Search results for 'Motive' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jason Kawall (2004). Moral Response-Dependence, Ideal Observers, and the Motive of Duty: Responding to Zangwill. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 60 (3):357-369.score: 18.0
    Moral response-dependent metaethical theories characterize moral properties in terms of the reactions of certain classes of individuals. Nick Zangwill has argued that such theories are flawed: they are unable to accommodate the motive of duty. That is, they are unable to provide a suitable reason for anyone to perform morally right actions simply because they are morally right. I argue that Zangwill ignores significant differences between various approvals, and various individuals, and that moral response-dependent theories can accommodate the (...) of duty. (shrink)
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  2. Eric M. Cave (2007). What's Wrong with Motive Manipulation? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10 (2):129 - 144.score: 18.0
    Consider manipulation in which one agent, avoiding force, threat, or fraud mobilizes some non-concern motive of another so as to induce this other to behave or move differently than she would otherwise have behaved or moved, given her circumstances and her initial ranking of concerns. As an instance, imagine that I get us to miss the opening of a play that I have grudgingly agreed to attend by engaging your sublimated compulsive tendency to check the stove when we are (...)
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  3. Liezl van Zyl (2010). Motive and Right Action. Philosophia 38 (2):405-415.score: 18.0
    Some philosophers believe that a change in motive alone is sometimes sufficient to bring about a change in the deontic status (rightness or wrongness) of an action. I refer to this position as ‘weak motivism’, and distinguish it from ‘strong’ and ‘partial motivism’. I examine a number of cases where our intuitive judgements appear to support the weak motivist’s thesis, and argue that in each case an alternative explanation can be given for why a change in motive brings (...)
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  4. Markus Quirin, Thomas Gruber, Julius Kuhl & Rainer Düsing (2013). Is Love Right? Prefrontal Resting Brain Asymmetry is Related to the Affiliation Motive. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:902.score: 18.0
    Previous research on relationships between affective-motivational traits and hemispheric asymmetries in resting frontal alpha band power as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) has focused on individual differences in motivational direction (approach vs. withdrawal) or behavioral activation. The present study investigated resting frontal alpha asymmetries in 72 participants as a function of individual differences in the implicit affiliation motive as measured with the operant motive test (OMT) and explored the brain source thereof. As predicted, relative right frontal activity as indexed (...)
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  5. Liezl van Zyl (2009). Motive and Right Action. Philosophia 38 (2):405-415.score: 18.0
    Some philosophers believe that a change in motive alone is sometimes sufficient to bring about a change in the deontic status (rightness or wrongness) of an action. I refer to this position as ‘weak motivism’, and distinguish it from ‘strong’ and ‘partial motivism’. I examine a number of cases where our intuitive judgements appear to support the weak motivist’s thesis, and argue that in each case an alternative explanation can be given for why a change in motive brings (...)
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  6. Michael Weber (2007). More on the Motive of Duty. Journal of Ethics 11 (1):65 - 86.score: 16.0
    A number of neo-Kantians have suggested that an act may be morally worthy even if sympathy and similar emotions are present, so long as they are not what in fact motivates right action–so long as duty, and duty alone, in fact motivates. Thus, the ideal Kantian moral agent need not be a cold and unfeeling person, as some critics have suggested. Two objections to this view need to be answered. First, some maintain that motives cannot be present without in fact (...)
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  7. John W. Atkinson (1953). The Achievement Motive and Recall of Interrupted and Completed Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 46 (6):381.score: 15.0
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  8. Jennie Louise (2006). Right Motive, Wrong Action: Direct Consequentialism and Evaluative Conflict. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 9 (1):65 - 85.score: 14.0
    In this paper I look at attempts to develop forms of consequentialism which do not have a feature considered problematic in Direct Consequentialist theories (that is, those consequentialist theories that apply the criterion of rightness directly in the evaluation of any set of options). The problematic feature in question (which I refer to as ‘evaluative conflict’) is the possibility that, for example, a right motive might lead an agent to perform a wrong act. Theories aiming to avoid this phenomenon (...)
