I examine the consistency of Kant's notion of moral progress as found in his philosophy of history. To many commentators, Kant's very idea of moraldevelopment has seemed inconsistent with basic tenets of his critical philosophy. This idea has seemed incompatible with his claims that the moral law is unconditionally and universally valid, that moral agency is noumenal and atemporal, and that all humans are equally free. Against these charges, I argue not only that Kant's (...) notion of moraldevelopment is consistent, but also that the assumption of the possibility of moral progress is indispensible for Kant's moral theory. (shrink)
ABSTRACT: 1. This paper argues that Epicurus had a notion of moral responsibility based on the agent’s causal responsibility, as opposed to the agent’s ability to act or choose otherwise; that Epicurus considered it a necessary condition for praising or blaming an agent for an action, that it was the agent and not something else that brought the action about. Thus, the central question of moral responsibility was whether the agent was the, or a, cause of the action, (...) or whether the agent was forced to act by something else. Actions could be attributed to agents because it is in their actions that the agents, qua moral beings, manifest themselves. 2. As a result, the question of moraldevelopment becomes all important. The paper collects and discusses the evidence for Epicurus views on moraldevelopment, i.e. (i) on how humans become moral beings and (ii) on how humans can become morally better. It becomes clear that Epicurus envisaged a complex web of hereditary and environmental factors to shape the moral aspect of a human being. 3. In line with Epicurus’ theory of moral responsibility and moraldevelopment, Epicurus ethics does not have the function of developing or justifying a moral system that allows for the effective allocation of praise and blame. Rather, for him the function of ethics – and in fact of the whole of philosophy – is to give everyone a chance to morally improve. (shrink)
This research examines how the fit between employees moraldevelopment and the ethical work climate of their organization affects employee attitudes. Person-organization fit was assessed by matching individuals' level of cognitive moraldevelopment with the ethical climate of their organization. The influence of P-O fit on employee attitudes was assessed using a sample of 304 individuals from 73 organizations. In general, the findings support our predictions that fit between personal and organizational ethics is related to higher (...) levels of commitment and job satisfaction and lower levels of turnover intent. Ethical P-O fit was related to higher levels of affective commitment across all three ethical climate types. Job satisfaction was only associated with ethical P-O fit for one of the three P-O fit variables and turnover intentions were significantly associated with two of the ethical P-O fit variables. The most consistent effect was found for the Conventional - Caring fit variable, which was significantly related to all three attitudes assessed. The weakest effect was found for the Preconventional - Instrumental fit variable, which was only predictive of affective commitment. The pattern of findings and implications for practice and future research are discussed. (shrink)
The goal of this paper is to connect managerial behavior on the “agent-steward” scale to managerial moraldevelopment and motivation. I introduce agent- and steward-like behavior: the former is self-serving while the latter is others-serving. I suggest that managerial moraldevelopment and motivation may be two of the factors that may predict the tendency of managers to behave in a self-serving way (like agents) or to serve the interests of the organization (like stewards). Managers at low (...) levels of moraldevelopment are more likely to behave like agents, while managers at higher levels of moraldevelopment are more likely to behave like stewards. I also argue that managers at the highest level of moraldevelopment may serve the interests of people other than the firm’s owners and thereby transfer wealth from the firm’s owners to third parties. Moral motivation is likely to be a factor that moderates the proposed relationships. Finally, I develop propositions that address the role of material incentives in controlling behavior of managers at different levels of moraldevelopment. (shrink)
The topic of the article is how moraldevelopment theory can enlighten the understanding of ethical behaviour in business. It discusses previous research on the subject, and reports an empirical study of academics (engineers and business economists with a master degree) working in the private sector in Norway.Moraldevelopment theory is based on a long research tradition, and many researchers within business ethics have assumed the importance of moral reasoning in business environments. However, the truth (...) of these assumptions has not been confirmed by previous empirical research. (shrink)
This study investigates the possible effects of self-concept, self-monitoring, and moraldevelopment level on dimensions of consumers' ethical attitudes. "Actively benefiting from illegal activities," "actively benefiting from deceptive practices," and "no harm/no foul 1—2" are defined by factor analysis as four dimensions of Turkish consumers' ethical attitudes. Logistic regression analysis is applied to data collected from 516 Turkish households. Results indicate that self-monitoring and moraldevelopment level predicted consumer ethics in relation to "actively benefiting from questionable (...) practices" and "no harm/no foul" dimensions. Actual selfconcept is also a predictor variable in relation to "no harm/no foul" dimension. Age and gender make significant differences in consumers' ethical attribute dimensions. (shrink)
