates: “How is life to be lived?” An excellent primer for any student taking a course on moral philosophy, the book introduces ethics as a single and broadly unified field of inquiry in which we apply reason to try and solve Socrates’ question. Ethics and Experience examines the major forms of ethical subjectivism and objectivism - including expressivism, “error theory”, naturalism, and intuitionism. The book (...)
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  29. Peter Vallentyne (ed.) (1991). Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement. Cambridge University Press.score: 42.0
    In this anthology, prominent moral and political philosophers offer a critical assessment of Gauthier's theory.
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  30. Hugh LaFollette, Contemporary Contractarian Moral Theory.score: 42.0
    Contractarianism, as a general approach to moral and political thought, has had a long and distinguished history -- its roots are easily traced as far back as Plato's Republic, where Glaucon advanced it as a view of justice, and its influential representatives include Pufendorf, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hume, and Kant. In various ways, to various purposes, and against the background of various assumptions, each of these philosophers offered contractarian arguments for the views they defended. What binds the tradition (...)
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  31. Andrew I. Cohen (2009). Contractarianism and Interspecies Welfare Conflicts. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (1):227-257.score: 42.0
    In this essay I describe how contractarianism might approach interspecies welfare conflicts. I start by discussing a contractarian account of the moral status of nonhuman animals. I argue that contractors can agree to norms that would acknowledge the of some animals. I then discuss how the norms emerging from contractarian agreement might constrain any comparison of welfare between humans and animals. Contractarian agreement is likely to express some partiality to humans in a way that discounts the welfare of (...)
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  32. Jung Soon Park (2008). Rawls' Avowed Error in Rational Contractarianism. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:325-340.score: 42.0
    Over twenty years after the publication of A Theory of Justice (1971), Rawls avowed that it was an error in Theory to describe a theory of justice as part of the theory of rational choice. This paper elucidates the reasons why Rawls had to make such an avowal of the error in connection with his contractarian rational deduction project of morality, i.e., rational contractarianism. Two major issues are involved here. They are about the construction of the original position and (...)
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  33. Jody S. Kraus (1993). The Limits of Hobbesian Contractarianism. Cambridge University Press.score: 42.0
    This book is the most comprehensive, rigorous critique of contemporary Hobbesian contractarianism as expounded in the work of Jean Hampton, Gregory Kavka, and David Gauthier. Professor Kraus argues that the attempts by these three philosophers to use Hobbes to answer current political and moral questions fail. The reasons why they fail are related to fundamental problems intrinsic to Hobbesian contractarianism: first, the problem of collective action arising out of the tension in Hobbes' theory between individual and collective (...)
     
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  34. Mark Rowlands (2009). Animal Rights: Moral Theory and Practice. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 42.0
    Animal rights and moral theories -- Arguing for one's species -- Utilitarianism and animals : Peter Singer's case for animal liberation -- Tom Regan : animal rights as natural rights -- Virtue ethics and animals -- Contractarianism and animal rights -- Animal minds.
     
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  35. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong & Mark Timmons (eds.) (1996). Moral Knowledge? New Readings in Moral Epistemology. Oxford University Press.score: 42.0
    In Moral Knowledge? New Readings in Moral Epistemology, editors Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Mark Timmons bring together eleven specially commissioned essays by distinguished moral philosophers exploring the nature and possibility of moral knowledge. Each essay represents a major position within the exciting field of moral epistemology in which a proponent of the position presents and defends his or her view and locates it vis-a-vis competing views. The authors include established philosophers such as Peter Railton, Robert Audi, (...)
     
