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Profile: Nick Zangwill (University of Hull)
Profile: Nick Zangwill (University of Hull)
  1.  43
    Nick Zangwill (2015). Logic as Metaphysics. Journal of Philosophy 112 (10):517-550.
    I defend logical realism. I begin by motivating the realist approach by underlining the difficulties for its main rival: inferentialism. I then focus on AND and OR, and delineate a realist view of these two logical constants. The realist view is developed in terms of Alexander’s Principleshowing that AND and OR have distinctive determining roles. After that, I say what logic is not. We should not take logic to be essentially about the mind, or language, or exclusively about an abstract (...)
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  2. Nick Zangwill (2005). The Normativity of the Mental. Philosophical Explorations 8 (1):1-19.
    I describe and defend the view in a philosophy of mind that I call 'Normative Essentialism', according to which propositional attitudes have normative essences. Those normative essences are 'horizontal' rational requirements, by which I mean the requirement to have certain propositional attitudes given other propositional attitudes. Different propositional attitudes impose different horizontal rational requirements. I distinguish a stronger and a weaker version of this doctrine and argue for the weaker version. I explore the consequences for knowledge of mind, and I (...)
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  3. Nick Zangwill (1998). Direction of Fit and Normative Functionalism. Philosophical Studies 91 (2):173-203.
    What is the difference between belief and desire? In order to explain the difference, recent philosophers have appealed to the metaphor of.
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  4. Nick Zangwill (2008). The Indifference Argument. Philosophical Studies 138 (1):91 - 124.
    I argue against motivational internalism. First I recharacterise the issue over moral motivation. Second I describe the indifference argument against motivation internalism. Third I consider appeals to irrationality that are often made in the face of this argument, and I show that they are ineffective. Lastly, I draw the motivational externalist conclusion and reflect on the nature of the issue.
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  5. Nick Zangwill (2009). Normativity and the Metaphysics of Mind. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):1–19.
    I consider the metaphysical consequences of the view that propositional attitudes have essential normative properties. I argue that realism should take a weak rather than a strong form. I argue that expressivism cannot get off the ground. And I argue that eliminativism is self-refuting.
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  6. Nick Zangwill (2003). Externalist Moral Motivation. American Philosophical Quarterly 40 (2):143-154.
    “Motivational externalism” is the externalism until they see more of what view that moral judgements have no motisuch a theory would be like. The mere posvational efficacy in themselves, and that sibility of such a theory is not sufficiently when they motivate us, the source of motireassuring, even given strong arguments vation lies outside the moral judgement in against the opposite position. For there may a separate desire. Motivational externalism also be objections to externalism. contrasts with “motivational internalism,” Moral philosophers (...)
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  7.  61
    Nick Zangwill (2001). The Metaphysics of Beauty. Cornell University Press.
    In The Metaphysics of Beauty, Zangwill argues that it is essential to beauty that it depends on the ordinary features of things.
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  8.  56
    Nick Zangwill (2006). Moral Epistemology and the Because Constraint. In James Lawrence Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory. Blackwell Pub. 263--281.
  9. Nick Zangwill (2008). Moral Dependence. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Vol. 3. Oxford University Press 109-27.
    What is the relation between moral and natural properties? And how do we conceive of this relation? By ‘moral’ properties I will mean properties such as being evil, just or virtuous or having duties or rights; and by ‘natural’ properties I will mean properties such as psychological, sociological and physical properties.1 Suppose we judge that Queen Isabella of Spain was evil in 1492, or at least that many of her actions in 1492 were evil. Then we do not think that (...)
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  10. Nick Zangwill (2012). Constitution and Causation. Metaphysica 13 (1):1-6.
    I argue that the constitution relation transmits causal efficacy and thus is a suitable relation to deploy in many troubled areas of philosophy, such as the mind–body problem. We need not demand identity.
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  11.  72
    Nick Zangwill (2013). Does Knowledge Depend on Truth? Acta Analytica 28 (2):139-144.