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  9. Mark Timmons (2002). Motive and Rightness in Kant's Ethical System. In , Kant's Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretative Essays. Oxford University Press.score: 14.0
    Some contemporary intepreters of Kant maintain that on Kant's view fulfilling duties of virtue require doing so from the motive of duty. I argue that there are interpretive and doctinal reasons for rejecting this interpretation. However, I argue that for Kant motives can be deontically relevant; one's motives can affect the deontic status of actions.
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  10. Richard P. Bagozzi, Leslie E. Sekerka & Vanessa Hill (2009). Hierarchical Motive Structures and Their Role in Moral Choices. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (4):461 - 486.score: 14.0
    Leader-managers face a myriad of competing values when they engage in ethical decision-making. Few studies help us understand why certain reasons for action are justified, taking precedence over others when people choose to respond to an ethical dilemma. To help address this matter we began with a qualitative approach to disclose leader-managers' moral motives when they decide to address a work-related ethical dilemma. One hundred and nine military officers were asked to provide their reasons for taking action, justifications of their (...)
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  11. Barbara Herman (1981). On the Value of Acting From the Motive of Duty. Philosophical Review 90 (3):359-382.score: 12.0
    Richard Henson attempts to take the sting out of this view of Kant on moral worth by arguing (i) that attending to the phenomenon of the overdetermination of actions leads one to see that Kant might have had two distinct views of moral worth, only one of which requires the absence of cooperating inclinations, and (ii) that when Kant insists that there is moral worth only when an action is done from the motive of duty alone, he need not (...)
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  12. Thomas Hurka (2010). Right Act, Virtuous Motive. In Heather D. Battaly (ed.), Virtue and Vice, Moral and Epistemic. Wiley-Blackwell. 58-72.score: 12.0
    Abstract: The concepts of virtue and right action are closely connected, in that we expect people with virtuous motives to at least often act rightly. Two well-known views explain this connection by defining one of the concepts in terms of the other. Instrumentalists about virtue identify virtuous motives as those that lead to right acts; virtue-ethicists identify right acts as those that are or would be done from virtuous motives. This essay outlines a rival explanation, based on the "higher-level" account (...)
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  13. Steven Sverdlik (1996). Motive and Rightness. Ethics 106 (2):327-349.score: 12.0
    Motive and Rightness is the first book-length attempt to answer the question: Does the motive of an action ever make a difference to whether that action is ...
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  14. Dwight Furrow & Mark Wheeler, Autonomy, Self-Appraisal, and the Motive of Care.score: 12.0
    Despite receiving considerable philosophical attention, the concept of autonomy remains contested. In this paper, we diagnose one source of the continuing problem—an excessive emphasis on reflective self-appraisal in the dominant procedural models of autonomy—and suggest a solution. We argue that minimalist conceptions of rational self-appraisal are subject to fatal counterexamples. Yet, attempts to provide a more robust account of rational self-appraisal are too demanding to capture our intuitions about who counts as an autonomous agent. We argue that no procedure of (...)
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  15. Lorraine Besser-Jones (2010). Hume on Pride-in-Virtue: A Reliable Motive? Hume Studies 36 (2):171-192.score: 12.0
    Many commentators have argued that on Hume’s account, pride turns out to be something that is unstable, context-dependent, and highly contingent. On their readings, whether or not an agent develops pride depends heavily on factors beyond her control, such as whether or not her house, which is beautiful, is also the most beautiful in her neighborhood and whether or not her neighbors will admire the beauty of her house rather than become envious of it. These aspects of Hume’s theory of (...)
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  16. Michael Cholbi (2006). Belief Attribution and the Falsification of Motive Internalism. Philosophical Psychology 19 (5):607 – 616.score: 12.0
    The metatethical position known as motive internalism (MI) holds that moral beliefs are necessarily motivating. Adina Roskies (in Philosophical Psychology, 16) has recently argued against MI by citing patients with injuries to the ventromedial (VM) cortex as counterexamples to MI. Roskies claims that not only do these patients not act in accordance with their professed moral beliefs, they exhibit no physiological or affective evidence of being motivated by these beliefs. I argue that Roskies' attempt to falsify MI is unpersuasive (...)
