Search results for 'Motive' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jason Kawall (2004). Moral Response-Dependence, Ideal Observers, and the Motive of Duty: Responding to Zangwill. Erkenntnis 60 (3):357-369.
    Moral response-dependent metaethical theories characterize moral properties in terms of the reactions of certain classes of individuals. Nick Zangwill has argued that such theories are flawed: they are unable to accommodate the motive of duty. That is, they are unable to provide a suitable reason for anyone to perform morally right actions simply because they are morally right. I argue that Zangwill ignores significant differences between various approvals, and various individuals, and that moral response-dependent theories can accommodate the (...) of duty. (shrink)
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  2.  62
    Eric M. Cave (2007). What's Wrong with Motive Manipulation? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):129-144.
    Consider manipulation in which one agent, avoiding force, threat, or fraud mobilizes some non-concern motive of another so as to induce this other to behave or move differently than she would otherwise have behaved or moved, given her circumstances and her initial ranking of concerns. As an instance, imagine that I get us to miss the opening of a play that I have grudgingly agreed to attend by engaging your sublimated compulsive tendency to check the stove when we are (...)
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  3.  27
    Liezl van Zyl (2010). Motive and Right Action. Philosophia 38 (2):405-415.
    Some philosophers believe that a change in motive alone is sometimes sufficient to bring about a change in the deontic status (rightness or wrongness) of an action. I refer to this position as ‘weak motivism’, and distinguish it from ‘strong’ and ‘partial motivism’. I examine a number of cases where our intuitive judgements appear to support the weak motivist’s thesis, and argue that in each case an alternative explanation can be given for why a change in motive brings (...)
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  4.  4
    Liezl van Zyl (2009). Motive and Right Action. Philosophia 38 (2):405-415.
    Some philosophers believe that a change in motive alone is sometimes sufficient to bring about a change in the deontic status (rightness or wrongness) of an action. I refer to this position as ‘weak motivism’, and distinguish it from ‘strong’ and ‘partial motivism’. I examine a number of cases where our intuitive judgements appear to support the weak motivist’s thesis, and argue that in each case an alternative explanation can be given for why a change in motive brings (...)
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  5.  39
    Michael Weber (2007). More on the Motive of Duty. Journal of Ethics 11 (1):65 - 86.
    A number of neo-Kantians have suggested that an act may be morally worthy even if sympathy and similar emotions are present, so long as they are not what in fact motivates right action–so long as duty, and duty alone, in fact motivates. Thus, the ideal Kantian moral agent need not be a cold and unfeeling person, as some critics have suggested. Two objections to this view need to be answered. First, some maintain that motives cannot be present without in fact (...)
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  6.  10
    John W. Atkinson (1953). The Achievement Motive and Recall of Interrupted and Completed Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (6):381.
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  7. Barbara Herman (1981). On the Value of Acting From the Motive of Duty. Philosophical Review 90 (3):359-382.
    Richard Henson attempts to take the sting out of this view of Kant on moral worth by arguing (i) that attending to the phenomenon of the overdetermination of actions leads one to see that Kant might have had two distinct views of moral worth, only one of which requires the absence of cooperating inclinations, and (ii) that when Kant insists that there is moral worth only when an action is done from the motive of duty alone, he need not (...)
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  8.  6
    Daniel Morgan & Lucy O'Brien (2016). Getting Out of Your Head: Addiction and the Motive of Self‐Escape. Mind and Language 31 (3):314-334.
    This article explores and defends the claim that addictive desires—for alcohol in particular—are partly explained by the motive of self-escape. We consider how this claim sits with the neurophysiological explanation of the strength of addictive desires in terms of the effect addictive substances have on the dopamine system. We argue that nothing in the neuroscientific framework rules out pluralism about the causes of addictive desire.
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  9.  26
    Shripad G. Pendse (2012). Ethical Hazards: A Motive, Means, and Opportunity Approach to Curbing Corporate Unethical Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):265-279.
    Scandals in companies such as Enron have been a source of great concern in the last decade. The events that led to a global financial crisis in 2008 have heightened this concern. How does one account for executive behaviors that led to such a crisis? This article argues that a conjunction of motive, means, and opportunity creates ‘an ethical hazard’ making questionable executive decisions more probable. It then suggests that corporate unethical behavior can be minimized by creating a process (...)
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  10.  38
    Michael Cholbi (2006). Belief Attribution and the Falsification of Motive Internalism. Philosophical Psychology 19 (5):607 – 616.