    That knowledge does not depend on truth is a consequence of a basic principle concerning dependence applied to the case of knowledge: that A depends on C, and that B depends on C, do not mean that A depends on B. This is a standard causal scenario, where two things with a common cause are not themselves causally dependent. Similarly, knowledge that p depends in part on some combination of the belief that p, the fact that p and the proposition (...)
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  12. Nick Zangwill (1995). Moral Supervenience. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 20 (1):240-262.
    morality? I want to pursue these questions by examining an argument against moral realism that Simon Blackburn has developed.' In parts 1 and 2, I consider..
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  13.  31
    Nick Zangwill (2013). Love: Gloriously Amoral and Arational. Philosophical Explorations 16 (3):298 - 314.
    I argue that an evaluational conception of love collides with the way we value love. That way allows that love has causes, but not reasons, and it recognizes and celebrates a love that refuses to justify itself. Love has unjustified selectivity, due to its arbitrary causes. That imposes a non-tradability norm. A love for reasons, rational love or evaluational love would be propositional, and it therefore allows that the people we love are tradable commodities. A moralized conception of love is (...)
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  14. Nick Zangwill (2009). Non-Cognitivism and Motivation. In Constantine Sandis (ed.), New Essays on the Explanation of Action. Palgrave Macmillan 416--24.
    In sum, the non-cognitivist account of motivation is far from unproblematic. The non-cognitivist has trouble telling us what moral attitudes are in a way that is consistent with the phenomenon of variable motivation. Given that the cognitivist has an easy explanation of variable motivation, it seems that cognitivism is preferable to non-cognitivism on the score of motivation, which is a reversal of the way the issue is usually perceived.
     
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  15.  95
    Nick Zangwill (2005). Moore, Morality, Supervenience, Essence, Epistemology. American Philosophical Quarterly 42 (2):125 - 130.
    riety of necessity that binds moral and natural his conception of mental properties has no metaphysical consequences. Descartes is properties because the necessity is neither..
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  16.  43
    Nick Zangwill (2011). Negative Properties. Noûs 45 (3):528-556.
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  17. Nick Zangwill (2004). Against Emotion: Hanslick Was Right About Music. British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (1):29-43.
    I argue that Hanslick was right to think that music should not be understood in terms of emotion. In particular, it is not essential to music to possess emotions, arouse emotions, express emotions, or represent emotions. All such theories are misguided.
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  18.  69
    Nick Zangwill (2013). Clouds of Illusion in the Aesthetics of Nature. Philosophical Quarterly 63 (252):576-596.
    I defend extreme formalism about the aesthetics of inorganic nature. I outline the general issue over aesthetic formalism as it manifests itself in the visual arts. The main issue is over whether we need to know about the history of artworks in order to appreciate them aesthetically. I then turn to nature and concede that with organic nature we need to know a thing's biological kinds if we are fully to appreciate it. However, with in organic nature I deny that (...)
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  19. Nick Zangwill (2006). Daydreams and Anarchy: A Defense of Anomalous Mental Causation. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (2):253–289.
    Must mental properties figure in psychological causal laws if they are causally efficacious? And do those psychological causal laws give the essence of mental properties? Contrary to the prevailing consensus, I argue that, on the usual conception of laws that is in play in these debates, there are in fact lawless causally efficacious properties both in and out of the philosophy of mind. I argue that this makes a great difference to the philosophical relevance of empirical psychology. I begin by (...)
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  20. Nick Zangwill (2011). Non-Cognitivism and Consistency. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 65 (4):465-484.
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  21. Nick Zangwill (1999). Feasible Aesthetic Formalism. Noûs 33 (4):610-629.
    Aesthetic Formalism has fallen on hard times. At best it receives unsympathetic discussion and swift rejection. At worst it is the object of abuse and derision. But I think that there is something to be said for it. In this paper, I shall try to find and secure the truth in formalism. I shall not try to defend formalism against all of the objections to it.1 Instead I shall articulate a moderate formalist view that draws on aesthetic0nonaesthetic determination and Kant’s (...)
