Search results for 'Nancy Thorley Hills' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Order:
  1.  29
    Gail Eynon, Nancy Thorley Hills & Kevin T. Stevens (1997). Factors That Influence the Moral Reasoning Abilities of Accountants: Implications for Universities and the Profession. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1297-1309.
    The need to maintain the public trust in the integrity of the accounting profession has led to increased interest in research that examines the moral reasoning abilities (MRA) of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs). This study examines the MRA of CPAs practicing in small firms or as sole practitioners and the factors that affect MRA throughout their working careers.The results indicate that small-firm accounting practitioners exhibit lower MRA than expected for professionals and that age, gender and socio-political beliefs affect the moral (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   40 citations  
  2.  4
    Paul Audi, Jean-François Mattéi, Jean-Luc Nancy, Isabelle Barbéris, Alain Renaut & Christian Godin (2014). À Propos de : Marion, Mattéi, Nancy, Rancière, Renaut, Serres, Zarka. Cités 58 (2):223.
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3.  9
    Jacques Derrida, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe & Jean-Luc Nancy (2006). Dialogue entre Jacques Derrida, Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe et Jean-Luc Nancy. Rue Descartes 52 (2):86-99.
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4.  3
    Jean-luc Nancy & Véronique Fabbri (2004). Entretien avec Jean-Luc Nancy. Rue Descartes 44 (2):62-79.
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5. Jean-Luc Nancy (2014). Jean-Luc Nancy, par lui-même. Cités 58 (2).
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6. Ugo Perone & Jean-Luc Nancy (eds.) (2012). Intorno a Jean-Luc Nancy. Rosenberg & Sellier.
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7.  28
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2000). Being Singular Plural. Stanford University Press.
    One of the strongest strands in Nancy's philosophy is an attempt to rethink community and the very idea of the social in a way that does not ground these ideas in some individual subject or subjectivity. The fundamental argument of this book is that being is always 'being with', that 'I' is not prior to 'we', that existence is essentially co-existence. He thinks this being together, not as a comfortable enclosure in a pre-existing group, but as a mutual abandonment (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   39 citations  
  8. Jean-Luc Nancy (2008). The Sense of the World. Univ of Minnesota Press.
    An essential exploration of sense and meaning. -/- Is there a “world” anymore, let alone any “sense” to it? Acknowledging the lack of meaning in our time, and the lack of a world at the center of meanings we try to impose, Jean-Luc Nancy presents a rigorous critique of the many discourses-from philosophy and political science to psychoanalysis and art history-that talk and write their way around these gaping absences in our lives. -/- In an original style befitting his (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   17 citations  
  9. Jean-Luc Nancy (2007). The Creation of the World or Globalization. State University of New York Press.
    Appearing in English for the first time, Jean-Luc Nancy’s 2002 book reflects on globalization and its impact on our being-in-the-world. Developing a contrast in the French language between two terms that are usually synonymous, or that are used interchangeably, namely globalisation (globalization) and mondialisation (world-forming), Nancy undertakes a rethinking of what “world-forming” might mean. At stake in this distinction is for him nothing less than two possible destinies of our humanity, and of our time. On the one hand, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   11 citations  
  10.  7
    Jean-Luc Nancy (1991). The Inoperative Community. University of Minnesota Press.
    A collection of five essays of French philosopher Nancy, originally published in 1985-86: The Inoperative Community, Myth Interpreted, Literary Communism, Shattered Love, and Of Divine Places.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   28 citations  
  11.  10
    Humphreys Paul, Cartwright Nancy, Sandu Gabriel, Scott Dana & Andersen Holly, Pacific APA Memorial Session for P. Suppes and J. Hintikka, 2016.
    This collects some of the remarks made at the 2016 Pacific APA Memorial session for Patrick Suppes and Jaakko Hintikka. The full list of speakers on behalf of these two philosophers: Dagfinn Follesdal; Dana Scott; Nancy Cartwright; Paul Humphreys; Juliet Floyd; Gabriel Sandu; John Symons.
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. Alison Hills (2010/2012). The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism. Oxford University Press.
    The Beloved Self is about the holy grail of moral philosophy, an argument against egoism that proves that we all have reasons to be moral. Part One introduces three different versions of egoism. Part Two looks at attempts to prove that egoism is false, and shows that even the more modest arguments that do not try to answer the egoist in her own terms seem to fail. But in part Three, Hills defends morality and develops a new problem for (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  13. Jean-Luc Nancy (2013). Adoration. Fordham University Press.
