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  1. Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten, Johan Graafland & Muel Kaptein (forthcoming). Religiosity, CSR Attitudes, and CSR Behavior: An Empirical Study of Executives' Religiosity and CSR. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  2. Franziska Zuber & Muel Kaptein (2013). Painting with the Same Brush? Surveying Unethical Behavior in the Workplace Using Self-Reports and Observer-Reports. Journal of Business Ethics:1-32.
    Research by academics, professional organizations, and businesses on ethics in the workplace often relies on surveys that ask employees to report how frequently they have observed others engaging in unethical behavior. But what do these frequencies in observer-reports say about the frequencies of committed unethical behavior? This paper is the first to address this question by empirically exploring the relationship between observer- and self-reports. Our survey research among the Swiss working population shows that for all 37 different forms of unethical (...)
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  3. Muel Kaptein (2011). From Inaction to External Whistleblowing: The Influence of the Ethical Culture of Organizations on Employee Responses to Observed Wrongdoing. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 98 (3):513 - 530.
    Putting measures in place to prevent wrongdoing in organizations is important, but detecting and correcting wrongdoing are also vital. Employees who detect wrongdoing should, therefore, be encouraged to respond in a manner that supports corrective action. This article examines the influence of the ethical culture of organizations on employee responses to observed wrongdoing. Different dimensions of ethical culture are related to different types of intended responses. The findings show that several dimensions of ethical culture were negatively related to intended inaction (...)
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  4. Muel Kaptein (2011). Toward Effective Codes: Testing the Relationship with Unethical Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 99 (2):233 - 251.
    A business code of ethics is widely regarded as an important instrument to curb unethical behavior in the workplace. However, little is empirically known about the factors that determine the impact of a code on unethical behavior. Besides the existence of a code, this article studies five determining factors: the content of the code, the frequency of communication activities surrounding the code, the quality of the communication activities, and the embedment of the code in the organization by senior management as (...)
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  5. Muel Kaptein (2010). The Ethics of Organizations: A Longitudinal Study of the U.S. Working Population. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 92 (4):601 - 618.
    The ethics of organizations has received much attention in recent years. This raises the question of whether the ethics of organizations has also improved. In 1999, 2004, and 2008, a survey was conducted of 12,196 U.S. managers and employees. The results show that the ethical culture of organizations improved in the period between 1999 and 2004. Between 2004 and 2008 unethical behavior and its consequences declined and the scope of ethics programs expanded while ethical culture showed no significant improvement during (...)
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  6. Muel Kaptein (2009). Ethics Programs and Ethical Culture: A Next Step in Unraveling Their Multi-Faceted Relationship. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (2):261 - 281.
    One of the main objectives of an ethics program is to improve the ethical culture of an organization. To date, empirical research treats at least one of these concepts as a one-dimensional construct. This paper demonstrates that by conceptualizing both constructs as multi-dimensional, a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the two concepts can be achieved. Through the employment of the Corporate Ethical Virtues Model, eight dimensions of ethical culture are distinguished. Nine components of an ethics program are identified. (...)
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  7. Niki A. den Nieuwenboer & Muel Kaptein (2008). Spiraling Down Into Corruption: A Dynamic Analysis of the Social Identity Processes That Cause Corruption in Organizations to Grow. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 83 (2):133-146.
    To date, theory and research on corruption in organizations have primarily focused on its static antecedents. This article focuses on the spread and growth of corruption in organizations. For this purpose, three downward organizational spirals are formulated: the spiral of divergent norms, the spiral of pressure, and the spiral of opportunity. Social Identity Theory is used to explain the mechanisms of each of these spirals. Our dynamic perspective contributes to a greater understanding of the development of corruption in organizations and (...)
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  8. Muel Kaptein & Mark S. Schwartz (2008). The Effectiveness of Business Codes: A Critical Examination of Existing Studies and the Development of an Integrated Research Model. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 77 (2):111 - 127.
    Business codes are a widely used management instrument. Research into the effectiveness of business codes has, however, produced conflicting results. The main reasons for the divergent findings are: varying definitions of key terms; deficiencies in the empirical data and methodologies used; and a lack of theory. In this paper, we propose an integrated research model and suggest directions for future research.
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  9. Johan Graafland, Muel Kaptein & Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten (2007). Conceptions of God, Normative Convictions, and Socially Responsible Business Conduct An Explorative Study Among Executives. Business and Society 46 (3):331-368.
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  10. Johan Graafland, Muel Kaptein & Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten (2006). Business Dilemmas and Religious Belief: An Explorative Study Among Dutch Executives. Journal of Business Ethics 66 (1):53-70.
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  11. Johan Graafland, Muel Kaptein & Corrie Mazereeuw-van der Duijn Schouten (2006). Business Dilemmas and Religious Belief: An Explorative Study Among Dutch Executives. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 66 (1):53 - 70.