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  17. Charles Sayward (1988). W.D. Ross on Acting From Motives. Journal of Value Inquiry 22 (4):299-306.score: 12.0
    This paper defends a position held by W, D, Ross that it is no part of one’s duty to have a certain motive since one cannot by choice have it here and now.
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  18. Shripad G. Pendse (2012). Ethical Hazards: A Motive, Means, and Opportunity Approach to Curbing Corporate Unethical Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 107 (3):265-279.score: 12.0
    Scandals in companies such as Enron have been a source of great concern in the last decade. The events that led to a global financial crisis in 2008 have heightened this concern. How does one account for executive behaviors that led to such a crisis? This article argues that a conjunction of motive, means, and opportunity creates ‘an ethical hazard’ making questionable executive decisions more probable. It then suggests that corporate unethical behavior can be minimized by creating a process (...)
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  19. Don Garrett (2007). The First Motive to Justice: Hume's Circle Argument Squared. Hume Studies 33 (2):257-288.score: 12.0
    Hume argues that respect for property (“justice”) is a convention-dependent (“artificial”) virtue. He does so by appeal to a principle, derived from his virtue-based approach to ethics, which requires that, for any kind of virtuous action, there be a “first virtuous motive” that is other than a sense of moral duty. It has been objected, however, that in the case of justice (and also in a parallel argument concerning promise-keeping) Hume (i) does not, (ii) should not, and (iii) cannot (...)
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  20. Stephen Darwall (1993). Motive and Obligation in Hume's Ethics. Noûs 27 (4):415-448.score: 12.0
    :Hume distinguishes natural obligation, the motive of self-interest, from moral obligation, the sentiment of approbation and disapprobation. I argue that his discussion of justice makes use of a third notion, in addition to the other two: rule-obligation. For Hume, the just person regulates her conduct by mutually advantageous rules of justice. Rule-obligation is the notion she requires to express her acceptance of these rules in so regulating herself. I place these ideas in relation to Hume's official theory of the (...)
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  21. Keith E. Stanovich (2008). Higher-Order Preferences and the Master Rationality Motive. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (1):111 – 127.score: 12.0
    The cognitive critique of the goals and desires that are input into the implicit calculations that result in instrumental rationality is one aspect of what has been termed broad rationality (Elster, 1983). This cognitive critique involves, among other things, the search for rational integration (Nozick, 1993)—that is, consistency between first-order and second-order preferences. Forming a second-order preference involves metarepresentational abilities made possible by mental decoupling operations. However, these decoupling abilities are separable from the motive that initiates the cognitive critique (...)
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  22. Peter Olsthoorn (2005). Honor as a Motive for Making Sacrifices. Journal of Military Ethics 4 (3):183-197.score: 12.0
    This article deals with the notion of honor and its relation to the willingness to make sacrifices. There is a widely shared feeling, especially in Western countries, that the willingness to make sacrifices for the greater good has been on a reverse trend for quite a while both on the individual and the societal levels, and that this is increasingly problematic to the military. First of all, an outline of what honor is will be given. After that, the Roman honor-ethic, (...)
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  23. Joseph M. Boden (2006). Motive and Consequence in Repression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):514-515.score: 12.0
    Erdelyi's unified theory of repression offers a significant advance in understanding the disparate findings related to repression. However, the theory de-emphasizes the role of motive in repression, and it is argued here that motive is critical to the understanding of repression as it occurs in the mental life of individuals.
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  24. Melvin J. Lerner, Michael Ross & Dale T. Miller (eds.) (2002). The Justice Motive in Everyday Life: Essays in Honor of Melvin J. Lerner. Cambridge University Press.score: 12.0
    This book contains new essays in honor of Melvin J. Lerner, a pioneer in the psychological study of justice. The contributors to this volume are internationally renowned scholars from psychology, business, and law. They examine the role of justice motivation in a wide variety of contexts, including workplace violence, affirmative action programs, helping or harming innocent victims and how people react to their own fate. Contributors explore fundamental issues such as whether people's interest in justice is motivated by self-interest or (...)