    The metatethical position known as motive internalism (MI) holds that moral beliefs are necessarily motivating. Adina Roskies (in Philosophical Psychology, 16) has recently argued against MI by citing patients with injuries to the ventromedial (VM) cortex as counterexamples to MI. Roskies claims that not only do these patients not act in accordance with their professed moral beliefs, they exhibit no physiological or affective evidence of being motivated by these beliefs. I argue that Roskies' attempt to falsify MI is unpersuasive (...)
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  11.  19
    Peter Olsthoorn (2005). Honor as a Motive for Making Sacrifices. Journal of Military Ethics 4 (3):183-197.
    This article deals with the notion of honor and its relation to the willingness to make sacrifices. There is a widely shared feeling, especially in Western countries, that the willingness to make sacrifices for the greater good has been on a reverse trend for quite a while both on the individual and the societal levels, and that this is increasingly problematic to the military. First of all, an outline of what honor is will be given. After that, the Roman honor-ethic, (...)
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  12.  14
    Matthew Fox, Leigh Plunkett Tost & Kimberly A. Wade-Benzoni (2010). The Legacy Motive. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):153-185.
    In this article, we review and build on intergenerational and behavioral ethics research to consider how the motive to build a lasting legacy can impact ethical behavior in intergenerational decision making. We discuss how people can utilize their relationships toorganizations to craft their legacies. Further, we elucidate how the legacy motive can enhance business ethics, incorporating theory and empirical findings from research on intergenerational decision making, generativity, and terror management theory to develop the legacy construct and to outline (...)
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  13.  51
    Lorraine Besser-Jones (2010). Hume on Pride-in-Virtue: A Reliable Motive? Hume Studies 36 (2):171-192.
    Many commentators have argued that on Hume’s account, pride turns out to be something that is unstable, context-dependent, and highly contingent. On their readings, whether or not an agent develops pride depends heavily on factors beyond her control, such as whether or not her house, which is beautiful, is also the most beautiful in her neighborhood and whether or not her neighbors will admire the beauty of her house rather than become envious of it. These aspects of Hume’s theory of (...)
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  14.  52
    Steven Sverdlik (1996). Motive and Rightness. Ethics 106 (2):327-349.
    Motive and Rightness is the first book-length attempt to answer the question: Does the motive of an action ever make a difference to whether that action is ...
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  15.  59
    Don Garrett (2007). The First Motive to Justice: Hume's Circle Argument Squared. Hume Studies 33 (2):257-288.
    Hume argues that respect for property (“justice”) is a convention-dependent (“artificial”) virtue. He does so by appeal to a principle, derived from his virtue-based approach to ethics, which requires that, for any kind of virtuous action, there be a “first virtuous motive” that is other than a sense of moral duty. It has been objected, however, that in the case of justice (and also in a parallel argument concerning promise-keeping) Hume (i) does not, (ii) should not, and (iii) cannot (...)
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  16.  33
    Keith E. Stanovich (2008). Higher-Order Preferences and the Master Rationality Motive. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (1):111 – 127.
    The cognitive critique of the goals and desires that are input into the implicit calculations that result in instrumental rationality is one aspect of what has been termed broad rationality (Elster, 1983). This cognitive critique involves, among other things, the search for rational integration (Nozick, 1993)—that is, consistency between first-order and second-order preferences. Forming a second-order preference involves metarepresentational abilities made possible by mental decoupling operations. However, these decoupling abilities are separable from the motive that initiates the cognitive critique (...)
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  17.  6
    Richard P. Bagozzi, Leslie E. Sekerka & Vanessa Hill (2009). Hierarchical Motive Structures and Their Role in Moral Choices. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):461 - 486.
    Leader-managers face a myriad of competing values when they engage in ethical decision-making. Few studies help us understand why certain reasons for action are justified, taking precedence over others when people choose to respond to an ethical dilemma. To help address this matter we began with a qualitative approach to disclose leader-managers' moral motives when they decide to address a work-related ethical dilemma. One hundred and nine military officers were asked to provide their reasons for taking action, justifications of their (...)
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  18.  9
    Tony Lynch & Adrian Walsh (2003). The Mandevillean Conceit and the Profit-Motive. Philosophy 78 (1):43-63.
    Invisible Hand accounts of the operations of the competitive market are often thought to have two implications for morality as it confronts economic life. First, explanantions of agents economic activities eschew constitutive appeal to moral notions; and second, such moralism is pernicious insofar as it tends to undermine the operations of a socially valuable social process. This is the Mandevillean Conceit. The Conceit rests on an avarice-only reading of the profit-motive that is mistaken. The avarice-only reading is not the (...)
