A linear order is -decidable if its universe is and the relations defined by formulas are uniformly computable. This means that there is a computable procedure which, when applied to a formula and a sequence of elements of the linear order, will determine whether or not is true in the structure. A linear order is decidable if the relations defined by all formulas are uniformly computable. These definitions suggest two questions. Are there, for each , -decidable linear orders that are (...) not -decidable? Are there linear orders that are -decidable for all but not decidable? The former was answered in the positive by Moses in 1993. Here we answer the latter, also positively. (shrink)
This essay considers eighteenth-century Anglican thinker Joseph Butler's view of the role of natural emotions in moral reasoning and action. Emotions such as compassion and resentment are shown to play a positive role in the moral life by motivating action and by directing agents toward certain good objects—for example, relief of misery and justice. For Butler, moral virtue is present when these natural affections are kept in proper proportion by the "superior" principles of the moral life—conscience, self-love, and benevolence—which involve (...) the capacity for reasonable reflection. For contemporary thinkers, Butler's approach suggests that natural emotion should not be viewed as the enemy of moral reasoning; in fact, it challenges ethicists to pay attention to and account for the significant role of the emotions in the moral life. (shrink)
A teacher announced to his pupils that on exactly one of the days of the following school week (Monday through Friday) he would give them a test. But it would be a surprise test; on the evening before the test they would not know that the test would take place the next day. One of the brighter students in the class then argued that the teacher could never give them the test. "It can't be Friday," she said, "since in that (...) case we'll expect it on Thurday evening. But then it can't be Thursday, since having already eliminated Friday we'll know Wednesday evening that it has to be Thursday. And by similar reasoning we can also eliminate Wednesday, Tuesday, and Monday. So there can't be a test!" The students were somewhat baffled by the situation. The teacher was well-known to be truthful, so if he said there would be a test, then it was safe to assume that there would be one. On the other hand, he also said that the test would be a surprise. But it seemed that whenever he gave the test, it wouldn't be a surprise. Well, the teacher gave the test on Tuesday, and, sure enough, the students were surprised. (shrink)
This article attempts a philosophical defense of an autonomy-based approach to multicultural education. I contend that multicultural education is necessary in order for students to be able to develop personal autonomy. This, in turn, can empower students to effectively formulate their own version of the good life. The development of autonomy need not, as many critics claim, promote atomistic individualism. Rather, contemporary liberal autonomy strives for a balance between the individual and the community. In defending multicultural education, my argument relies (...) on Joseph Raz's notion of autonomy and Will Kymlicka's concept of a context of choice. I conclude that through multicultural education, students can expand their contexts of choice and consequently develop individual autonomy, an essential ingredient of the good life. (shrink)
Franz Rosenzweig : the other side of the West -- Dissimilation -- Hegel taken literally -- Utopia and redemption -- Walter Benjamin : the three models of history -- Metaphors of origin : ideas, names, stars -- The esthetic model -- The angel of history -- Gershem Scholem : the secret history -- The paradoxes of messianism -- Kafka, Freud, and the crisis of tradition -- Language and secularization.
In the beginning came Firstness along with icons that could represent it to an awakening dreamer. In his 2011 monograph on Charles Sanders Peirce and a Religious Metaphysics of Nature, Leon J. Niemoczynski develops a critical appreciation of Peircean Firstness that arises from “the depths of experience” as “the living ground of will, power, and potential” (15). Explicitly attuned to Robert Corrington’s “ecstatic naturalism,” Niemoczynski works his way through Peirce to Schelling in order to de-theologize the reader’s understanding of what (...) might be meant when Peirce uses the word God. Working against a “pantheistic” interpretation that would yet reserve some remnant of God “beyond” the world, Niemoczynski argues .. (shrink)
: The purposes of this critical analysis are to clarify why high stakes testing reforms have become so prevalent in the United States and to explain the connection between current federal and state emphases on standardized testing reforms and educational opportunities. The article outlines the policy context for high stakes examinations, as well as the ideas of testing and accountability as major tenets of current education reform and policy. In partial explanation of the widespread acceptance and use of standardized tests (...) in the United States, we argue that there is a pervasive testing culture, in addition to other contributing factors such as administrative utility, profit motives, and political ideology. Finally, we offer a critique of high stakes testing reforms in light of concerns about equality of educational opportunity. (shrink)
A major theme of recent debate and policy development in the area of special education is that of inclusion: the placement of all pupils in mainstream schools and the development of curriculum and pedagogy to meet the needs of all. Analysis of national statistical data shows some movement in this direction, but of a slow and very uneven kind. An exploration of the concepts of pragmatism to describe an important aspect of LEA decision making and of ideology to describe an (...) important aspect of pressures for inclusion helps to explain this pattern of development. The paper concludes that both approaches require further systematic empirical data on the outcomes of different patterns of educational provision. (shrink)
Three classes of decidable discrete linear orders with varying degrees of effectiveness are investigated. We consider how a classical order type may lie in relation to these three classes, and we characterize by their order types elements of these classes that have effective nontrivial self-embeddings.