    Adoration is the second volume of the Deconstruction of Christianity, following Dis-Enclosure. The first volume attempted to demonstrate why it is necessary to open reason up not to a religious dimension but to one transcending reason as we have been accustomed to understanding it; the term "adoration" attempts to name the gesture of this dis-enclosed reason. -/- Adoration causes us to receive ignorance as truth: not a feigned ignorance, perhaps not even a "nonknowledge," nothing that would attempt to justify the (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  14.  3
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2008). Dis-Enclosure: The Deconstruction of Christianity. Fordham Univesity Press.
    This book is a profound and eagerly anticipated investigation into what is left of a monotheistic religious spirit—notably, a minimalist faith that is neither confessional nor credulous. Articulating this faith as works and as an objectless hope, Nancy deconstructs Christianity in search of the historical and reflective conditions that provided its initial energy. Working through Blanchot and Nietzsche, re-reading Heidegger and Derrida, Nancy turns to the Epistle of Saint James rather than those of Saint Paul, discerning in it (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  15.  22
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2005). The Ground of the Image. Fordham University Press.
    If anything marks the image, it is a deep ambivalence. Denounced as superficial, illusory, and groundless, images are at the same time attributed with exorbitant power and assigned a privileged relation to truth. Mistrusted by philosophy, forbidden and embraced by religions, manipulated as “spectacle” and proliferated in the media, images never cease to present their multiple aspects, their paradoxes, their flat but receding spaces.What is this power that lies in the depths and recesses of an image—which is always only an (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  16. Jean-Luc Nancy (2008). The Being-with of Being-There. Continental Philosophy Review 41 (1):1-15.
    In Being and Time, Heidegger affirms that being-with or Mitsein is an essential constitution of Dasein but he does not submit this existential to the same rigorous analyses as other existentials. In this essay, Jean-Luc Nancy points to the different places where Heidegger erased the possibility of thinking an essential with that he himself opened. This erasure is due, according to Nancy, to the subordination of Mitsein to a thinking of the proper and the improper. The polarization of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  17.  1
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2009). Noli Me Tangere: On the Raising of the Body. Fordham University Press.
    Christian parables have retained their force well beyond the sphere of religion; indeed, they share with much of modern literature their status as a form of address: "Who hath ears to hear, let him hear." There is no message without there first being--or, more subtly, without there also being in the message itself--an address to a capacity or an aptitude for listening. This is not an exhortation of the kind "Pay attention!" Rather, it is a warning: if you do not (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  18.  22
    Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe & Jean-Luc Nancy (1997). Retreating the Political. Routledge.
    Retreating the Political presents many of the key issues at the heart of Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe and Jean-Luc Nancy's work. Published here for the first time in English, we see some of the key motifs that have characterized their work: their debt to a Heideggerian pre-understanding of philosophy; the centrality of the "figure" in western philosophy and the totalitarianism of both politics and the political. Through contemporary readings of the political in Freud, Heidegger and Marx they reveal how philosophy relies (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  19.  12
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2006). Multiple Arts: The Muses II. Stanford University Press.
    This collection of writings by Jean-Luc Nancy, the renowned French critic and poet, delves into the history of philosophy to locate a fundamentally poetic modus operandi there. The book represents a daring mixture of Nancy’s philosophical essays, writings about artworks, and artwork of his own. With theoretical rigor, Nancy elaborates on the intrinsic multiplicity of art as a concept of “making,” and outlines the tensions inherent in the faire, the “making” that characterizes the very process of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  20. Jean-Luc Nancy (1996). The Muses. Stanford University Press.
    This collection, by one of the most challenging of contemporary thinkers, asks the question: why are there several arts and not just one? This question focuses on the point of maximal tension between the philosophical tradition and contemporary thinking about the arts: the relation between the plurality of the human senses and sense or meaning in general. Throughout the five essays, Nancy's argument hinges on the culminating formulation of this relation in Hegel's Aesthetics and The Phenomenology of Spirit - (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  21.  12
    Jean-Luc Nancy & Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (1988). The Literary Absolute: The Theory of Literature in German Romanticism. SUNY.
    The Theory of Literature in German Romanticism Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe, Jean-Luc Nancy. Preface: The. Literary. Absolute. I. "There are classifications that are bad enough as classifications, but that have nonetheless dominated entire ...
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  22.  10
    Giorgio Agamben, Alain Badiou, Daniel Bensaïd, Wendy Brown, Jean-Luc Nancy, Jacques Rancière, Kristin Ross & Slavoj Zizek (2011). Democracy in What State? Columbia University Press.
