143 found
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  1. Nancy Cartwright (1983). How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford University Press.
    In this sequence of philosophical essays about natural science, the author argues that fundamental explanatory laws, the deepest and most admired successes of modern physics, do not in fact describe regularities that exist in nature. Cartwright draws from many real-life examples to propound a novel distinction: that theoretical entities, and the complex and localized laws that describe them, can be interpreted realistically, but the simple unifying laws of basic theory cannot.
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  2.  52
    Nancy Cartwright (1989). Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement. Oxford University Press.
    Ever since David Hume, empiricists have barred powers and capacities from nature. In this book Cartwright argues that capacities are essential in our scientific world, and, contrary to empiricist orthodoxy, that they can meet sufficiently strict demands for testability. Econometrics is one discipline where probabilities are used to measure causal capacities, and the technology of modern physics provides several examples of testing capacities (such as lasers). Cartwright concludes by applying the lessons of the book about capacities and probabilities to the (...)
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  3. Nancy Cartwright (1999). The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science. Cambridge University Press.
    It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still others behave in (...)
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  4.  42
    Nancy Cartwright (2007). Hunting Causes and Using Them: Approaches in Philosophy and Economics. Cambridge University Press.
    Hunting Causes and Using Them argues that causation is not one thing, as commonly assumed, but many. There is a huge variety of causal relations, each with different characterizing features, different methods for discovery and different uses to which it can be put. In this collection of new and previously published essays, Nancy Cartwright provides a critical survey of philosophical and economic literature on causality, with a special focus on the currently fashionable Bayes-nets and invariance methods – and it exposes (...)
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  5. Nancy Cartwright (2007). Are Rcts the Gold Standard? Biosocieties 1:11-20.
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  6.  54
    John Pemberton & Nancy Cartwright (2014). Ceteris Paribus Laws Need Machines to Generate Them. Erkenntnis 79 (10):1745-1758.
    Most of the regularities that get represented as ‘laws’ in our sciences arise from, and are to be found regularly associated with, the successful operation of a nomological machine. Reference to the nomological machine must be included in the cp-clause of a cp-law if the entire cp-claim is to be true. We agree, for example, ‘ceteris paribus aspirins cure headaches’, but insist that they can only do so when swallowed by someone with the right physiological makeup and a headache. (...)
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  7. Nancy Cartwright (2009). If No Capacities Then No Credible Worlds. But Can Models Reveal Capacities? Erkenntnis 70 (1):45 - 58.
    This paper argues that even when simple analogue models picture parallel worlds, they generally still serve as isolating tools. But there are serious obstacles that often stop them isolating in just the right way. These are obstacles that face any model that functions as a thought-experiment but they are especially pressing for economic models because of the paucity of economic principles. Because of the paucity of basic principles, economic models are rich in structural assumptions. Without these no interesting conclusions can (...)
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  8.  75
    Nancy Cartwright & Eileen Munro (2010). The Limitations of Randomized Controlled Trials in Predicting Effectiveness. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 16 (2):260-266.
    What kinds of evidence reliably support predictions of effectiveness for health and social care interventions? There is increasing reliance, not only for health care policy and practice but also for more general social and economic policy deliberation, on evidence that comes from studies whose basic logic is that of JS Mill's method of difference. These include randomized controlled trials, case–control studies, cohort studies, and some uses of causal Bayes nets and counterfactual-licensing models like ones commonly developed in econometrics. The topic (...)
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  9. Nancy Cartwright (2004). Causation: One Word, Many Things. Philosophy of Science 71 (5):805-819.
    We currently have on offer a variety of different theories of causation. Many are strikingly good, providing detailed and plausible treatments of exemplary cases; and all suffer from clear counterexamples. I argue that, contra Hume and Kant, this is because causation is not a single, monolithic concept. There are different kinds of causal relations imbedded in different kinds of systems, readily described using thick causal concepts. Our causal theories pick out important and useful structures that fit some familiar cases—cases we (...)
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  10.  53
    Nancy Cartwright (2012). Presidential Address: Will This Policy Work for You? Predicting Effectiveness Better: How Philosophy Helps. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):973-989.
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  11. Nancy Cartwright (1979). Causal Laws and Effective Strategies. Noûs 13 (4):419-437.
    La autora presenta algunas criticas generales al proyecto de reducir las leyes causales a probabilidades. Además, muestra que las leyes causales son imprescindibles para poder diferenciar las strategias efectivas de las que no lo son y da un criterio para considerar cuando podemos deducir causalidad a través de datos estadísticos.