This study investigated several basic research questions suggesting a positive relationship between education and cognitive moraldevelopment. More specifically, these research questions examined the relationship between government mandated ethics education and cognitive moraldevelopment by testing the efficacy of a compulsory ethics intervention. Kohlberg's (1969, 1984) Cognitive MoralDevelopment Theory was applied to test the efficacy of compulsory ethics education on the moraldevelopment of real estate salespeople used comparative statistical measures of (...) ethical reasoning ability.The results of this research, while somewhat counterintuitive, suggest that the value of compulsory ethics education as an intervention to improve the moral reasoning of real estate salespeople is highly questionable. However, the results of the study do provide new insights into the relationship between ethics education and cognitive moraldevelopment. (shrink)
The construct of Cognitive MoralDevelopment (CMD) has drawn much attention in the study of business ethics for over two decades. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) has made a significant contribution to the literature as an easy-to-administer CMD instrument, and the Moral Judgment Test (MJT), an alternative scale, has also been used widely especially in Europe. The two scales differ in their approaches to measuring CMD, focusing on stage preference (DIT) and stage consistency (MJT), yet empirical comparisons (...) have been scarce. The present research empirically compares the two scales in terms of their correspondence with ethical ideology as a reference scale, and it demonstrates a clear distinction between the DIT and the MJT. Although they both aim to measure CMD, their dissimilar approaches lead to distinctly different implications. (shrink)
According to agency theory, agents base their economic decisions on self-interests when adverse selection conditions exist. However, cognitive moraldevelopment theory predicts that ethics/morals may influence decision-makers not to behave egoistically. Rutledge and Karim (1999; Accounting, Organizations and Society 24(2), 173–184) find both the moral reasoning level of the managers and an adverse selection condition affect a manager’s project evaluation decisions significantly. Since prior studies have shown that national␣culture might influence the application of agency theory in project (...) evaluation, this current study uses a different moraldevelopment measurement to reexamine Rutledge and Karim’s hypotheses in another culture. A total of 73 Taiwanese executive MBA students with an average of 12.17 years work experience participated in this study. We found that both moraldevelopment level and adverse selection conditions significantly affect managers’ project continuance decisions. The interaction effect of these two factors indicates that, when adverse selection conditions exist, participants with a high level of moraldevelopment exhibit less of a tendency to continue an unprofitable project than those with a low level of moraldevelopment. With subjects from a different culture, our results confirm the findings of Rutldege and Karim. That is, the effects of moraldevelopment and adverse selection conditions on managers’ project continuance decisions are robust and can be generalized to different cultures. Implications of the findings of this study to multinational firms are also discussed. (shrink)
This study constitutes a contribution to the discussion about moral reasoning in business. Kohlberg’s (1971, in Cognitive Development and Epistemology (Academic Press, New York), 1976, in MoralDevelopment and Behavior: Theory and Research and Social Issues (Holt, Rienhart and Winston, New York)) cognitive moraldevelopment (CMD) theory is one explanation of moral reasoning. One unresolved debate on the topic of CMD is the charge that Kohlbergian-type CMD theory is gender biased. This research puts (...) forth the proposal that the issue may be elucidated by exposing an ambiguity in “gender” (Borna and White: 2003, Journal of Business Ethics 47, 89–99; Gentile: 1993, Psychological Science 4(2), 120–122; Unger: 1979, American Psychologist 34(11), 1085–1094). We use the Sociomoral Reflective Objective Measure (SROM) to measure CMD and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) to measure gender as a psychosocial concept, rather than as a biological classification. The results of our study indicate that high femininity, measured as a psychosocial attribute, is associated with significantly lower Kohlbergian-type CMD scores among business practitioners. Sex moderates the effect of gender on CMD, but only indirectly. Our research also reveals that education plays a significant moderating role in the relationship between gender and moral reasoning. In addition, age has a significant direct effect on CMD scores of business practitioners. (shrink)
This article examines how business students route themselves through the process of cognitive moraldevelopment (CMD) to arrive at a more autonomous level of CMD when there is an impetus to do so. In this study, two groups were given Rest’s Defining Issues Test; half the test 1 week and half three weeks later. In between, one group viewed a film of Milgram’s obedience study as a stimulus towards a more autonomous level of CMD. The results of the (...) analysis indicate that viewing the Milgram study produced a positive response regarding subjects’ level of autonomous CMD. However, the response was not uniform across the subject pool. Females showed a greater consistent significant positive response to viewing Milgram while male subjects varied their response contingent upon their functional area of study. While subjects’ functional area of study alone made little difference in the results, when taken in conjunction with gender, significant differences were found between groups. Thus, researchers should take care when investigating differences between subjects’ area of study since gender differences may be present even within an apparently homogenous population-like business students. (shrink)
This research focuses on the similarities and differences in the cognitive moraldevelopment of business professionals and graduate business students in two countries, India and the United States. Factors that potentially influence cognitive moraldevelopment, namely, culture, education, sex and gender are analyzed and discussed. Implications for ethics education in graduate business schools and professional associations are considered. Future research on the cognitive moraldevelopment of graduate business students and business professionals is recommended.