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  25. Michael Weber (2003). The Motive of Duty and the Nature of Emotions: Kantian Reflections on Moral Worth. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 33 (2):183 - 202.score: 12.0
    As a result there is a considerable literature on the topic. I think, however, that the treatment in the literature is incomplete because there is a failure to examine the relevant emotions in significant detail, and in particular to consider their complexity and the conditions of their warrant. As a result, both defenses and critiques of the motive of duty in terms of reliability are inadequate as they stand.
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  26. Tony Lynch & Adrian Walsh (2003). The Mandevillean Conceit and the Profit-Motive. Philosophy 78 (1):43-63.score: 12.0
    Invisible Hand accounts of the operations of the competitive market are often thought to have two implications for morality as it confronts economic life. First, explanantions of agents economic activities eschew constitutive appeal to moral notions; and second, such moralism is pernicious insofar as it tends to undermine the operations of a socially valuable social process. This is the Mandevillean Conceit. The Conceit rests on an avarice-only reading of the profit-motive that is mistaken. The avarice-only reading is not the (...)
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  27. Markus Quirin, Martin Beckenkamp & Julius Kuhl (2008). Giving or Taking: The Role of Dispositional Power Motivation and Positive Affect in Profit Maximization. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 8 (1):109-126.score: 12.0
    Socio-economic decisions are commonly explained by rational cost versus benefit considerations, whereas person variables have not much been considered. The present study aimed at investigating the degree to which dispositional power motivation and affective states predict socio-economic decisions. The power motive was assessed both indirectly and directly using a TAT-like picture test and a power motive self-report, respectively. After 9 months, 62 students completed an affect rating and performed on a money allocation task (social values questionnaire). We hypothesized (...)
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  28. Joe Mintoff (1999). Are Decisions Motive-Perpetuating? Analysis 59 (4):266–275.score: 12.0
    How should we understand the relation between decision-making and motivation? Thomas Pink has recently argued (Pink 1996) that decisions perpetuate pre-existing motives, and that whatever motivated the formation of a decision should, after that decision is taken, also motivate the action. In this article I argue that this view has certain problems, and that these problems can be solved if we assume instead that decisions are motive-generating.
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  29. Kimberly A. Wade-Benzoni (2010). The Legacy Motive. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):153-185.score: 12.0
    In this article, we review and build on intergenerational and behavioral ethics research to consider how the motive to build a lasting legacy can impact ethical behavior in intergenerational decision making. We discuss how people can utilize their relationships toorganizations to craft their legacies. Further, we elucidate how the legacy motive can enhance business ethics, incorporating theory and empirical findings from research on intergenerational decision making, generativity, and terror management theory to develop the legacy construct and to outline (...)
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  30. Bernard Barsotti (2005). Le « jugement motivé » et son intensité. Archives de Philosophie 2005 (68):465-491.score: 12.0
    Dans sa Psychologie d’un point de vue empirique (côté 1874,1911,1914-1917), Brentano a jeté les bases d’une conception intentionnelle des actes de conscience. Mais où se situe, exactement, la contribution, plus ou moins contestée, de la Psychologie à la conception phénoménologique, husserlienne, de l’intentionnalité? En suivant l’évolution des analyses brentaniennes, on découvre que son apport se confirme moins du côté de la conscience noétique, selon la vision habituelle, que du côté de l’objet intentionnel, auquel Brentano donne un tout nouveau statut ontologique (...)
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  31. Matthew Fox, Leigh Plunkett Tost & Kimberly A. Wade-Benzoni (2010). The Legacy Motive. Business Ethics Quarterly 20 (2):153-185.score: 12.0
    In this article, we review and build on intergenerational and behavioral ethics research to consider how the motive to build a lasting legacy can impact ethical behavior in intergenerational decision making. We discuss how people can utilize their relationships toorganizations to craft their legacies. Further, we elucidate how the legacy motive can enhance business ethics, incorporating theory and empirical findings from research on intergenerational decision making, generativity, and terror management theory to develop the legacy construct and to outline (...)