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  22. Nick Zangwill (2000). In Defence of Moderate Aesthetic Formalism. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (201):476-493.
    Most of the debate for and against aesthetic formalism in the twentieth century has been little more than a sequence of assertions, on both sides. But there is one discussion that stands out for its argumentative subtlety and depth, and that is Kendall Walton’s paper ‘Categories of Art’.1 In what follows I shall defend a certain version of formalism against the antiformalist arguments which Walton deploys. I want to show that while Walton’s arguments do indeed create insurmountable difficulties for an (...)
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  23. Nick Zangwill (2007). Music, Emotion and Metaphor. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (4):391-400.
    We describe music in terms of emotion. How should we understand this? Some say that emotion descriptions should be understood literally. Let us call those views “literalist.” By contrast “nonliteralists” deny this and say that such descriptions are typically metaphorical.1 This issue about the linguistic description of music is connected with a central issue about the na- ture of music. That issue is whether there is any essential connection between music and emotion. According to what we can call “emotion theories,” (...)
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  24. Nick Zangwill (2012). A Way Out of the Euthyphro Dilemma. Religious Studies 48 (1):7 - 13.
    I defend the view that morality depends on God against the Euthyphro dilemma by arguing that the reasons that God has for determining the moral-natural dependencies might be personal reasons that have non-moral content. I deflect the 'arbitrary whim' worry, but I concede that the account cannot extend to the goodness of God and His will. However, human moral-natural dependencies can be explained by God's will. So a slightly restricted version of divine commandment theory is defensible.
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  25. Nick Zangwill (2010). Science and Ethics: Demarcation, Holism and Logical Consequences. European Journal of Philosophy 18 (1):126-138.
    Philosophers have often wanted to state a principled way of demarcating empirical from non-empirical thought. This was a major concern of the Vienna Circle. In my view, this is an important intellectual project. Although it is not so common now to address the issue directly, it hovers in the background of many discussions. Non-empirical thought comes in different kinds. Perhaps some is a priori. Common candidates are mathematical, logical, modal and moral thought. Some non-empirical thought might be non-cognitive. Common candidates (...)
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  26. Nick Zangwill (2013). A Priori Knowledge That I Exist. Analytic Philosophy 54 (2):189-208.
    I exist. That is something I know. Most philosophers think that Descartes was right that each of us knows that we exist. Furthermore most philosophers agree with Descartes that there is something special about how we know it. Agreement ends there. There is little agreement about exactly what is special about this knowledge. I shall present an account that is in some respects Cartesian in spirit, although I shall not pursue interpretive questions very far. On this account, I know that (...)
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  27. Nick Zangwill (1992). Quietism. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 17 (1):160-176.
    Metaphysics-—the enquiry into the constitution of reality-seems like the very crown of philosophy. What could be more exciting, more important, and more substantive than the pursuit of such a discipline? The majority of philosophers have been content to assume that metaphysics is a viable enterprise; they have held various metaphysical views and engaged in metaphysical arguments. But there has always been a small but persistent maverick minority of philosophers who have cast aspersions on the whole undertaking. Metaphysics, they tell us, (...)
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  28. Nick Zangwill (2008). Besires and the Motivation Debate. Theoria 74 (1):50-59.
    Abstract: This article addresses a number of difficulties and complications in the standard formulations of motivational internalism, and considers what besires might be in the light of those difficulties and complications. Two notions of besire are then distinguished, before considering how different kinds of motivational internalism and different conceptions of besire fare against the significant argument that we may be indifferent to the demands of morality without irrationality.
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  29.  71
    N. Zangwill (2012). Listening to Music Together. British Journal of Aesthetics 52 (4):379-389.
    I discuss the social dimension of musical experience. I focus on the question of whether there is joint musical listening. One reason for this focus is that Adorno and those in his tradition give us little in the way of an understanding of what the social dimension of musical experience might be. We need a proper clear conception of the issue, which the issue of joint experience yields. I defend a radically individualistic view, while conceding that such a view, inspired (...)