Abstract: In this study, we test the interactive effect on ethical decision-making of (1) personal characteristics, and (2) personal expectancies based on perceptions of organizational rewards and punishments. Personal characteristics studied were cognitive moraldevelopment and belief in a just world. Using an in-basket simulation, we found that exposure to reward system information influenced managers’ outcome expectancies. Further, outcome expectancies and belief in a just world interacted with managers’ cognitive moraldevelopment to influence managers’ ethical decision-making. (...) In particular, low-cognitive moraldevelopment managers who expected that their organization condoned unethical behavior made less ethical decisions while high cognitive moraldevelopment managers became more ethical in this environment. Low cognitive moraldevelopment managers also behaved less ethically when their belief in a just world was high. (shrink)
The etiology of moral judgment and its connection to early development as with other cognitive faculties is likely complex. Because research is limited, the causative and contributory factors to the development of moral judgment in pre verbal infants are unclear. However, there is emerging evidence from studies within both infant research and moral psychology that may contribute to our understanding of the early development of moral judgments. This proposed model synthesize these findings to (...) generate an overarching, yet preliminary, model of the process that appears to contribute to the development of moral judgment in the first year of life. I will propose that through early interactions with the caregiver the child acquires an internal representation of a system of rules that determine how right/wrong judgments are to be construed, used, and understood. By breaking moral situations down into their defining features, the attachment model of moral judgment outlines a framework for a universal moral faculty based on a universal, innate, deep structure that appears uniformly in the structure of almost all moral judgments regardless of their content. The implications of the model for our understanding of innateness, universal morality, and the representations of moral situations are discussed. Given the limited research base, this model -- although reflecting available research evidence serves primarily a heuristic function. I hope, nonetheless, that the model will inspire researchers to gain more empirical data on the mechanisms through which early attachment relations modulate moral judgments. (shrink)
In this study, researchers examined the assumption that senior-level undergraduate students from private colleges universities possess higher levels of moral and ethical development than students from public institutions. In addition, the researchers sought to determine (a) if there was a relationship between narcissistic personality traits and the level of moral reasoning, and (b) there was a difference in the level of narcissistic personality tendencies of business students from private vs. public institutions based on demographic and textual variables. (...) A cluster sampling approach was used in the sample selection. The sample was limited to students majoring in general business at seven public and six private universities in North Dakota and Minnesota. A total of 269 subjects participated in the research project: 145 at private institutions and 124 at public institutions. The Defining Issues Test version 2 (DIT-2) and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) were used to collect data at seven public and six private institutions. Students from public and private universities scored similarly on the DIT-2. A significant difference between the NPI scores of the private college students and the public college students was found. No significant relationship was found between the NPI score and level of moral reasoning. Business educators should be concerned that an increase in the number of business ethics courses completed did not significantly impact students' moral reasoning or narcissistic traits. (shrink)
Every year in this country, some 10,000 college and university courses are taught in applied ethics. And many professional organizations now have their own codes of ethics. Yet social science has had little impact upon applied ethics. This book promises to change that trend by illustrating how social science can make a contribution to applied ethics. The text reports psychological studies relevant to applied ethics for many professionals, including accountants, college students and teachers, counselors, dentists, doctors, journalists, nurses, school teachers, (...) athletes, and veterinarians. Each chapter begins with the research base of the cognitive-developmental approach--especially linked to Kohlberg and Rest's Defining Issues Test. Finally, the book summarizes recent research on the following issues: * moral judgment scores within and between professions, * pre- and post-test evaluations of ethics education programs, * moral judgment and moral behavior, * models of professional ethicseducation, and * models for developing new assessment tools. Researchers in different professional fields investigate different questions, develop different research strategies, and report different findings. Typically researchers of one professional field are not aware of research in other fields. An important aim of the present book is to bring this diverse research together so that cross-fertilization can occur and ideas from one field can transfer to another. (shrink)
