Search results for 'Most Reverend Ricardo Ramirez' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  5
    Most Reverend Ricardo Ramirez (2011). Catholic Social Teaching on Restorative Justice. Journal of Catholic Social Thought 8 (1):7-18.
  2.  5
    David L. Balás (1967). "Wisdom in Depth: Essays in Honor of Henri Renard, S.J.," Ed. Vincent F. Danes, S.J., Maurice R. Holloway, S.J., and Leo Sweeney, S.J.; Foreword by the Most Reverend John Wright, Bishop of Pittsburgh. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 44 (4):417-421.
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  3.  2
    David L. Balás (1967). "Wisdom in Depth: Essays in Honor of Henri Renard, S.J.," Ed. Vincent F. Danes, S.J., Maurice R. Holloway, S.J., and Leo Sweeney, S.J.; Foreword by the Most Reverend John Wright, Bishop of Pittsburgh. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 44 (4):417-421.
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  4. David L. Balás (1967). "Wisdom in Depth: Essays in Honor of Henri Renard, S.J.," Ed. Vincent F. Danes, S.J., Maurice R. Holloway, S.J., and Leo Sweeney, S.J.; Foreword by the Most Reverend John Wright, Bishop of Pittsburgh. [REVIEW] Modern Schoolman 44 (4):417-421.
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  5. Joseph M. Marling (1960). Sixth Award of the Cardinal Spellman-Aquinas Medal to Rudolf Allers: Citation by Most Reverend Joseph M. Marling, Bishop of Jefferson City. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 34:11-12.
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  6. Fran O'rourke (1992). At the Heart of the Real. Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Most Reverend Desmond Connell, Archbishop of Dublin. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 54 (4):747-747.
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  7. Philipp W. Rosemann (1994). At the Heart of the Real. Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Most Reverend Desmond Connell, Archbishop of Dublin, Edited by Fran O'Rourke. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 92 (1):135-136.
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  8.  4
    Eduardo García Ramírez (2011). Wookiee Statements, Semanticism, and Reasonable Assertion. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 35 (2):129-143.
    It is assumed that the content of an assertion is determined either by the semantically defined content or by the interaction of the latter with the context. Here I present a counterexample by means of the Wookiee problem. After considering several options I offer what appears to be its most satisfactory solution. This requires that we give up the assumption in favor of a view according to which it may be that semantic information does not at all determine the (...)
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  9.  16
    Steven B. Most (2010). What's “Inattentional” About Inattentional Blindness? Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1102-1104.
    In a recent commentary, Memmert critiqued claims that attentional misdirection is directly analogous to inattentional blindness and cautioned against assuming too close a similarity between the two phenomena. One important difference highlighted in his analysis is that most lab-based inductions of IB rely on the taxing of attention through a demanding primary task, whereas attentional misdirection typically involves simply the orchestration of spatial attention. The present commentary argues that, rather than reflecting a complete dissociation between IB and attentional misdirection, (...)
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  10.  6
    Gustavo Víctor Ramírez (2004). La creatio ex nihilo Y sus implicaciones fenomenológicas en Levinas. Dikaiosyne 7 (13).
    Alonso, Ángel Castigo y derecho sin libre albedrío ni responsabilidad Punishment and law without free will and no responsibility López Corredoira, Martín De los metarrelatos a la "muerte de los intelectuales". Una mirada al "Humanismo impenitente" desde la reconstrucción neonietzscheana postmoderna From meta - reports to the "demise of intellectuals". A view of "impenitent humanism" from post-modern neo-Nietzschean deconstruction Mora García, José Pascual Kant y el método de trascender en la filosofía de Karl Jaspers Kant and the transcendental method in (...)
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  11.  12
    Glenn W. Most (1993). A Cock for Asclepius. Classical Quarterly 43 (01):96-.
    In any list of famous last words, Socrates' are likely to figure near the top. Details of the final moments of celebrities tend anyway to exert a peculiar fascination upon the rest of us: life's very contingency provokes a need to see lives nevertheless as meaningful organic wholes, defined as such precisely by their final closure; so that even the most trivial aspects of their ending can come to seem bearers of profound significance, soliciting moral reflections apparently not less (...)