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  30.  91
    Nick Zangwill (2001). Formal Natural Beauty. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 101 (2):209–224.
    I defend moderate formalism about the aesthetics of nature. I argue that anti-formalists cannot account for the incongruousness of much natural beauty. This shows that some natural beauty is not kind-dependent. I then tackle several anti-formalist arguments that can be found in the writings of Ronald Hepburn, Allen Carlson, and Malcolm Budd.
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  31. Nick Zangwill (2011). Music, Essential Metaphor, and Private Language. American Philosophical Quarterly 48 (1):1.
    Music is elusive. describing it is problematic. In particular its aesthetic properties cannot be captured in literal description. Beyond very simple terms, they cannot be literally described. In this sense, the aesthetic description of music is essentially nonliteral. An adequate aesthetic description of music must have resort to metaphor or other nonliteral devices. I maintain that this is because of the nature of the aesthetic properties being described. I defend this view against an apparently simple objection put by Malcolm Budd. (...)
     
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  32. Nick Zangwill (2007). Aesthetic Creation. Oxford University Press.
    What is the purpose of art? What drives us to make it? Why do we value it? Nick Zangwill argues that the function of art is to have certain aesthetic properties in virtue of its non-aesthetic properties, and this function arises because of the artist's insight into the nature of these dependence relations and her intention to bring them about.
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  33. Nick Zangwill (2009). Appropriate Musical Metaphors. Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 20 (38).
    I argue that we should avoid a unitary account of what makes metaphorical descriptions of music in terms of emotion appropriate. There are many different ways in which musical metaphors can be appropriate. The right view of metaphorical appropriateness is a generously pluralist one.
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  34. Nick Zangwill (2000). Defusing Anti-Formalist Arguments. British Journal of Aesthetics 40 (3):376-383.
    ANTI-FORMALISM has become the consensus in aesthetics. But in my view anti-formalism is not true to our aesthetic experience; it gives a revisionary account of the aesthetic properties that we think we find in works of art. The thesis I think we should hold is not extreme formalism—the view that all or almost all aesthetic properties are formal—but the moderate thesis that many are. This view has not been given its due because so many aestheticians have been convinced by anti-formalist (...)
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  35. Nick Zangwill (2000). Against Analytic Moral Functionalism. Ratio 13 (3):275–286.
    I argue against the analytic moral functionalist view propounded by Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit. I focus on the ‘input’ clauses of our alleged ‘folk moral theory’. I argue that the examples they give of such input clauses cannot plausibly be interpreted as analytic truths. They are in fact substantive moral claims about the moral ‘domain’. It is a substantive claim that all human beings have equal moral standing. There are those who have rejected this, such as Herman Göring. He (...)
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  36.  45
    Nick Zangwill (2003). Negative Properties, Determination and Conditionals. Topoi 22 (2):127-134.
  37.  30
    Nick Zangwill (1992). Moral modus ponens. Ratio 5 (2):177-193.
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  38.  96
    Nick Zangwill (2006). Moral Epistemology and the Because Constraint. In James Lawrence Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory. Blackwell Pub. 263--281.
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  39.  86
    Nick Zangwill (2005). In Defence of Extreme Formalism About Inorganic Nature: Reply to Parsons. British Journal of Aesthetics 45 (2):185-191.
    I defend extreme formalism about inorganic nature against arguments put forward by Glenn Parsons. I begin by laying out the general issue over aesthetic formalism, and I describe the position of extreme formalism about inorganic nature. I then reconsider -Ronald Hepburn's beach/seabed example. Next I discuss the notions of function in play in our thinking about inorganic nature. And lastly I consider Parsons's flooding river example. I conclude that extreme formalism about inorganic nature is safe from Parsons's arguments.
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  40. Nick Zangwill, Perpetrator Motivation: Som E Reflections on the Browning/ Goldhagen Debate.