    "Is it meaningful to call oneself a democrat? And if so, how do you interpret the word?" -/- In responding to this question, eight iconoclastic thinkers prove the rich potential of democracy, along with its critical weaknesses, and reconceive the practice to accommodate new political and cultural realities. Giorgio Agamben traces the tense history of constitutions and their coexistence with various governments. Alain Badiou contrasts current democratic practice with democratic communism. Daniel Bensaid ponders the institutionalization of democracy, while Wendy Brown (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  23. Jean-Luc Nancy (1997). The Gravity of Thought. Humanities Press.
    A meditation on the changing role of philosophy in a postmodernist context, the two essays gathered here—The Forgetting of Philosophy and The Weight of a Thought—represent some of the themes that have recently occupied Nancy's thought.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  24. Jean-Luc Nancy (1990). Sharing Voices. In Gayle Ormiston & Alan Schrift (eds.), Transforming the Hermeneutic Context: From Nietzsche to Nancy. SUNY
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  25. Jean-Luc Nancy (2007). Listening. Fordham University Press.
    In this lyrical meditation on listening, Jean-Luc Nancy examines sound in relation to the human body. How is listening different from hearing? What does listening entail? How does what is heard differ from what is seen? Can philosophy even address listening, écouter, as opposed to entendre, which means both hearing and understanding? -/- Unlike the visual arts, sound produces effects that persist long after it has stopped. The body, Nancy says, is itself like an echo chamber, responding to (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  26.  14
    Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe & Jean-Luc Nancy (1990). The Nazi Myth. Critical Inquiry 16 (2): 291–312..
    What interests us and claims our attention in Nazism is, essentially, its ideology, in the definition Hannah Arendt has given of this term in her book on The Origins of Totalitarianism. In this work, ideology is defined as the totally self-fulfilling logic of an idea, an idea “by which the movement of history is explained as one consistent process.” “The movement of history and the logical process of this notion,” Arendt continues, “are supposed to correspond to each other, so that (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  27.  7
    Jean Luc Nancy & Juan Carlos Moreno Romo (2013). El espíritu existe de manera plural. Escritos 21 (47):395-418.
    Los autores conversan sobre la distinta relación que tienen con la filosofía las lenguas española y francesa, encontrando la explicación de esa diferencia principalmente en los “espíritus” que nos separan, no obstante nuestra considerable cercanía lingüística. Mientras que la Reforma y la Contrarreforma exigieron de Francia un “humanismo del saber objetivo, del individuo y del progreso”, la cultura española dio de sí “un paradójico humanismo de la fe, de la expansión y de los juegos de la apariencia”. El “espíritu de (...)
    Translate
      Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  1
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2016). Les Iris. le Portique 36.
    Ce texte de Jean-Luc Nancy est une « divagation » pensante sur ce qu’évoquent les iris, ces fleurs dont le nom fait penser à celui d’un auteur qui a sans cesse joué avec ce type de consonances et de résonnances, entre les mots, les choses et les idées. Iris est une déesse qui importe à la philosophie : elle est la messagère des dieux, et comme un arc-en-ciel qui ne cesse de susciter l’étonnement. Nous sommes invités à emprunter quelques-unes (...)
    No categories
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe & Jean-Luc Nancy (eds.) (1981). Les fins de l'homme: À partir du travail de Jacques Derrida (Colloque de Cerisy, 23 juillet-2 août 1980). Galilée.
    Actes du colloque organisé dans la troisième décade de juillet 1980, au Centre culturel international de Cerisy-la-Salle. L’enjeu étant que « le travail de Jacques Derrida n’en soit pas l’objet mais le prétexte ou l’occasion ». Dirigé par Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe et Jean-Luc Nancy, le fil conducteur en est « l’implication que peut avoir une question des « “fins de l’homme” » dans le travail de Derrida ou pour son travail. Son ambition aura été de traverser et de déplacer en (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  30.  1
    J. -L. Nancy (2013). Notes on the Sacred. Theory, Culture and Society 30 (5):153-158.
    In a sequence of aphorisms, Jean-Luc Nancy interrogates the speculative suture between the sacred and truth. The sacred is indexed to an encounter or a point of intensity via which the subject approaches what cannot be grasped in itself, but solely in and as this unfinishable approach. The chance of this encounter is accorded to every subject and no longer confiscated by a religion or an exclusive regime of thought. In parallel, the sacred enters into a novel matrix (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  31.  5
    Rosa Bruno-Jofré & George Hills (2011). Changing Visions of Excellence in Ontario School Policy: The Cases of Living and Learning and for the Love of Learning. Educational Theory 61 (3):335-349.