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  12.  19
    Peter Richerson, Homage to Malthus, Ricardo, and Boserup: Toward a General Theory of Population, Economic Growth, Environmental Deterioration, Wealth, and Poverty.
    The debates over the future of human population and the earth’s environment, and similar large issues, usually take place without reference to explicit models. Debate would be clarified if such models were employed. We propose that the logistic equation and its extensions like the generalized logistic and the Lotka-Volterra equations, so familiar to ecologists, can easily be modified to model the important "macro" questions that motivated the three thinkers of our title. The long term rate of population growth must normally (...)
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  13. Ricardo Díez-Hochleitner (2008). A Dialogue Between East and West: Looking to a Human Revolution. I.B. Tauris.
    How far do cultures affect the future of the planet? Can the debate on the environment and global warming be influenced by the cultures of East and West understanding each other better? In this consistently provocative dialogue, two of the most influential thinkers of recent times propose that only a 'human revolution' - a shift in the hearts and minds of individuals - can stimulate a revolution in humanity's relationship with the planet. Such a planetary revolution first requires a (...)
     
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  14.  6
    Most Reverend Walter F. Sullivan (1991). Rerum Novarum. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies 3 (2):125-136.
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  15.  6
    Most Reverend Walter F. Sullivan (2007). Catholic Social Teaching and Ecology. Journal of Catholic Social Thought 4 (2):203-209.
  16.  25
    Jeffrey Lidz, Paul Pietroski, Tim Hunter & Justin Halberda (2011). Interface Transparency and the Psychosemantics of Most. Natural Language Semantics 19 (3):227-256.
    This paper proposes an Interface Transparency Thesis concerning how linguistic meanings are related to the cognitive systems that are used to evaluate sentences for truth/falsity: a declarative sentence S is semantically associated with a canonical procedure for determining whether S is true; while this procedure need not be used as a verification strategy, competent speakers are biased towards strategies that directly reflect canonical specifications of truth conditions. Evidence in favor of this hypothesis comes from a psycholinguistic experiment examining adult judgments (...)
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  17. Simone Weil (1951/2000). Waiting for God. Harpercollins.
    Emerging from thought-provoking discussions and correspondence Simone Weil had with the Reverend Father Perrin, this classic collection of essays contains her most profound meditations on the relationship of human life to the realm of the transcendant.An enlightening introduction by Leslie Fiedler examines Weil's extraordinary roles as a philosophy teacher turned mystic. "One of the most neglected resources of our century ", Waiting for God will continue to influence spiritual and political thought for centuries to come.
     
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  18.  16
    Geoffrey Brennan & Loren Lomasky (1985). The Impartial Spectator Goes to Washington: Toward a Smithian Theory of Electoral Behavior. Economics and Philosophy 1 (2):189-211.
    When economists pay homage to the wisdom of the distant past it is more likely that a work two decades old is being admired than one two centuries old. Economics is a science , and the sciences are noteworthy for their digestion and assimilation of the work of previous generations. Contributions remain only as accretions to the accepted body of knowledge; the writings and the writers disappear almost without trace. A conspicuous exception to this rule of professional cannibalization is Adam (...)
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  19.  19
    Pablo Melogno (2011). Estudios de Filosofía Contemporánea by Ricardo Navia. Filosofia Unisinos 12 (2):187-191.
    Estudios de filosofía contemporánea, lleva por título este volumen que reúne varios trabajos del Prof. Ricardo Navia, algunos publicados previamente en revistas especializadas de Brasil y Perú, otros que se editan por primera vez. No obstante tratarse de artículos independientes, la obra presenta continuidad temática en torno a problemas de teoría del conocimiento, filosofía del lenguaje y metafilosofía, especialmente centrados en la filosofía de la segunda mitad del siglo XX.
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  20. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.) (2007). Moral Psychology: The Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development. The MIT Press.
    For much of the twentieth century, philosophy and science went their separate ways. In moral philosophy, fear of the so-called naturalistic fallacy kept moral philosophers from incorporating developments in biology and psychology. Since the 1990s, however, many philosophers have drawn on recent advances in cognitive psychology, brain science, and evolutionary psychology to inform their work. This collaborative trend is especially strong in moral philosophy, and these three volumes bring together some of the most innovative work by both (...)