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  19.  31
    Stephen Darwall (1993). Motive and Obligation in Hume's Ethics. Noûs 27 (4):415-448.
    :Hume distinguishes natural obligation, the motive of self-interest, from moral obligation, the sentiment of approbation and disapprobation. I argue that his discussion of justice makes use of a third notion, in addition to the other two: rule-obligation. For Hume, the just person regulates her conduct by mutually advantageous rules of justice. Rule-obligation is the notion she requires to express her acceptance of these rules in so regulating herself. I place these ideas in relation to Hume's official theory of the (...)
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  20.  77
    Joe Mintoff (1999). Are Decisions Motive-Perpetuating? Analysis 59 (4):266–275.
    How should we understand the relation between decision-making and motivation? Thomas Pink has recently argued (Pink 1996) that decisions perpetuate pre-existing motives, and that whatever motivated the formation of a decision should, after that decision is taken, also motivate the action. In this article I argue that this view has certain problems, and that these problems can be solved if we assume instead that decisions are motive-generating.
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  21.  30
    Mark Timmons (2002). Motive and Rightness in Kant's Ethical System. In Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays. Oxford University Press
    Some contemporary intepreters of Kant maintain that on Kant's view fulfilling duties of virtue require doing so from the motive of duty. I argue that there are interpretive and doctinal reasons for rejecting this interpretation. However, I argue that for Kant motives can be deontically relevant; one's motives can affect the deontic status of actions.
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  22.  24
    Michael Weber (2003). The Motive of Duty and the Nature of Emotions: Kantian Reflections on Moral Worth. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):183 - 202.
    As a result there is a considerable literature on the topic. I think, however, that the treatment in the literature is incomplete because there is a failure to examine the relevant emotions in significant detail, and in particular to consider their complexity and the conditions of their warrant. As a result, both defenses and critiques of the motive of duty in terms of reliability are inadequate as they stand.
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  23.  8
    Donald Wiebe (1988). ‘Why the Academic Study of Religion?’ Motive and Method in the Study of Religion: Donald Wiebe. Religious Studies 24 (4):403-413.
    The methodological implications of the motives that underlie the study of religion and, more particularly, the academic study of religion have not, I think, received the attention they deserve. They are of the utmost importance, however, for the differences of motivation between the study of religion legitimated by the modern university and the scholarly study of religion that antedates it, sponsor radically different, if not mutually exclusive, approaches to its study. In asking why the study of religion is undertaken as (...)
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  24.  5
    A. J. Walsh & A. J. Lynch, The Mandevillean Conceit and the Profit-Motive.
    Invisible Hand accounts of the operations of the competitive market are often thought to have two implications for morality as it confronts economic life. First, explanations of agents economic activities eschew constitutive appeal to moral notions; and second, such moralism is pernicious insofar as it tends to undermine the operations of a socially valuable social process. This is the Mandevillean Conceit. The Conceit rests on an avarice-only reading of the profit-motive that is mistaken. The avarice-only reading is not the (...)
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  25.  13
    Timothy Berard (1998). Attributions and Avowals of Motive in the Study of Deviance: Resource or Topic? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 28 (2):193–213.
    In explaining human actions, scholars and laypeople alike employ explanatory devices such as ‘motives’. This paper critically reevaluates the relationship between ‘professional’ and ‘lay’ invocations of motive, proposing a general reorientation of theory and research. This reorientation emphasizes the mundane ‘practical grammar’ of motives, and argues that motive deployment is inextricably tied to deviance, and therefore irremediably moral. It is argued, therefore, that motives should serve as a topic for scholarship, not a resourcefor scholarly use. Several landmark theories (...)
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  26.  43
    Dwight Furrow & Mark Wheeler, Autonomy, Self-Appraisal, and the Motive of Care.
    Despite receiving considerable philosophical attention, the concept of autonomy remains contested. In this paper, we diagnose one source of the continuing problem—an excessive emphasis on reflective self-appraisal in the dominant procedural models of autonomy—and suggest a solution. We argue that minimalist conceptions of rational self-appraisal are subject to fatal counterexamples. Yet, attempts to provide a more robust account of rational self-appraisal are too demanding to capture our intuitions about who counts as an autonomous agent. We argue that no procedure of (...)
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  27.  46
    Jennie Louise (2006). Right Motive, Wrong Action: Direct Consequentialism and Evaluative Conflict. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (1):65 - 85.
    In this paper I look at attempts to develop forms of consequentialism which do not have a feature considered problematic in Direct Consequentialist theories (that is, those consequentialist theories that apply the criterion of rightness directly in the evaluation of any set of options). The problematic feature in question (which I refer to as ‘evaluative conflict’) is the possibility that, for example, a right motive might lead an agent to perform a wrong act. Theories aiming to avoid this phenomenon (...)