The publication of this unique three-volume set represents the culmination of years of work by a large number of scholars, researchers, and professionals in the field of moraldevelopment. The literature on moral behavior and development has grown to the point where it is no longer possible to capture the “state of the art” in a single volume. This comprehensive multi-volume Handbook marks an important transition because it provides evidence that the field has emerged as an (...) area of scholarly activity in its own right. Spanning many professional domains, there is a striking variety of issues and topics surveyed: anthropology, biology, economics, education, philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, social work, and more. By bringing together work on diverse topics, the editors have fostered a mutually-beneficial exchange not only between alternative approaches and perspectives, but also between “applied” and “pure” research interests. The Theory volume presents current and ongoing theoretical advances focusing on new developments or substantive refinements and revisions to existing theoretical frameworks. The Research volume summarizes and interprets the findings of specific, theory-driven, research programs; reviews research in areas that have generated substantial empirical findings; describes recent developments in research methodology/techniques; and reports research on new and emerging issues. The Application volume describes a diverse array of intervention projects — educational, clinical, organizational, and the like. Each chapter includes a summary report of results and findings, conceptual developments, and emerging issues or topics. Since the contributors to this publication are active theorists, researchers, and practitioners, it may serve to define directions that will shape the emerging literature in the field. (shrink)
International institutions such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) have been examined from various industrial relations viewpoints. This article seeks to discuss the ILO from the standpoint of moral philosophy. Traditionally, philosophy has not been concerned with industrial relations (IR) and IR writers have not engaged with ethics either. Nonetheless, all IR agents and institutions, international or otherwise, are moral agents. Being part of the United Nations (UN), the ILO follows the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). In (...) philosophical terms, the ILO carries connotations of the German moral philosopher Kant's (1724-1084) concept of universalism. Ethical universalism is also the core of American psychologist and philosopher Laurence Kohlberg's developmental model that allows an assessment of moral values and ethical behaviours. To ascertain the ILO's morality, an empirical study (n=121) was conducted at a regional University. The study indicated that most respondents (68%) saw the ILO as a reflection of the morality of " defending everyone's right to justice and welfare, universally applied while applying well-thought principles and being ready to share and debate these openly and non-defensively with others". In line with the ILO's self-understanding, survey respondents also viewed it as a thoroughly moral agent committed to the advancement of humanity as a whole. Respondents also thought that the ILO goes beyond the confinements of the standard industrial relations framework, actively engaging with the universality of all people. The overall conclusion is that the way the ILO is perceived to act along the scale of Kohlberg's text matches the ILO's actual existence and work. For the first time, the ILO's moral status has been tested using Kohlberg's scale of morality. This provides a significant contribution to our understanding of the morality of a very important universal institution that has virtually all countries as members. (shrink)