The block relation B(x,y) in a linear order is satisfied by elements that are finitely far apart; a block is an equivalence class under this relation. We show that every computable linear order with dense condensation-type (i.e., a dense collection of blocks) but no infinite, strongly η-like interval (i.e., with all blocks of size less than some fixed, finite k ) has a computable copy with the nonblock relation ¬ B(x,y) computably enumerable. This implies that every computable linear order has (...) a computable copy with a computable nontrivial self-embedding and that the long-standing conjecture characterizing those computable linear orders every computable copy of which has a computable nontrivial self-embedding (as precisely those that contain an infinite, strongly η-like interval) holds for all linear orders with dense condensation-type. (shrink)
It is still remarkably difficult for public health officials charged with developing and implementing pandemic influenza preparedness plans at the community levelto obtain clear, concrete, and consistent guidance on how to construct plans that are both ethical and actionable. As of mid-2007, most of the federal and state pandemic plans filed with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, describing how public health officials will coordinate public agencies and private entities in the event of an outbreak, failed to include ethical (...) guidance for first responders responsible for providing essential services and making fair decisions during a public health emergency. (shrink)
The effect of upper bounds on message delivery times in a computer network upon the dynamics of knowledge gain is investigated. Recent work has identified centipedes and brooms?causal structures that combine message chains with time bound information?as necessary conditions for knowledge gain and common knowledge gain, respectively. This paper shows that, under the full-information protocol, these structures are both necessary and sufficient for such epistemic gain. We then apply this analysis to gain insights into the relation between ?everyone knows? and (...) common knowledge. We prove a tight threshold on the depth k, beyond which Ek G (everyone in G knows nested to depth k) collapses into CG (common knowledge), when this knowledge concerns the occurrence of a spontaneous event. The threshold depends on the size of the group G of agents, as well as the time that has elapsed since the event of interest occurred. The existence of such a threshold is not guaranteed for all protocols, which is demonstrated here by presenting a counterexample in which no such threshold exists. (shrink)
In a recent issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics, Svoboda and Van Howe commented on the 2012 change in the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy on newborn male circumcision, in which the AAP stated that benefits of the procedure outweigh the risks. Svoboda and Van Howe disagree with the AAP conclusions. We show here that their arguments against male circumcision are based on a poor understanding of epidemiology, erroneous interpretation of the evidence, selective citation of the literature, statistical (...) manipulation of data, and circular reasoning. In reality, the scientific evidence indicates that male circumcision, especially when performed in the newborn period, is an ethically and medically sound low-risk preventive health procedure conferring a lifetime of benefits to health and well-being. Policies in support of parent-approved elective newborn circumcision should be embraced by the medical, scientific and wider communities. (shrink)
Thanks largely to the efforts of Leonard Harris and scholars affiliated with the Alain Locke Society, Alain LeRoy Locke has for the past few decades been reconstructed as a "critical pragmatist" (see Carter and Harris 2010; Harris 1989, 1999). By Locke's own account, the "activist theory of knowledge" advanced by American pragmatism was a worthwhile innovation that had yet to become activist enough in its value theory (Harris 1989, 8). In pursuit of what we today term his critical pragmatism, Locke (...) argued that "values are rooted in attitudes, not in reality, and pertain to ourselves, not to the world" (Harris 1989, 47). This article will argue that we may comprehend and affirm the main trajectory of Locke's .. (shrink)
In this introductory essay the editor places the broad movement of Marxist philosophy into a tradition that, since Plato, has endeavored to stimulate desire for concepts of justice, in contexts of flourishing commercial power. Although Plato and the modern philosopher both know the risks of such undertakings (it was majority rule that put Socrates to death), and although powerful commercial interests have never been altogether comfortable in philosophical company, nevertheless the academy and the work of philosophy proves to be a (...) curious necessity, as this collection of essays demonstrates. (shrink)
What can one say about the state of the art in the Federal Republic? A number of aspects are discernible, not only in the practices and various traditions of intellectual history there, but also in its politics: the stark dichotomy between Marxists and anti-Marxists; the ever-present metahistorical question of which (sub)discipline, field, or method would set the political agenda; and the position of Jewish s. These issues raise still more basic ones: how to understand the Nazi experience, which remained living (...) memory for most West Germans; how to confront the gradually congealing image of the Holocaust in private and public life; and the related matters of German intellectual traditions and the new order's foundations. Had the Nazi experience discredited those traditions and had the personal and institutional continuities from the Nazi to Federal Republican polities delegitimated the latter? These were questions with which intellectuals wrestled while they wrangled about historical method. In this introduction, I give a brief overview of these and other innovations in the field, before highlighting some of its characteristics today. (shrink)