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  36. Nicholas Southwood (2008). A Deliberative Model of Contractualism. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (2):183-208.score: 36.0
    Despite an impressive philosophical pedigree, contractualism (or contractarianism) has only been properly developed in two ways: by appeal to the idea of an instrumentally rational bargain or contract between self-interested individuals (Hobbesian contractualism) and by appeal to the idea of a substantively reasonable agreement among individuals who regard one another as free and equal persons warranting equal moral respect (Kantian contractualism). Both of these existing models of contractualism are susceptible to apparently devastating objections. In this article, I outline (...)
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  37. Robert Garner (2012). Rawls, Animals and Justice: New Literature, Same Response. [REVIEW] Res Publica 18 (2):159-172.score: 36.0
    This article seeks to revisit the relationship between Rawls’s contractarianism and the moral status of animals, paying particular attention to the recent literature. Despite Rawls’s own reluctance to include animals as recipients of justice, and my own initial scepticism, a number of scholars have argued that his theory does provide resources that are useful for the animal advocate. The first type takes Rawls’s exclusion of animals from his theory of justice at face value but argues that animals can (...)
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  38. Michael von Grundherr (2007). Moral Aus Interesse: Metaethik der Vertragstheorie. De Gruyter.score: 36.0
    One can justify moral rules on the basis of their advantageousness without equating morality and advantage.
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  39. John J. Thrasher (2013). Reconciling Justice and Pleasure in Epicurean Contractarianism. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (2):423-436.score: 30.0
    Epicurean contractarianism is an attempt to reconcile individualistic hedonism with a robust account of justice. The pursuit of pleasure and the requirements of justice, however, have seemed to be incompatible to many commentators, both ancient and modern. It is not clear how it is possible to reconcile hedonism with the demands of justice. Furthermore, it is not clear why, even if Epicurean contractarianism is possible, it would be necessary for Epicureans to endorse a social contract. I argue here (...)
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  40. Samuel Freeman (2007). The Burdens of Public Justification: Constructivism, Contractualism, and Publicity. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 6 (1):5-43.score: 24.0
    The publicity of a moral conception is a central idea in Kantian and contractarian moral theory. Publicity carries the idea of general acceptability of principles through to social relations. Without publicity of its moral principles, the intuitive attractiveness of the contractarian ideal seems diminished. For it means that moral principles cannot serve as principles of practical reasoning and justification among free and equal persons. This article discusses the role of the publicity assumption in Rawls’s and Scanlon’s (...)
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  41. David P. Gauthier (1986). Morals by Agreement. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Is morality rational? In this book Gauthier argues that moral principles are principles of rational choice. He proposes a principle whereby choice is made on an agreed basis of cooperation, rather than according to what would give an individual the greatest expectation of value. He shows that such a principle not only ensures mutual benefit and fairness, thus satisfying the standards of morality, but also that each person may actually expect greater utility by adhering to morality, even though the (...)
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  42. Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.) (2007). Ethical Theory: An Anthology. Blackwell Pub..score: 24.0
    Ethical Theory: An Anthology is an authoritative collection of key essays by top scholars in the field, addressing core issues including consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics, as well as traditionally underrepresented topics such as moral knowledge and moral responsibility. Brings together seventy-six classic and contemporary pieces by renowned philosophers, from classic writing by Hume and Kant to contemporary writing by Derek Parfit, Susan Wolf, and Judith Jarvis Thomson Guides students through key areas in the field, among them consequentialism, (...)
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  43. Christoph Luetge (2012). Fundamentals of Order Ethics: Law, Business Ethics and the Financial Crisis. Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie Beihefte 130:11-21.score: 24.0
    During the current financial crisis, the need for an alternative to a laissez-faire ethics of capitalism (the Milton Friedman view) becomes clear. I argue that we need an order ethics which employs economics as a key theoretical resource and which focuses on institutions for implementing moral norms. -/- I will point to some aspects of order ethics which highlight the importance of rules, e.g. global rules for the financial markets. In this regard, order ethics (“Ordnungsethik”) is the complement of (...)
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  44. Louis M. Guenin (2005). Intellectual Honesty. Synthese 145 (2):177 - 232.score: 24.0
    Engaging a listener’s trust imposes moral demands upon a presenter in respect of truthtelling and completeness. An agent lies by an utterance that satisfies what are herein defined as signal and mendacity conditions; an agent deceives when, in satisfaction of those conditions, the agent’s utterances contribute to a false belief or thwart a true one. I advert to how we may fool ourselves in observation and in the perception of our originality. Communication with others depends upon a convention or (...)
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  45. Knud Haakonssen (1996). Natural Law and Moral Philosophy: From Grotius to the Scottish Enlightenment. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    This major contribution to the history of philosophy provides the most comprehensive guide to modern natural law theory available, sets out the full background to liberal ideas of rights and contractarianism, and offers an extensive study of the Scottish Enlightenment. The time span covered is considerable: from the natural law theories of Grotius and Suarez in the early seventeenth century to the American Revolution and the beginnings of utilitarianism. After a detailed survey of modern natural law theory, the book (...)
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  46. Win-Chiat Lee (2012). Cosmopolitanism with Room for Nationalism. Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (2):279-293.score: 24.0
    Gillian Brock attempts to reconcile cosmopolitanism with nationalism in Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Account . She claims that her cosmopolitanism leaves room for legitimate nationalism. I argue that her cosmopolitanism is not only a theory of global justice, but also a general theory of justice, according to which what justice may demand of us is fundamentally global in nature. As such, Brock's cosmopolitanism cannot accommodate nationalism in the overall structure of what justice may demand of us, but has to relegate (...)
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  47. Susan Dimock (2008). Why All Feminists Should Be Contractarians. Dialogue 47 (02):273-.score: 24.0
    ABSTRACT: In this article I defend the view that all feminists should be contractarians. Indeed, I argue that feminists should be Hobbesian or rational-choice contractarians at that. The argument proceeds by critically examining some of the main reasons why feminists have been resistant or even hostile to contractarian moral theory, and showing that the criticisms are misguided against Hobbesian versions of the theory. I conclude with a brief positive argument to the effect that contractarianism provides a plausible explanation (...)
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  48. Daniel M. Farrell (1993). Book Review:Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's "Morals by Agreement." Peter Vallentyne. [REVIEW] Ethics 103 (2):385-.score: 24.0
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  49. Peter Vallentyne (1989). Contractarianism and the Assumption of Mutual Unconcern. Philosophical Studies 56 (2):187 - 192.score: 24.0
    A contractarian moral theory states that an action (practice, social structure, etc.) is morally permissible if and only if it (or rules to which if conforms) would be agreed to by the members of society under certain circumstances. What people will agree to depends on what their desires are like. Most contractarian theories - for example those of Rawls (1971) and Gauthier (1986) - specify that parties to the agreement are mutually unconcerned (take no interest in each other's interests). (...)
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  50. Robert Garner (2012). Much Ado About Nothing?: Barry, Justice and Animals. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (3):363-376.score: 24.0
    This article examines the extent to which Brian Barry?s contractarian political theory ? justice as impartiality ? is able to incorporate the interests of animals. Despite the initial optimism that Barry might provide a theory of justice that can provide substantial protection for the interests of animals, it is clear that he offers relatively little. Insofar as animals can be protected within justice as impartiality, they are not being protected as a result of their intrinsic value, but merely as one, (...)
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