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  28.  13
    Joakim Sandberg (2013). Profit Motive. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell
    The profit motive refers to what is generally taken to be the underlying motivation of business and commercial activity: to collect revenues in excess of costs or, more simply, to make money. While both “profit” and “profit motive” may be given more technical definitions in economics, the latter's meaning is typically broader in philosophical discussions and so, for example, even managers of nonprofit organizations may be accused of sometimes acting from a profit motive. The profit motive (...)
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  29.  11
    Catherine S. Herfeld (2009). The Motive of Commitment and Its Implications for Rational Choice Theory. Analyse & Kritik 31 (2):291-317.
    This paper addresses the explanatory role of the concept of a motive for action in economics. The aim of the paper is to show the difficulty economists have to accommodate the motive of commitment into their explanatory and predictive framework, i.e. rational choice theory. One difficulty is that the economists’ explanation becomes analytic when assuming preferences of commitment. Another difficulty is that it is highly doubtful whether commitment can be represented by current frameworks while serving the ‘folk-psychological’ idea (...)
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  30.  20
    Joseph M. Boden (2006). Motive and Consequence in Repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):514-515.
    Erdelyi's unified theory of repression offers a significant advance in understanding the disparate findings related to repression. However, the theory de-emphasizes the role of motive in repression, and it is argued here that motive is critical to the understanding of repression as it occurs in the mental life of individuals.
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  31.  4
    Rekha Singh & Mukta Singh (2008). Overcoming the Pleasure Motive is A Pre-Condition of Mind-Control. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 29:165-170.
    The uplift of the individual or the community is not possible sans mind-control. Human’s well-being is inseparable from mind-control. All kinds of people need control of mind. Believers, atheists, agnostics, those who are indifferent to religion are in need of control of mind. There are many factors of uncontrolled mind. The greatest among them is the pleasure motive which eats away our will to control the mind. The pleasure-motive, being elemental aspect of human personality, cannot be obliterated completely (...)
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  32.  4
    E. J. Hundert (1974). The Achievement Motive in Hume's Political Economy. Journal of the History of Ideas 35 (1):139.
    Hume's economic arguments, While grounded in the thought of his mercantilist contemporaries, Were none the less novel. They helped change the conception of work and the worker during the eighteenth century. Hume's psychological egalitarianism and his assumption of an 'achievement motive' amongst the laboring classes attacked the traditional view of the poor as unmoved by economic incentives to work. His arguments opened the way for a reconsideration of public policy when they were incorporated by adam smith into a highly (...)
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  33.  8
    Kimberly A. Wade-Benzoni (2010). The Legacy Motive. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):153-185.
    In this article, we review and build on intergenerational and behavioral ethics research to consider how the motive to build a lasting legacy can impact ethical behavior in intergenerational decision making. We discuss how people can utilize their relationships toorganizations to craft their legacies. Further, we elucidate how the legacy motive can enhance business ethics, incorporating theory and empirical findings from research on intergenerational decision making, generativity, and terror management theory to develop the legacy construct and to outline (...)
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  34.  3
    P. Russew (1971). Die juristische Motive und das Problem der Entfremdung. Logique Et Analyse 14 (53):565.
    Die juristischen motive sind eine widerspiegelung der herschenden oekonomischen und politischen verhaeltnisse. sie sind nicht nur durch die beduerfnisse der herschenden klasse bestimmt, sondern sie dienen aktiv zu ihrer festigung. beim kapitalismus wirken diese motive zur festigung der entfremdung. die hauptrichtung des abschaffens der entfremdung ist das abschaffen der welt der entfremdung durch die sozialistische revolution. beim sozialismus wirken die juristischen motive zu ihrer abschaffen mit.
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  35. Steven Sverdlik (2011). Motive and Rightness. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Motive and Rightness is the first book-length attempt to answer the question, Does the motive of an action ever make a difference in whether that action is morally right or wrong? Steven Sverdlik argues that the answer is yes. His book examines the major theories now being discussed by moral philosophers to see if they can provide a plausible account of the relevance of motives to rightness and wrongness. Sverdlik argues that consequentialism gives a better account of these (...)
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  36. Moran Gershoni, Alan R. Templeton & Dan Mishmar (2009). Mitochondrial Bioenergetics as a Major Motive Force of Speciation. Bioessays 31 (6):642-650.
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  37. Robert Merrihew Adams (1976). Motive Utilitarianism. Journal of Philosophy 73 (14):467-481.