    This paper explores the relationship between religious belief and the dilemmas Dutch executives confront in daily business practice. We find that the frequency with which dilemmas arise is directly related to various aspects of religious belief, such as the belief in a transcendental being and the intensity of religious practice. Despite this relationship, only 17% of the dilemmas examined involve a religious standard. Most dilemmas originate from a conflict between moral and practical standards. We also find that 79% of the (...)
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  12. Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, J. Oosterhout & Muel Kaptein (2006). Foundations and Applications for Contractualist Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):211-228.
    Contractualism is one of the most promising ‘centers of gravity’ in business ethics. In this guest editorial we provide a concise roadmap to the field, sketching contractualism’s historic and disciplinary antecedents, the basic argumentative structure of the contract model, and its boundary conditions. We also sketch two main dimensions along which contributions to the contractualist tradition can be positioned. The first dimension entails positive versus normative theorizing – does a given contribution analyze the world as it is or how it (...)
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  13. Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, J. van Oosterhout & Muel Kaptein (2006). Foundations and Applications for Contractualist Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 68 (3):211 - 228.
    Contractualism is one of the most promising ‘centers of gravity’ in business ethics. In this guest editorial we provide a concise roadmap to the field, sketching contractualism’s historic and disciplinary antecedents, the basic argumentative structure of the contract model, and its boundary conditions. We also sketch two main dimensions along which contributions to the contractualist tradition can be positioned. The first dimension entails positive versus normative theorizing – does a given contribution analyze the world as it is or how it (...)
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  14. Pursey P. M. A. R. Heugens, Muel Kaptein & J. van Oosterhout (2004). Ties That Grind? Corroborating a Typology of Social Contracting Problems. Journal of Business Ethics 49 (3):235-252.
    Contractualism conceives of firm-stakeholder relations as cooperative schemes for mutual benefit. In essence, contractualism holds that these schemes, as well as the normative principles that guide and constrain them, are ultimately ratified by the consent and endorsement of those subject to them. This paper explores the empirical validity of a contractualist perspective on firm-stakeholder relations. It first develops a typology of firm-stakeholder contracting problems. It subsequently confronts this typology with empirical data collected in an interview study of concrete stakeholder management (...)
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  15. Muel Kaptein (2004). Business codes of multinational firms: What do they say? Journal of Business Ethics 50 (1):13-31.
    Business codes are an oft-cited management instrument. But how common are codes among multinationals? And what is their content? In an unprecedented study, the codes of the largest corporations in the world have been collected and thoroughly analyzed. This paper presents the results of that study. Of the two hundred largest companies in the world, 52.5% have a code. More than half of these codes describe company responsibilities regarding quality of products and services (67%), adherence to local laws and regulations (...)
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  16. Muel Kaptein (2003). Business Ethics in the Netherlands: A Survey. Business Ethics 12 (2):172–178.
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  17. Muel Kaptein & Rob Van Tulder (2003). Toward Effective Stakeholder Dialogue. Business and Society Review 108 (2):203-224.
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  18. Muel Kaptein (2002). Guidelines for the Development of an Ethics Safety Net. Journal of Business Ethics 41 (3):217 - 234.
    Large organisations are especially advised to consider the possibility of an Ethics Helpdesk in which all employees and managers can report with all suspected cases of unethical conduct, critical comments, dilemmas and advice for which there is insufficient room within the organisational hierarchy. A helpdesk is a central contact point where it is decided who the most appropriate person is to dealing with a given case. The helpdesk model is characterised by low barriers in its easy accessibility, positive approach and (...)
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  19. Muel Kaptein (2002). The Balanced Company: A Theory of Corporate Integrity. Oxford University Press.
    This book contains a cohesive overview of the most important theories and insights in the field of business ethics. At the same time, it further tailors these theories to the situation in which organizations function, presenting criteria that can be used to measure, assess, improve and report on corporate integrity.
     
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  20. Muel Kaptein & Jan Van Dalen (2000). The Empirical Assessment of Corporate Ethics: A Case Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 24 (2):95 - 114.
    Empirical analyses of the ethics of corporations with the aim to improve the state of corporate ethics are rare. This paper develops an integrated, normative model of corporate ethics by conceptualizing the ethical quality of organizations and by relating this contextual quality to various expressions of immoral behavior. This so-called Ethics Qualities Model for organizations, which contains 21 ethical qualities, allows one to assess the ethical content of institutional groups of individuals. A proper conceptualization is highly relevant both for the (...)
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  21. Muel Kaptein & Johan Wempe (1998). The Ethics Report: A Means of Sharing Responsibility. Business Ethics 7 (3):131–139.
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  22. Muel Kaptein & Johan Wempe (1998). Twelve Gordian Knots When Developing an Organizational Code of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 17 (8):853-869.
    Following the example of the many organizations in the United States which have a code of ethics, an increasing interest on the part of companies, trade organizations, (semi-)governmental organizations and professions in the Netherlands to develop codes of ethics can be witnessed. We have been able to escort a variety of organizations in this process. The process that organizations must go through in order to attain a code involves a variety of difficult decisions. In this article we will, based on (...)
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