Abstract The aim of this article is to describe the moral awareness of future development agents in Malaysia. This study involved a group of senior students from the Developmental Studies program of the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, National University of Malaysia. The underpinning theories for this study have been based on the Rest's model on moral decision-making and Kohlberg's moral on cognitive development theory. The moral awareness of the students is considerably at (...) high level scores. However, there are some elements of ambiguity in terms of percepting whether the encountered issue is merely violation of laws or ethical violation as well. This article is innovatively reviewing moral awareness of the future development agents based on theories of Rest and Kohlberg. As far as promoting a responsible and ethical decision-making are concerned, this article would render the present value of moral awareness in order to improve the scopes and approach of development education based on current needs and gaps. Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-11 DOI 10.1007/s13520-012-0018-4 Authors Suraiya Ishak, School of Social, Development and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia Mohd Yusof Hussain, School of Social, Development and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia Journal Asian Journal of Business Ethics Online ISSN 2210-6731 Print ISSN 2210-6723. (shrink)
Abstract This study examines possible relationships between moral judgements of 40 subjects from two cultures. The cognitive developmental theory of moraldevelopment proposed by Kohlberg was used both as a theoretical framework and as a basis for measuring moral reasoning. The population sample consisted of 40 students, male and female, between the ages of 14 and 15, 20 from Algeria and 20 from the United Kingdom. Each subject in the study was individually interviewed on two of (...) Kohlberg's moral dilemmas. The interviews were tape?recorded, transcribed and then coded for moral maturity scores (MMS) and moral stages of the subjects. The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of moral maturity between the two groups. Important differences were also found between the two groups in the level of the content of the subjects? responses. The data support the prediction that the cultural and religious values had an impact on Kohlberg's moral stages. (shrink)
Media stories of ethical lapses in business are relentless. The general public vacillates between revulsion, impatience, cynicism, and apathy. The role of the Business School in MoralDevelopment is debated by scholars, accrediting agencies, and Schools of Businesses. It is a question to which there is no easy answer and one with which Business Schools continue to grapple. This article places the concept of "moral imagination," theories of moraldevelopment, and ethics in a behavioral context. (...) It then discusses a staple of business education, the case study, as a form of ethics narrative that provides ethical modeling within that context. Finally, in discussing the narrative role of the classroom professor in ethical modeling, it provides a framework for further discussion of the role of business education in moraldevelopment. (shrink)
The construct of cognitive moraldevelopment seemingly has powerful practical relevance in many areas of life. Nonetheless, moral reasoning seems of marginal relevance at best in the context of business ethics. Simply put, moral reasoning measurement indices are often only weakly related to many other apparently pertinent variables, and such findings cast doubt upon the construct validity of cognitive moraldevelopment. Many such unexpectedly weak relationships, however, may stem from two largely unrecognized methodological artifacts. (...) The first artifact is an almost total reliance on the P index of the Defining Issues Test (DIT) designed to assess moraldevelopment even when this index may be inappropriate in a particular context. A second artifact that seems particularly salient in the context of attitudes toward authority involves a not always appropriate reliance on samples that include respondents whose moral reasoning is uncoupled from their action choices. These artifacts may restrict the amount of variance explained in observed relationships, and thus constrain the potential for moral reasoning to understand and explain behavior and attitudes relevant in the context of business ethics. Researchers are urged to use DIT D scores (in addition to P scores) in specific situations, and to examine relationships among high DIT U scorers whose moral reasoning is tightly coupled with their action choices. The application of these guidelines may have profound implications for advancing our fundamental understanding of moral reasoning, and of increasing its relevance to business ethics. (shrink)
Several aspects of the professional education of those who work in caring roles are discussed, with particular reference to dementia. Three experiential learning exercises are described, together with the opportunities they provide for moraldevelopment. Suggestions are made about the moral demands of care work, and general inferences are drawn for the practice of moral education.