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  12. Mauricio Suárez & Nancy Cartwright (2007). Theories: Tools Versus Models. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 39 (1):62-81.
    In “The Toolbox of Science” (1995) together with Towfic Shomar we advocated a form of instrumentalism about scientific theories. We separately developed this view further in a number of subsequent works. Steven French, James Ladyman, Otavio Bueno and Newton Da Costa (FLBD) have since written at least eight papers and a book criticising our work. Here we defend ourselves. First we explain what we mean in denying that models derive from theory – and why their failure to do so should (...)
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  13. Nancy Cartwright (2002). Against Modularity, the Causal Markov Condition, and Any Link Between the Two: Comments on Hausman and Woodward. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (3):411-453.
    In their rich and intricate paper ‘Independence, Invariance, and the Causal Markov Condition’, Daniel Hausman and James Woodward ([1999]) put forward two independent theses, which they label ‘level invariance’ and ‘manipulability’, and they claim that, given a specific set of assumptions, manipulability implies the causal Markov condition. These claims are interesting and important, and this paper is devoted to commenting on them. With respect to level invariance, I argue that Hausman and Woodward's discussion is confusing because, as I point out, (...)
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  14. Nancy Cartwright (2012). The Dappled World: A Study of the Boundaries of Science. Cambridge University Press.
    It is often supposed that the spectacular successes of our modern mathematical sciences support a lofty vision of a world completely ordered by one single elegant theory. In this book Nancy Cartwright argues to the contrary. When we draw our image of the world from the way modern science works - as empiricism teaches us we should - we end up with a world where some features are precisely ordered, others are given to rough regularity and still others behave in (...)
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  15. Nancy Cartwright (2010). What Are Randomised Controlled Trials Good For? Philosophical Studies 147 (1):59 - 70.
    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are widely taken as the gold standard for establishing causal conclusions. Ideally conducted they ensure that the treatment ‘causes’ the outcome—in the experiment. But where else? This is the venerable question of external validity. I point out that the question comes in two importantly different forms: Is the specific causal conclusion warranted by the experiment true in a target situation? What will be the result of implementing the treatment there? This paper explains how the probabilistic (...)
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  16.  60
    John Dupré & Nancy Cartwright (1988). Probability and Causality: Why Hume and Indeterminism Don't Mix. Noûs 22 (4):521-536.
  17. Nancy Cartwright (2002). In Favor of Laws That Are Not Ceteris Paribus After All. Erkenntnis 57 (3):425Ð439.
    Opponents of ceteris paribus laws are apt to complain that the laws are vague and untestable. Indeed, claims to this effect are made by Earman, Roberts and Smith in this volume. I argue that these kinds of claims rely on too narrow a view about what kinds of concepts we can and do regularly use in successful sciences and on too optimistic a view about the extent of application of even our most successful non-ceteris paribus laws. When it comes to (...)
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  18. Nancy Cartwright (2009). Evidence-Based Policy: What's to Be Done About Relevance? [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 143 (1):127 - 136.
    How can philosophy of science be of more practical use? One thing we can do is provide practicable advice about how to determine when one empirical claim is relevant to the truth of another; i.e., about evidential relevance. This matters especially for evidence-based policy, where advice is thin—and misleading—about how to tell what counts as evidence for policy effectiveness. This paper argues that good efficacy results (as in randomized controlled trials), which are all the rage now, are only a very (...)
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  19.  47
    Nancy Cartwright, Towfic Shomar & Mauricio Suárez (1995). The Tool Box of Science: Tools for the Building of Models with a Superconductivity Example. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 44:137-149.
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  20.  26
    Nancy Cartwright (ed.) (1996). Otto Neurath: Philosophy Between Science and Politics. Cambridge University Press.
    An international team of four authors, led by distinguished philosopher of science, Nancy Cartwright, and leading scholar of the Vienna Circle, Thomas E. Uebel, have produced this lucid and elegant study of a much-neglected figure. The book, which depicts Neurath's science in the political, economic and intellectual milieu in which it was practised, is divided into three sections: Neurath's biographical background and the socio-political context of his economic ideas; the development of his theory of science; and his legacy as illustrated (...)
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  21.  53
    Nancy Cartwright (2001). What Is Wrong With Bayes Nets? The Monist 84 (2):242-264.
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  22. Nancy Cartwright (1997). Where Do Laws of Nature Come From? Dialectica 51 (1):65–78.
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  23. Hasok Chang & Nancy Cartwright (1993). Causality and Realism in the EPR Experiment. Erkenntnis 38 (2):169 - 190.