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  38. Kathleen Okruhlik (2004). Logical Empiricism, Feminism, and Neurath's Auxiliary Motive. Hypatia 19 (1):48-72.
    : Much feminist philosophy of science has been developed as a reaction against logical empiricism and the associated view that social factors play no role in good science. Recent accounts of the Vienna Circle that highlighted the ways in which some of its members attempted to combine their empiricism with emancipatory politics are used here as a basis on which to reassess the relationship between logical empiricism and feminism. The focus is chiefly on Otto Neurath.
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  39.  84
    Thomas Hurka (2010). Right Act, Virtuous Motive. In Heather D. Battaly (ed.), Virtue and Vice, Moral and Epistemic. Wiley-Blackwell 58-72.
    Abstract: The concepts of virtue and right action are closely connected, in that we expect people with virtuous motives to at least often act rightly. Two well-known views explain this connection by defining one of the concepts in terms of the other. Instrumentalists about virtue identify virtuous motives as those that lead to right acts; virtue-ethicists identify right acts as those that are or would be done from virtuous motives. This essay outlines a rival explanation, based on the "higher-level" account (...)
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  40. Christine M. Korsgaard, Natural Motives and the Motive of Duty: Hume and Kant on Our Duties to Others.
    In this paper I argue that the ground of this disagreement is different than philosophers have traditionally supposed. On the surface, the disagreement appears to be a matter of substantive moral judgment: Hume admires the sort of person who rushes to the aid of another from motives of sympathy or humanity, while Kant thinks that a person who helps with the thought that it is his duty is the better character. While a moral disagreement of this kind certainly follows from (...)
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  41.  13
    Alex G. H. Chu, Xingqiang du & Guohua Jiang (2011). Buy, Lie, or Die: An Investigation of Chinese ST Firms' Voluntary Interim Audit Motive and Auditor Independence. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 102 (1):135-153.
    In the Chinese stock market, special treatment (ST) firms are the firms listed as facing imminent danger of delisting, unless they return to profitability after reporting two consecutive annual losses. Some ST firms voluntarily pay substantial fees to their external auditors to conduct interim audits, which are not required by regulations. In this study, we investigate and find that ST firms that pay for voluntary interim audits report greater discretionary accrued earnings, higher non-operating earnings, and higher returns on assets in (...)
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  42.  59
    Andrew R. Platt (2011). Divine Activity and Motive Power in Descartes's Physics. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (4):623 - 646.
    This paper is the first of a two-part reexamination of causation in Descartes's physics. Some scholars ? including Gary Hatfield and Daniel Garber ? take Descartes to be a `partial' Occasionalist, who thinks that God alone is the cause of all natural motion. Contra this interpretation, I agree with literature that links Descartes to the Thomistic theory of divine concurrence. This paper surveys this literature, and argues that it has failed to provide an interpretation of Descartes's view that both distinguishes (...)
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  43. J. H. Muirhead, J. S. Mackenzie, S. Alexander & David G. Ritchie (1894). The Meaning of "Motive". International Journal of Ethics 4 (2):229-238.
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  44.  32
    Kurtis Hagen (2011). Xunzi and the Prudence of Dao : Desire as the Motive to Become Good. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (1):53-70.
    Xunzi is often interpreted as offering a method for transforming our desires. This essay argues that, strictly speaking, he does not. Rather, Xunzi offers a method of developing an auxiliary motivational structure capable of overpowering our original desires, when there is a conflict. When one succeeds in transforming one’s overall character, original desires nevertheless remain and are largely satisfied. This explains why one may be motivated to follow the way even before one has developed noble intentions. On Xunzi’s view, following (...)
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  45.  17
    Christoph Lumer (2002). Motive Zu Moralischem Handeln. Analyse & Kritik 24 (2).
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  46.  84
    Mark J. Cherry (2003). Scientific Excellence, Professional Virtue, and the Profit Motive: The Market and Health Care Reform. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 28 (3):259 – 280.
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  47.  92
    Burleigh T. Wilkins (1971). Concerning 'Motive' and 'Intention'. Analysis 31 (4):139 - 142.
  48.  12
    Christoph Lumer (2002). Kantischer Externalismus und Motive zu moralischem Handeln. Conceptus: Zeitschrift Fur Philosophie 35 (86-88):263-286.
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  49.  12
    R. Peters (1950). Cause, Cure and Motive. Analysis 10 (5):103-109.
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  50.  65
    Fred Feldman (1993). On the Consistency of Act- and Motive-Utilitarianism: A Reply to Robert Adams. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 70 (2):201 - 212.
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