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  32. Pantscho Russew (forthcoming). Die Juristische Motive Und Das Problem Der Entfremdung. Logique Et Analyse.score: 12.0
    Die juristischen motive sind eine widerspiegelung der herschenden oekonomischen und politischen verhaeltnisse. sie sind nicht nur durch die beduerfnisse der herschenden klasse bestimmt, sondern sie dienen aktiv zu ihrer festigung. beim kapitalismus wirken diese motive zur festigung der entfremdung. die hauptrichtung des abschaffens der entfremdung ist das abschaffen der welt der entfremdung durch die sozialistische revolution. beim sozialismus wirken die juristischen motive zu ihrer abschaffen mit.
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  33. E. J. Hundert (1974). The Achievement Motive in Hume's Political Economy. Journal of the History of Ideas 35.score: 12.0
    Hume's economic arguments, While grounded in the thought of his mercantilist contemporaries, Were none the less novel. They helped change the conception of work and the worker during the eighteenth century. Hume's psychological egalitarianism and his assumption of an 'achievement motive' amongst the laboring classes attacked the traditional view of the poor as unmoved by economic incentives to work. His arguments opened the way for a reconsideration of public policy when they were incorporated by adam smith into a highly (...)
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  34. Andreas G. Rösch, Steven J. Stanton & Oliver C. Schultheiss (2013). Implicit Motives Predict Affective Responses to Emotional Expressions. Frontiers in Psychology 4:985.score: 12.0
    We explored the influence of implicit motives and activity inhibition on subjectively experienced affect in response to the presentation of six different facial expressions of emotion (FEEs; anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise) and neutral faces from the NimStim set of facial expressions (Tottenham et al., 2009). Implicit motives and activity inhibition were assessed using a Picture Story Exercise (Schultheiss et al., 2009b). Ratings of subjectively experienced affect (arousal and valence) were assessed using Self-Assessment Manikins (Bradley and Lang, 1994) (...)
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  35. Joakim Sandberg (2013). Profit Motive. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 12.0
    The profit motive refers to what is generally taken to be the underlying motivation of business and commercial activity: to collect revenues in excess of costs or, more simply, to make money. While both “profit” and “profit motive” may be given more technical definitions in economics, the latter's meaning is typically broader in philosophical discussions and so, for example, even managers of nonprofit organizations may be accused of sometimes acting from a profit motive. The profit motive (...)
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  36. Rekha Singh & Mukta Singh (2008). Overcoming the Pleasure Motive is A Pre-Condition of Mind-Control. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 29:165-170.score: 12.0
    The uplift of the individual or the community is not possible sans mind-control. Human’s well-being is inseparable from mind-control. All kinds of people need control of mind. Believers, atheists, agnostics, those who are indifferent to religion are in need of control of mind. There are many factors of uncontrolled mind. The greatest among them is the pleasure motive which eats away our will to control the mind. The pleasure-motive, being elemental aspect of human personality, cannot be obliterated completely (...)
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  37. Roy Lawrence (1972). Motive and Intention. Evanston [Ill.]Northwestern University Press.score: 11.0
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  38. Christine M. Korsgaard, Natural Motives and the Motive of Duty: Hume and Kant on Our Duties to Others.score: 10.0
    In this paper I argue that the ground of this disagreement is different than philosophers have traditionally supposed. On the surface, the disagreement appears to be a matter of substantive moral judgment: Hume admires the sort of person who rushes to the aid of another from motives of sympathy or humanity, while Kant thinks that a person who helps with the thought that it is his duty is the better character. While a moral disagreement of this kind certainly follows from (...)
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  39. Noa Latham (1994). Causally Irrelevant Reasons and Action Solely From the Motive of Duty. Journal of Philosophy 91 (11):599-618.score: 10.0
    My concern in part I of this paper is with how to make sense of the position that one can have reasons both of duty and inclination for an action one performs but be motivated solely by duty, and more generally that one can have several reasons for an action one performs but be motivated only by some of them. I examine a number of ways of attempting to do this, most of them independent of the Kantian context, and argue (...)
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  40. Marx W. Wartofsky (1977). Nature, Number and Individuals: Motive and Method in Spinoza's Philosophy. Inquiry 20 (1-4):457 – 479.score: 10.0
    The paper is concerned with the problem of individuation in Spinoza. Spinoza's account of individuation leads to the apparent contradiction between, on the one hand, the view that substance (God or Nature) is simple, eternal, and infinite, and on the other, the claim that substance contains infinite differentiation - determinate and finite modes, i.e. individuals. A reconstruction of Spinoza's argument is offered which accepts the reality of the contradiction and sees it as a consequence of Spinoza's way of posing the (...)