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  21.  5
    Hadas Kotek, Yasutada Sudo & Martin Hackl (2015). Experimental Investigations of Ambiguity: The Case of Most. Natural Language Semantics 23 (2):119-156.
    In the study of natural language quantification, much recent attention has been devoted to the investigation of verification procedures associated with the proportional quantifier most. The aim of these studies is to go beyond the traditional characterization of the semantics of most, which is confined to explicating its truth-functional and presuppositional content as well as its combinatorial properties, as these aspects underdetermine the correct analysis of most. The present paper contributes to this effort by presenting new experimental (...)
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  22.  50
    Stephen Jay Gould, Nonmoral Nature.
    hen the Right Honorable and Reverend Francis Henry, earl of Bridgewater, died in February, 1829, he left £8,000 to support a series of books "on the power, wisdom and goodness of God, as manifested in the creation." William Buckland, England's first official academic geologist and later dean of Westminster, was invited to compose one of the nine Bridgewater Treatises. In it he discussed the most pressing problem of natural theology: if God is benevolent and the creation displays his (...)
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  23.  4
    K. Tribe (2006). Reading Trade in Thewealth of Nations. History of European Ideas 32 (1):58-79.
    Economic analysis identifies comparative, rather than absolute, advantage as the basis of international trade, a distinction first thought to have been clearly made by David Ricardo in his Principles of Political Economy and Taxation . Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations is thought to have failed to make this distinction, instead treating foreign trade principally as a “vent” for surplus domestic produce. However, Smith's underlying argument in favour of a “system of natural liberty” made his name synonymous with open seas (...)
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  24.  7
    Marco Duichin (2008). “Forerunner of Socialism” or “Genius of Bourgeois Stupidity”? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 16:45-58.
    From the early 1840s on, Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarian doctrine aroused the joint interest of Marx and Engels, who saw the English philosopher as one of the forerunners of socialism. Later, however, in the various editions (German, French, English) of Book 1 of Capital (1867/90), Bentham would be sarcastically branded by Marx as a “genius of bourgeois stupidity”. In their youth, both Engels and Marx had independently become interested in Bentham’s ideas, admiring some social-ethical themes, seen as heralding interesting developments for (...)
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  25. A. Charles Muller, Wonhyo on the Lotus Sūtra.
    Although there is no comprehensive extant biographical source for Wonhyo, scholars have been able to construct a general outline of his life based on a several fragmentary accounts. The most complete among these is that found on the Goseonsa Seodang Hwasang tapbi (Stele of the Reverend Seodang [Wonhyo] from Goseon Temple 高仙寺誓幢和尚塔碑).1 These include Wonhyo bulgi (Wonhyo the Unbridled 元曉不羈..
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  26.  4
    Ricardo Figueroa Toala & Evelio F. Machado Ramírez (2012). Institutional self-appraisal and its importance in higher education. Humanidades Médicas 12 (3):447-463.
    La autoevaluación institucional actualmente responde a las demandas de lograr una Universidad que esté a tono con los avances de la sociedad y a su vez se convierta en un reflejo de ella. En el artículo se realiza una valoración conceptual de las concepciones existentes sobre este proceso. Asimismo se ofrece una panorámica de las tendencias referidas a las diversas maneras de visualizar este fenómeno de innegable importancia para la vida y permanencia de las instituciones de educación superior. Nowadays, institutional (...)
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  27.  9
    Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Conservative.
    The two parties which divide the state, the party of Conservatism and that of Innovation, are very old, and have disputed the possession of the world ever since it was made. This quarrel is the subject of civil history. The conservative party established the reverend hierarchies and monarchies of the most ancient world. The battle of patrician and plebeian, of parent state and colony, of old usage and accommodation to new facts, of the rich and the poor, reappears (...)
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  28.  5
    Liu Hui-Lin (1979). The Poverty of Philosophy and the Philosophy of Poverty. Contemporary Chinese Thought 11 (2):55-76.