    We argue against the common view that it is impossible to give a causal account of the distant correlations that are revealed in EPR-type experiments. We take a realistic attitude about quantum mechanics which implies a willingness to modify our familiar concepts according to its teachings. We object to the argument that the violation of factorizability in EPR rules out causal accounts, since such an argument is at best based on the desire to retain a classical description of nature that (...)
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  24. Martin R. Jones & Nancy Cartwright (2005). Idealization Xii:: Correcting the Model. Idealization and Abstraction in the Sciences. Rodopi.
    ContentsPrefaceAnalytical Table of ContentsKevin D. HOOVER: Quantitative Evaluation of Idealized Models in the New Classical MacroeconomicsJohn PEMBERTON: Why Idealized Models in Economics Have Limited UseAmos FUNKENSTEIN: The Revival of Aristotle’s NatureJames R. GRIESEMER: The Informational Gene and the Substantial Body: On the Generalization of Evolutionary Theory byionNancy J. NERSESSIAN: Abstraction via Generic Modeling in Concept Formation in ScienceMargaret MORRISON: Approximating the Real: The Role of Idealizations in Physical TheoryMartin R. JONES: Idealization and Abstraction: A FrameworkDavid S. NIVISON: Standard TimeJames BOGEN (...)
     
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  25.  49
    Nancy Cartwright (2006). Well‐Ordered Science: Evidence for Use. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):981-990.
  26.  87
    Nancy Cartwright & Jacob Stegenga (2011). A Theory of Evidence for Evidence-Based Policy. In Philip Dawid, William Twining & Mimi Vasilaki (eds.), Evidence, Inference and Enquiry. OUP/British Academy 291.
  27. Nancy Cartwright (1980). The Truth Doesn't Explain Much. American Philosophical Quarterly 17 (2):159 - 163.
  28. Nancy Cartwright (2011). Predicting 'It Will Work for Us': (Way) Beyond Statistics. In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. OUP Oxford
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  29. Nancy Cartwright (1999). The Vanity of Rigour in Economics Theoretical Models and Galilean Experiments. Lse, Centre for the Philosophy of the Natural and Social Sciences.
     
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  30. Nancy Cartwright (1993). In Defence of `This Worldly' Causality: Comments on Van Fraassen's Laws and Symmetry. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (2):423-429.
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  31.  60
    Nancy Cartwright, Models and the Limits of Theory: Quantum Hamiltonians and the BCS Model of Superconductivity.
  32. Nancy Cartwright (1974). Correlations Without Joint Distributions in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 4 (1):127-136.
    The use of joint distribution functions for noncommuting observables in quantum thermodynamics is investigated in the light of L. Cohen's proof that such distributions are not determined by the quantum state. Cohen's proof is irrelevant to uses of the functions that do not depend on interpreting them as distributions. An example of this, from quantum Onsager theory, is discussed. Other uses presuppose that correlations betweenp andq values depend at least on the state. But correlations may be fixed by the state (...)
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  33.  82
    Nancy Cartwright (1994). Fundamentalism Vs. The Patchwork of Laws. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 94:279 - 292.
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  34.  33
    Nancy Cartwright (1999). Causal Diversity and the Markov Condition. Synthese 121 (1-2):3-27.
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  35. Nancy Cartwright (1997). Models: The Blueprints for Laws. Philosophy of Science 64 (4):303.
    In this paper the claim that laws of nature are to be understood as claims about what necessarily or reliably happens is disputed. Laws can characterize what happens in a reliable way, but they do not do this easily. We do not have laws for everything occurring in the world, but only for those situations where what happens in nature is represented by a model: models are blueprints for nomological machines, which in turn give rise to laws. An example from (...)
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  36.  87
    Nancy Cartwright & Martin Jones (1991). How to Hunt Quantum Causes. Erkenntnis 35 (1-3):205 - 231.
    Reichenbach worked in an era when philosophers were hopeful about the unity of science, and particularly about unity of method. He looked for universal tests of causal connectedness that could be applied across disciplines and independently of specific modeling assumptions. The hunt for quantum causes reminds us that his hopes were too optimistic. The mark method is not even a starter in testing for causal links between outcomes in E.P.R., because our background hypotheses about these links are too thin to (...)
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  37.  73
    Nancy Cartwright & Sophia Efstathiou (2011). Hunting Causes and Using Them: Is There No Bridge From Here to There? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (3):223 - 241.