The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moraldevelopment, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic system. Moral sensibility is defined here as a developing dynamic interaction of (1) a host of developing capacities for morally relevant knowing (...) (e.g. moral reasoning, self-awareness and means to other-awareness?compassionate caring, empathy, perspective taking); (2) one?s socio-cultural moral assumptions and expressions; (3) one?s idiodynamic ideology (the developing set of consciously chosen values and value-laden understandings gleaned from experiencing one?s unique life history); (4) one?s morally relevant identities and self-understandings; (5) all embodied in one?s moral being in-the-moment, the ability to enact one?s moral sensibility in each new instance of moral engagement. (shrink)
The present study explored Kohlberg's theory of moraldevelopment in relation to Korean and British children. A total of 128 Korean and British children aged 7-16 years were interviewed individually using Kohlberg's moral dilemmas, Form A. It was thought that the children in both cultural groups would develop moral stages at a similar rate. However, they showed cultural differences in the use of moral orientations. In addition, it was not possible to match some of the (...) responses from the Korean children to Kohlberg's manual, implying that there are some Korean traditional concepts which affect Korean children's moral reasoning that Kohlberg was not aware of. Thus, Kohlberg's system could be used to examine children's general moral stage but was insufficient to understand fully Korean children's moral reasoning. The present study suggests that the interpretation of children's moral reasoning should be made based on consideration of cultural influence. (shrink)
Abstract In this study of the relationship between moral behaviour, level of moraldevelopment, and motivation, moral behaviour was assessed in an experimental situation in which it was necessary to violate the experimenter's authority to help someone; level of moraldevelopment was assessed by Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Scale, and motivation by a post?experimental interview. Although 72 per cent of the subjects stated afterwards that they felt that they should help, only 43 per cent (...) did, and only 6 per cent volunteered their own service. As the level of moraldevelopment rose, an increasing percentage of subjects helped. Subjects interpreted the same situation differently and were motivated to make the same response for different reasons, which varied with their level of moraldevelopment. (shrink)
This article provides a social domain theory analysis of the role of parents in moraldevelopment. Social knowledge domains, including morality as distinct from other social concepts, are described. Then, it is proposed that, although morality is constructed from reciprocal social interactions, both affective and cognitive components of parents' interactions with their children may facilitate children's moraldevelopment. The affective context of the relationship may influence children's motivation to listen to and respond to parents; in addition, (...) affect associated with responses to transgressions can affect children's encoding and remembering of those events. Although moral interactions occur frequently in peer contexts, parents' domain-specific feedback about the nature of children's moral interactions are proposed to provide a cognitive mechanism for facilitating moraldevelopment. Parents promote children's moral understanding by providing domain appropriate and developmentally sensitive reasoning and explanations about the child's social world, which may stimulate the development of more mature moral thought. Various findings from the socialisation literature are presented and interpreted from within the social domain framework. (shrink)
Abstract: Kohlberg's system of moral judgment development has some important links with Piaget's work on moral judgment, though Piaget's work is not the only influence on Kohlberg's ideas. Piaget's system of moral growth is briefly examined, and the extent to which subsequent research has validated it, is noted, thus placing Kohlberg in a historical context. The ways in which Kohlberg extends or departs from Piaget's system of moral growth are examined. The concept of stages and (...) the nature and processes of stage development are discussed, and in this context the relationship between Kohlberg's moraldevelopment and Piaget's cognitive development is examined. It is concluded on the basis both of logic and evidence that the relationship, although complex rather than isomorphic, is likely to hold considerable potential for future research. (shrink)
Many experts in moral education agree that the potential for empathy, a key moral emotion, is innate. However, it is also evident that this potential needs to be developed if children are to acquire crucial moral qualities such as honesty, concern for others and a sense of fairness. Our central claim is that important structural changes in both families and schools may be necessary for the development of empathy and, hence, the fostering of these moral (...) virtues. Since many families and schools are far from ideal, both are likely to need help from the other and each can compensate to some extent for the other's failings. However, unless families become more sex-egalitarian, and schools become more multicultural in their student and faculty populations as well as their curricula, both lack components necessary for their success as moral educators. If such changes occur, the resulting dynamic between families and schools may be ideal for the healthy moraldevelopment of citizens. (shrink)
In the Nicomachean ethics, Aristotle sets down a scattered and fractional account of the development of moral virtue within young people. Philosopher Martha Nussbaum defends Aristotle's neglect of a systematic account of moraldevelopment and argues that more complex expressions of character?building, such as learning to expose oneself to proper desires, feelings, pleasures and pains, are better illustrated through drama or literature than through philosophy. In this vein, the author draws upon literary thinkers J.B. Kerfoot, Sven (...) Birkerts and Wayne C. Booth, as well as the imaginative Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling, to illustrate more concretely Aristotle's process of moraldevelopment. The author concludes with a proviso about the vulnerability of the connected process of reading and moraldevelopment in the current consumer culture. (shrink)