    No apology, I imagine, is necessary for the appearance of this translation\nof Marx's "Misere de la Philosophic" On the contrary it is strange\nthat it should not have been published in England before, anu that\nthe translation of his monumental work, the "Capital," tardy as that\nwas, should have yet been made before that of a work which was originally\npublished some twenty years before "Capital" first appeared.\n\n\nIt may be that the translators and editors of the latter work were\nof opinion that in view of (...)
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  29.  1
    Joel S. Schwartz (1974). Charles Darwin's Debt to Malthus and Edward Blyth. Journal of the History of Biology 7 (2):301 - 318.
    It is not justifiable to accuse Darwin of conscious or unconscious plagiarism. This charge is contrary to the historical evidence and to the extensive information that we have about his character. When Darwin listed the writers on the origin of species by natural selection before himself, he did not mention Blyth, and this omission did not disturb the cordial relations between Darwin and Blyth. Blyth continued to supply Darwin with information which Darwin used in his later publications with due acknowledgment (...)
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  30. José Luís Cardoso (2009). F. Solano Constâncio on Political Economy: A “Science of Proportions”. History of European Ideas 35 (2):227-235.
    The article provides an analysis of the work of Francisco Solano Constâncio , a Portuguese author who lived in Paris for most of his life. He had a very colourful and diversified career, which included the practice of medicine, political agitation, scientific journalism, diplomacy, linguistics, history, and the popularisation of political economy. As far as this last aspect is concerned, Constâncio is particularly well known for his translation into French of the famous works written on political economy by David (...)
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  31. Ricardo Figueroa Toala & Evelio F. Machado Ramírez (2012). La autoevaluación institucional y su importancia en la educación superior. Humanidades Médicas 12 (3):447-463.
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  32.  33
    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (2006/2007). Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion: The Lectures of 1827. Oxford University Press.
    From the complete three-volume critical edition of Hegel's Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion , this edition extracts the full text and footnotes of the 1827 lectures, making the work available in a convenient form for study. Of the lectures that can be fully reconstructed, those of 1827 are the clearest, the maturest in form, and the most accessible to nonspecialists. In them, readers will find Hegel engaged in lively debates and in important refinements of his treatment of the (...)
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  33. Heinz D. Kurz, Luigi Pasinetti & Neri Salvadori (eds.) (2008). Piero Sraffa: The Man and the Scholar: Exploring His Unpublished Papers. Routledge.
    Previously published as special issues of _The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought_ and _The Review of Political Economy_, this volume contains the papers devoted to the life and work of Piero Sraffa. Sraffa was a leading intellectual of the twentieth century. He was brought to Cambridge by John Maynard Keynes and had an important impact on the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein. He received the golden medal Söderström of the Swedish Academy of Sciences for his edition of David (...)'s _Works and Correspondence_ and he is the author of _Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities_, one of the most often cited book in economics. Using hitherto unpublished material from Sraffa's literary heritage kept at Trinity College, Cambridge, the papers throw new light on the intellectual development of the young Sraffa and correct several of the received views on him and his contribution. Themes covered concern his: objectivism rediscovery and reformulation of the classical theory of value and distribution criticism of Alfred Marshall's analysis relationship with his Cambridge colleagues and friends biography around the time when he left Italy for the UK friendship with Wittgenstein and his impact on the latter's thinking. (shrink)
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  34. Maykʻl Papazian (2007). The Stoics on Determinism and Compatibilism (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (3):488-490.
    Maykʻl Papazian - The Stoics on Determinism and Compatibilism - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45:3 Journal of the History of Philosophy 45.3 488-490 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents Reviewed by Michael Papazian Berry College Ricardo Salles. The Stoics on Determinism and Compatibilism. Ashgate New Critical Thinking in Philosophy. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. Pp. xxii +132. Cloth, $79.95. Stoic determinism has been the object of important work recently, most notably Susanne Bobzien's monumental work, Determinism and (...)
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  35.  20
    K. Talmont-Kaminski M. Milkowski (ed.) (2013). Regarding the Mind, Naturally: Naturalist Approaches to the Sciences of the Mental. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    Naturalism is currently the most vibrantly developing approach to philosophy, with naturalised methodologies being applied across all the philosophical disciplines. One of the areas naturalism has been focussing upon is the mind, traditionally viewed as a topic hard to reconcile with the naturalistic worldview. A number of questions have been pursued in this context. What is the place of the mind in the world? How should we study the mind as a natural phenomenon? What is the significance of cognitive (...)