    §1.1 What m otivated the perpetrators of the holocaust? Christopher Browning and Daniel Goldhagen differ in their analysis of Reserve Police Battalion 101 (Browning 1992, Goldhagen 1996). The battalion consisted of around 500 ‘ordinary’ Germ ans who, during the period 1942-44, killed around 40,000 Jews and who deported as m any to the death cam ps. Browning and Goldhagen differ over the m otivation wit h which the m en killed. I want to com m ent on a central aspect (...)
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  41. Nick Zangwill (2002). Are There Counterexamples to Aesthetic Theories of Art? Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 60 (2):111–118.
    Do all works of art have an aesthetic purpose? It aesthetic properties are those possessed by is not particularly controversial that many works works of art or that they are those it is the funcof art have an aesthetic purpose. What will be..
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  42.  51
    Nick Zangwill (1992). Variable Realization: Not Proven. Philosophical Quarterly 42 (167):214-19.
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  43. Nick Zangwill (2005). Rocks and Sunsets: A Defence of Ignorant Pleasures. Rivista di Estetica 45 (2).
    §1. How much do we have to know about what we evaluate? Many aestheticians say that all or most aesthetic evaluations of artworks and natural things require that we know not just about its immediately perceivable aspects but also about its history or deeper nature or wider role. I agree that quite a lot of aesthetic evaluation is like this. But I also think that much is not. Much of our aesthetic life is a matter of a relatively uninformed aesthetic (...)
     
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  44. Nick Zangwill, Reply to Nathan on Art.
    I very much appreciate Daniel Nathan’s thoughtful commentary on Aesthe- tic Creation. He describes my view accurately, with a full understanding of what is moving me, and with some sympathy for my methodological concerns, even if he thinks that I over emphasize some desiderata and even if he cannot endorse the particular aesthetic theory that I argue emerges from the methodological reflections. He makes a number of interesting criticisms. (A) Nathan worries about doodles being classified as art according the aesthetic (...)
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  45.  84
    Nick Zangwill (1994). Moral Mind-Independence. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (2):205-219.
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  46. Nick Zangwill (2011). Fashion, Illusion, and Alienation. In Jessica Wolfendale & Jeanette Kennett (eds.), Fashion – Philosophy for Everyone: Thinking with Style. Blackwell 31--36.
     
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  47. Nick Zangwill (1999). Art and Audience. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 57 (3):315-332.
    D0 works 0f an essentially involve a relation t0 an audience'? Many otherwise very different theories of art agree than they do. S0 the question ‘Wha1 is art?" has no be answered by describing than relation. I shall argue 10 the ccmmrary [hm a theory of wha; ir is m be art should nm invoke any relacicm m an audience. Art has nothing esscmial to do with an audience.
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  48.  98
    Nick Zangwill (1998). The Concept of the Aesthetic. European Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):78–93.
    Can the contemporary concept of the ‘aesthetic’ be defended? Is it in good shape or is it sick? Should we retain it or dispense with it? The concept of the aesthetic is used to characterize a range of judgements and experiences. Let us begin with some examples of judgements which aestheticians classify as aesthetic, so that we have some idea of what we are talking about. These paradigm cases will anchor the ensuing discussion. Once we have some idea of which (...)
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  49. Nick Zangwill, The Unimportance of the Avant Garde.
    may be intrinsically interesting. Perhaps philosophers can reflect on the meaning and value of those works. Some of these works may even raise philosophical issues. However, many philosophers have followed Arthur Danto in thinking that there are quite general morals to be..
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  50.  93
    Nick Zangwill (1992). Unkantian Notions of Disinterest. British Journal of Aesthetics 32 (2):149-152.
    Many recent aestheticians have criticized the notion of disinterest. The aestheticians in question take the notion to have a vaguely Kantian pedigree. And in attacking this notion, they think of themselves as attempting to remove a cornerstone of Kant’s aesthetics. This procedure is hardly likely to be effective if what they attack bears little resemblance to Kant’s original notion. In this brief note, I want to show how far these anti-Kantian aestheticians have missed their mark.
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