Abstract According to the cognitive?developmental theory, intellectual development is best understood in terms of age?related changes. This has been found to be a valid theory in the case of mentally subnormal subjects as well, although their development proceeds at a speed and up to a level different from their normal age?mates. The same theory has been applied to moraldevelopment and describes it, likewise, as a stage?like progress of moral reasoning with age. The present study (...) tries to answer the following question: Does the moral reasoning of the subjects classified as subnormal change with age so that it can be said to develop? According to the results obtained (dealing with subjects nine?, 11?, 13?, 15? and 17?years?old), the cognitive?developmental hypothesis of moraldevelopment is only partially confirmed. Namely, there is a development from the less to the more mature forms of moral reasoning, but the course of that development is not entirely such as the theory assumes. Moreover, moral reasoning of the subjects in this study is more advanced than their intelligence level as expressed by the IQ score. (shrink)
Abstract This assessment of L. Kohlberg's theory of moraldevelopment is a dialectical critique focusing on his claim that the sixth stage of moraldevelopment is morally adequate, specifically, that it is both comprehensive and fully equilibrated. The dialectical method employed follows the generalized empirical method advanced by B. Lonergan. The paper includes a brief account of this method and of the sixth stage of moral reasoning as outlined by Kohlberg. Employing the dialectical notions of (...) intellectual conversion and moral conversion, it uncovers certain unresolved conflicts of this stage and points to the need for a further moral stage of development, which would be both more highly differentiated and more fundamentally based. (shrink)
Abstract The concept of levels of moral maturity in psychology focuses on character formation in children's development. Virtue theory in ethics, with its concern for character, can be helpful in pointing out the ethical implications of much of the current work with children. This paper ties together several concepts in virtue theory with the current information on children's moraldevelopment. The paper argues for the usefulness of some very ancient ethical concepts.
Abstract This paper reports a study of an educational intervention curriculum and its facilitative effect upon moraldevelopment (Kohlberg, 1984). The approach of the curriculum is to facilitate moral reasoning through conceptualizing and integrating essential philosophical concepts. The curriculum is a system of reasoning discovered by the individual and then applied to any experience in life, specifically moral experiences.
Although moraldevelopment of children has long been ascribed predominantly to the effects of parenting, there has been little systematic examination of the specific nature of this relation. In this paper, we identify four foundational components of children's moraldevelopment (social orientation, self?control, compliance, self?esteem) and four central aspects of moral functioning (empathy, conscience, moral reasoning, altruism). The parenting roots of each of these eight psychological characteristics are examined, and five core parenting processes (induction, (...) nurturance, demandingness, modelling, democratic family process) that are related empirically to the development of these eight child characteristics are identified and discussed. Finally, we consider the implications of our analysis for teaching parents to influence positively their children's moraldevelopment. (shrink)
Is 'development' a concept that properly belongs to mind and morality and, if it does, what account can we give of moraldevelopment now that Piagetian and Kohlbergian models are increasingly being abandoned in developmental psychology? In addressing this central issue, it is hoped that the paper will contribute to the quest for a new integrated model of moral functioning, called for in the September 2008 Special Issue of the Journal of Moral Education (37). Our (...) paper argues that the notion of moraldevelopment is fully justified, though it does not occur via invariant stages. Rather, each child is an emergent self-organising organism in which development is highly variable, dynamic and often non-linear. By viewing each child as a self-organising being and adopting the notion that moraldevelopment is dynamic and emergent from the predilection to value, the paper points towards a new account of moraldevelopment that opens up new avenues for educational research and moral education in schools. (shrink)
Throughout the last generation of moraldevelopment theory and research, the family has not received adequate conceptual or empirical attention as a significant context for children's moraldevelopment. This editorial discusses some of the possible reasons for this neglect which is indicative of some of the biases that pervade the field. Several issues concerning the role of parents and the family are identified, and an overview of the various contributions to this special issue is provided.
With the aid of techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, neuroscience is providing a new perspective on human behaviour. Many areas of psychology have recognised and embraced the new technologies, methodologies and relevant findings. But how do the tools of neuroscience affect the fields of moraldevelopment and moral education? This paper reviews neuroscience research germane to moraldevelopment using as an organisational framework Rest's Four Component Model of moral functioning, which proposes that (...)moral behaviour requires moral sensitivity, moral judgement, moral motivation/focus and moral action skills. Issues such as the importance of early brain development and attachment are addressed. The authors conclude with a brief description of an integrative theory, Triune Ethics Theory, which provides an example of how moraldevelopment and neuroscience can be integrated. (shrink)