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  36.  6
    Dwayne A. Tunstall (2009). Yes, but Not Quite: Encountering Josiah Royce's Ethico-Religious Insight. Fordham University Press.
    This book argues that Josiah Royce bequeathed to philosophy a novel idealism based on an ethico-religious insight.This insight became the basis for an idealistic personalism, wherein the Real is the personal and a metaphysics of community is the most appropriate approach to metaphysics for personal beings, especially in an often impersonal and technological intellectual climate. -/- The first part of the book traces how Royce constructed his idealistic personalism in response to criticisms made by George Holmes Howison. That personalism (...)
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  37. Fiona Woollard (2011). Most Ways I Could Move: Comparing Subsets of the Behaviour Space in Bennett's Act/Omission Distinction. Mind 120 (477):155-182.
    The distinction between action and omission is of interest in both theoretical and practical philosophy. We use this distinction daily in our descriptions of behaviour and appeal to it in moral judgements. However, the very nature of the act/omission distinction is as yet unclear. Jonathan Bennett’s account of the distinction in terms of positive and negative facts is one of the most promising attempts to give an analysis of the ontological distinction between action and omission. According to Bennett’s account, (...)
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  38. Peter Singer (2015). The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. Yale University Press.
    Peter Singer’s books and ideas have been disturbing our complacency ever since the appearance of _Animal Liberation_. Now he directs our attention to a new movement in which his own ideas have played a crucial role: effective altruism. Effective altruism is built upon the simple but profound idea that living a fully ethical life involves doing the "most good you can do." Such a life requires an unsentimental view of charitable giving: to be a worthy recipient of our support, (...)
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  39.  97
    Tim Rowse (1990). Review Articles : The Middle Class—An Untidy Prominence Verity Burgmann and Jenny Lee (Eds), A People's History of Australia Since 1788 Four Volumes: A Most Valuable Acquisition (MAV); Making a Life (MAL); Constructing a Culture (CAC); Staining the Wattle (STW) (Penguin/McPhee Gribble, 1988). [REVIEW] Thesis Eleven 25 (1):147-161.
    The Middle Class—An Untidy Prominence: Verity Burgmann and Jenny Lee , A People's History of Australia Since 1788 Four Volumes: A Most Valuable Acquisition ; Making a Life ; Constructing a Culture ; Staining the Wattle.
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  40.  61
    Paul Pietroski, Jeffrey Lidz, Tim Hunter & Justin Halberda (2009). The Meaning of 'Most': Semantics, Numerosity and Psychology. Mind and Language 24 (5):554-585.
    The meaning of 'most' can be described in many ways. We offer a framework for distinguishing semantic descriptions, interpreted as psychological hypotheses that go beyond claims about sentential truth conditions, and an experiment that tells against an attractive idea: 'most' is understood in terms of one-to-one correspondence. Adults evaluated 'Most of the dots are yellow', as true or false, on many trials in which yellow dots and blue dots were displayed for 200 ms. Displays manipulated the ease (...)
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  41.  8
    Zhenzhong Ma, Dapeng Liang, Kuo-Hsun Yu & Yender Lee (2012). Most Cited Business Ethics Publications: Mapping the Intellectual Structure of Business Ethics Studies in 2001–2008. Business Ethics 21 (3):286-297.
    This study explores the research paradigms of contemporary business ethics research in 2001–2008. With citation data from the top two business ethics journals included in the Social Sciences Citation Index, this study conducts citation and co-citation analysis to identify the most important publications, scholars, and research themes in the business ethics area and then maps the intellectual structure of business ethics studies between 2001 and 2008. The results show that current business ethics studies cluster around four major research themes, (...)
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  42.  12
    Martin Hackl (2009). On the Grammar and Processing of Proportional Quantifiers: Most Versus More Than Half. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 17 (1):63--98.