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  41. Kurtis Hagen (2011). Xunzi and the Prudence of Dao : Desire as the Motive to Become Good. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 10 (1):53-70.score: 10.0
    Xunzi is often interpreted as offering a method for transforming our desires. This essay argues that, strictly speaking, he does not. Rather, Xunzi offers a method of developing an auxiliary motivational structure capable of overpowering our original desires, when there is a conflict. When one succeeds in transforming one’s overall character, original desires nevertheless remain and are largely satisfied. This explains why one may be motivated to follow the way even before one has developed noble intentions. On Xunzi’s view, following (...)
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  42. Oliver C. Schultheiss & Joachim C. Brunstein (2005). An Implicit Motive Perspective on Competence. In Andrew J. Elliot & Carol S. Dweck (eds.), Handbook of Competence and Motivation. The Guilford Press. 31--51.score: 10.0
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  43. A. Sloman, L. Beaudouin & I. Wright, Computational Modelling of Motive-Management Processes.score: 10.0
    This is a 5 page summary with three diagrams of the main objectives and some work in progress at the University of Birmingham Cognition and Affect project. involving: Professor Glyn Humphreys (School of Psychology), and Luc Beaudoin, Chris Paterson, Tim Read, Edmund Shing, Ian Wright, Ahmed El-Shafei, and (from October 1994) Chris Complin (research students). The project is concerned with "global" design requirements for coping simultaneously with coexisting but possibly unrelated goals, desires, preferences, intentions, and other kinds of motivators, all (...)
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  44. Robert Merrihew Adams (1976). Motive Utilitarianism. Journal of Philosophy 73 (14):467-481.score: 9.0
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  45. Kathleen Okruhlik (2004). Logical Empiricism, Feminism, and Neurath's Auxiliary Motive. Hypatia 19 (1):48-72.score: 9.0
    : Much feminist philosophy of science has been developed as a reaction against logical empiricism and the associated view that social factors play no role in good science. Recent accounts of the Vienna Circle that highlighted the ways in which some of its members attempted to combine their empiricism with emancipatory politics are used here as a basis on which to reassess the relationship between logical empiricism and feminism. The focus is chiefly on Otto Neurath.
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  46. Julie Tannenbaum (2002). Acting with Feeling From Duty. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 5 (3):321-337.score: 9.0
    A central claim in Kantian ethics is that an agent is properly morally motivated just in case she acts from duty alone. Bernard Williams, Michael Stocker, and Justin Oakley claim that certain emotionally infused actions, such as lending a compassionate helping hand, can only be done from compassion and not from duty. I argue that these critics have overlooked a distinction between an action's manner, how an action is done, and its motive, the agent's reason for acting. Through a (...)
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  47. Lewis White Beck (1966). Conscious and Unconscious Motives. Mind 75 (April):155-179.score: 9.0
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  48. Fred Feldman (1993). On the Consistency of Act- and Motive-Utilitarianism: A Reply to Robert Adams. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 70 (2):201 - 212.score: 9.0
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  49. Margaret Gilbert (2009). Pro Patria : An Essay on Patriotism. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 13 (4):319 - 346.score: 9.0
    This essay focuses on what patriotism is, as opposed to the value of patriotism. It focuses further on the basic patriotic motive : one acts with this motive if one acts on behalf of one’s country as such. I first argue that pre-theoretically the basic patriotic motive is sufficient to make an act patriotic from a motivational point of view. In particular the agent need not ascribe virtues or achievements to his country nor need he feel towards (...)
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  50. Ronald F. Duska (1997). The Why's of Business Revisited. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1401-1409.score: 9.0
    One can determine the nature of something by asking what it is for. For example one understands what a chair is when one understands it is for sitting on. This involves understanding its purpose. One type of corporation is the for-profit-corporation. This seems to indicate that this type of corporation, the business corporation, has as its purpose to make a profit. Is that as obvious as it first appears? The favorite way for philosophers to arrive at the "purpose" of anything (...)
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