    Causation is in trouble?at least as it is pictured in current theories in philosophy and in economics as well, where causation is also once again in fashion. In both disciplines the accounts of causality on offer are either modelled too closely on one or another favoured method for hunting causes or on assumptions about the uses to which causal knowledge can be put?generally for predicting the results of our efforts to change the world. The first kind of account supplies no (...)
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  38. Carl G. Hempel, Jaakko Hintikka, Gerald Holton, Peter Galison, Antonia Soulez & Nancy Cartwright (1993). Scientific Philosophy: Origins and Developments. Springer Netherlands.
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  39.  55
    Nancy Cartwright (2006). From Metaphysics to Method: Comments on Manipulability and the Causal Markov Condition. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (1):197-218.
    Daniel Hausman and James Woodward claim to prove that the causal Markov condition, so important to Bayes-nets methods for causal inference, is the ‘flip side’ of an important metaphysical fact about causation—that causes can be used to manipulate their effects. This paper disagrees. First, the premise of their proof does not demand that causes can be used to manipulate their effects but rather that if a relation passes a certain specific kind of test, it is causal. Second, the proof is (...)
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  40. Nancy Cartwright, Stephan Hartmann, Carl Hoefer & Luc Bovens (eds.) (2008). Nancy Cartwright's Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished and influential contemporary philosophers of science. Despite the profound impact of her work, there is neither a systematic exposition of Cartwright’s philosophy of science nor a collection of articles that contains in-depth discussions of the major themes of her philosophy. This book is devoted to a critical assessment of Cartwright’s philosophy of science and contains contributions from Cartwright's champions and critics. Broken into three parts, the book begins by addressing Cartwright's views on (...)
     
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  41. Nancy Cartwright (1980). Do the Laws of Physics State the Facts? In M. Curd & J. A. Cover (eds.), Pacific Philosophical Quarterly. Norton 865-877.
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  42. Nancy Cartwright (1978). The Only Real Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:54-59.
    Position probabilities play a privileged role in the interpretation of quantum mechanics. The standard interpretation has it that |Ψ | 2 represents the probability that the system is at the location r. Use of these probabilities, however, creates tremendous conceptual difficulties. It forces us either to adopt a non-standard logic, or to be saddled with an intractable measurement problem. This paper proposes that we try to eliminate position probabilities, and instead to interpret quantum mechanics through the use of energy transition (...)
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  43. Nancy Cartwright (2009). Causal Laws, Policy Predictions, and the Need for Genuine Powers. In Toby Handfield (ed.), Dispositions and Causes. Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press ;
     
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  44.  30
    Nancy Cartwright (2001). 14 Ceteris Paribus Laws and Socio-Economic Machines. In Uskali Mäki (ed.), The Economic World View: Studies in the Ontology of Economics. Cambridge University Press 275.
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  45.  3
    Nancy Cartwright (forthcoming). Contingency and the Order of Nature. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences.
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    Nancy Cartwright (1991). Can Wholism Reconcile the Inaccuracy of Theory with the Accuracy of Prediction? Synthese 89 (1):3 - 13.
    Work by social constructionists over the past decade and a half has reenforced the epistemological pessimist's despair that our system of science could ever be a mirror of nature. Realists argue that the amazing success of modern science at precise prediction and control indicates just the contrary. In response, social constructionists often point out that these successes seldom apply to the world as it comes naturally, but only as it is reconstructed in the scientist's laboratory. But this does not explain (...)
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  47.  28
    Nancy Cartwright (2009). What is This Thing Called "Efficacy"? In Chrysostomos Mantzavinos (ed.), Philosophy of the Social Sciences: Philosophical Theory and Scientific Practice. Cambridge University Press 185.
  48.  42
    Nancy Cartwright (2003). Two Theorems on Invariance and Causality. Philosophy of Science 70 (1):203-224.
    In much recent work, invariance under intervention has become a hallmark of the correctness of a causal-law claim. Despite its importance this thesis generally is either simply assumed or is supported by very general arguments with heavy reliance on examples, and crucial notions involved are characterized only loosely. Yet for both philosophical analysis and practicing science, it is important to get clear about whether invariance under intervention is or is not necessary or sufficient for which kinds of causal claims. Furthermore, (...)
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  49. Nancy Cartwright (1985). Book Review:Quantum Theory and Measurement John Archibald Wheeler, Wojciech Hubert Zurek. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 52 (3):480-.
  50. Nancy Cartwright (2004). From Causation to Explanation and Back. In Brian Leiter (ed.), The Future for Philosophy. Clarendon Press
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