    Abstract Proportional quantifiers have played a central role in the development of formal semantics because they set a benchmark for the expressive power needed to describe quantification in natural language (Barwise and Cooper Linguist Philos 4:159–219, 1981). The proportional quantifier most, in particular, supplied the initial motivation for adopting Generalized Quantifier Theory (GQT) because its meaning is definable as a relation between sets of individuals, which are taken to be semantic primitives in GQT. This paper proposes an alternative analysis (...)
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  43.  11
    Emmanuel Alloa (2015). The Most Sublime of All Laws: The Strange Resurgence of a Kantian Motif in Contemporary Image Politics. Critical Inquiry 41 (2):367-389.
    In recent years, the claim of the unrepresentability of the Shoah has stirred vivid debates, especially following the strong positions taken by the French filmmaker Claude Lanzmann and author of Shoah (1986). This claim of unrepresentability, it can be shown, draws part of its attraction from the fact that it oscillates undecidedly between a claim of logical impossibility (“the Shoah can’t be represented”) and a normative demand (“the Shoah shouldn’t be represented”). This essay analyzes the argumentative structure of the advocates (...)
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  44.  31
    Oliver M. Lean (2014). Getting the Most Out of Shannon Information. Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):395-413.
    Shannon information is commonly assumed to be the wrong way in which to conceive of information in most biological contexts. Since the theory deals only in correlations between systems, the argument goes, it can apply to any and all causal interactions that affect a biological outcome. Since informational language is generally confined to only certain kinds of biological process, such as gene expression and hormone signalling, Shannon information is thought to be unable to account for this (...)
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  45. Andrew Chignell (2009). Kant, Modality, and the Most Real Being. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 91 (2):157-192.
    Kant's speculative theistic proof rests on a distinction between “logical” and “real” modality that he developed very early in the pre-critical period. The only way to explain facts about real possibility, according to Kant, is to appeal to the properties of a unique, necessary, and “most real” being. Here I reconstruct the proof in its historical context, focusing on the role played by the theory of modality both in motivating the argument (in the pre-critical period) and, ultimately, in undoing (...)
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  46.  82
    Anne Finch Conway (1996). The Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Anne Conway was an extraordinary figure in a remarkable age. Her mastery of the intricate doctrines of the Lurianic Kabbalah, her authorship of a treatise criticising the philosophy of Descartes, Hobbes, and Spinoza, and her scandalous conversion to the despised sect of Quakers indicate a strength of character and independence of mind wholly unexpected (and unwanted) in a woman at the time. Translated for the first time into modern English, her Principles of the Most Ancient and Modern Philosophy is (...)
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  47.  25
    Ladislao Luna Sotorrío & José Luis Fernández Sánchez (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility of the Most Highly Reputed European and North American Firms. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):379 - 390.
    The objective of this article is double: first, to analyze, using a descriptive analysis, the main differences in the level and components of social behaviour between European and North American firms and, second, to contrast empirically, using a multiple linear regression model, whether the motives behind corporate social behaviour are different depending on the region or country of the firm. With this aim, an indicator of social behaviour (termed effort in sustainability) has been constructed by aggregating the firm's social effort (...)
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  48.  37
    J. Hyman (2014). The Most General Factive Stative Attitude. Analysis 74 (4):561-565.
    I discuss Timothy Willliamson’s conjecture that ‘knowing is the most general factive stative attitude, that which one has to a proposition if one has any factive stative attitude to it at all’.
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  49.  72
    Christopher Freiman (2012). Why Poverty Matters Most: Towards a Humanitarian Theory of Social Justice. Utilitas 24 (01):26-40.
    Sufficientarians claim that what matters most is that people have enough. I develop and defend a revised sufficientarian conception of justice. I claim that it furnishes the best specification of a general humanitarian ideal of social justice: our main moral concern should be helping those who are badly off in absolute terms. Rival humanitarian views such as egalitarianism, prioritarianism and the difference principle face serious objections from which sufficientarianism is exempt. Moreover, a revised conception of sufficientarianism can meet the (...)
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  50.  5
    Neema Sofaer (2014). Reciprocity‐Based Reasons for Benefiting Research Participants: Most Fail, the Most Plausible is Problematic. Bioethics 28 (9):456-471.
    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: most are false. The (...) plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it. (shrink)
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