    In this essay, Rosa Bruno-Jofré and George Hills examine two major Ontario policy documents: 1968's Living and Learning and 1994's For the Love of Learning. The purpose is, first, to gain insight into the uses of the term “excellence” in the context of discourse about educational aims and evaluation, and, second, to explore how these uses may have changed over time. Bruno-Jofré and Hills employ the conceptual framework developed by Madhu Prakash and Leonard Waks to elucidate the varied (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. Alison Hills (2010). Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism. Oxford University Press Uk.
    The Beloved Self is about the holy grail of moral philosophy, an argument against egoism that proves that we all have reasons to be moral. Part One introduces three different versions of egoism. Part Two looks at attempts to prove that egoism is false, and shows that even the more modest arguments that do not try to answer the egoist in her own terms seem to fail. But in part Three, Hills defends morality and develops a new problem for (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33. Alison Hills (2012). The Beloved Self: Morality and the Challenge From Egoism. Oxford University Press Uk.
    The Beloved Self is about the holy grail of moral philosophy, an argument against egoism that proves that we all have reasons to be moral. Alison Hills introduces three different versions of egoism; looks at attempts to prove that egoism is false; and shows that even the more modest arguments that do not try to answer the egoist in her own terms seem to fail. She goes on to provide a defense of morality, and argues that it is not (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  34. Phillippe Lacoue-Labarthe & Jean-Luc Nancy (2005). Retreating the Political. Routledge.
    This collection of essays presents, for the first time in English, some of the key essays on the political by Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe and Jean-Luc Nancy. Including several unpublished essays, _Retreating the Political_ offers some highly original perspectives on the relationship between philosophy and the political. Through contemporary readings of the political in Freud, Heidegger and Marx, the authors ask if we can talk of an _a priori_ link between the philosophical and the political; they investigate the significance of the (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  35. Phillippe Lacoue-Labarthe & Jean-Luc Nancy (1997). Retreating the Political. Routledge.
    This collection of essays presents, for the first time in English, some of the key essays on the political by Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe and Jean-Luc Nancy. Including several unpublished essays, _Retreating the Political_ offers some highly original perspectives on the relationship between philosophy and the political. Through contemporary readings of the political in Freud, Heidegger and Marx, the authors ask if we can talk of an _a priori_ link between the philosophical and the political; they investigate the significance of the (...)
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  36. Jean-Luc Nancy (2011). God, Justice, Love, Beauty: Four Little Dialogues. Fordham.
    The four talks collected here transcribe lectures delivered to an audience of children between the ages of ten and fourteen, under the auspices of the little dialogues series at the Montreuil's center for the dramatic arts. Modeled on Walter Benjamin's Aufklrung for Kinderradio talks, this series aims to awaken its young audience to pressing philosophical concerns. Each talk in God, Justice, Love, Beauty explores what is at stake in these topics as essential moments in human experience. (Indeed, the book (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37.  1
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2009). On the Commerce of Thinking: Of Books and Bookstores. Fordham University Press.
    Jean-Luc Nancy'sOn the Commerce of Thinkingconcerns the particular communication of thoughts that takes place by means of the business of writing, producing, and selling books. His reflection is born out of his relation to the bookstore, in the first place his neighborhood one, but beyond that any such "perfumery, rotisserie, patisserie," as he calls them, dispensaries "of scents and flavors through which something like a fragrance or bouquet of the book is divined, presumed, sensed."On the Commerce of Thinking is (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  38. Jean-Luc Nancy & Daniel Tyradellis (2013). Was heißt uns Denken? Ein Gespräch. Diaphanes.
    Ein Gespräch zwischen zweien, die sich nicht sicher sind, ob sie schon denken -/- Der Begriff des Denkens zieht sich als emphatischer Begriff durch das Werk von Jean-Luc Nancy. Zugleich lehnt er es ab, sich selbst als »Denker« bezeichnen zu lassen. Denken ist für ihn stets mit einem »noch nicht« zu versehen. Anknüpfend an Heideggers berühmte Vorlesung »Was heißt Denken?« spricht Nancy in diesem Band mit dem Philosophen und Kurator Daniel Tyradellis über das, was Denken macht: über prägende (...)
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. Jean-Luc Nancy (2008). The Discourse of the Syncope: Logodaedalus. Stanford.
    Why is it that the modern conception of literature begins with one of the worst writers of the philosophical tradition? Such is the paradoxical question that lies at the heart of Jean-Luc Nancy’s highly original and now-classic study of the role of language in the critical philosophy of Kant. While Kant did not turn his attention very often to the philosophy of language, Nancy demonstrates to what extent he was anything but oblivious to it. He shows, in fact, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40. Jean-Luc Nancy (2001). The Speculative Remark: One of Hegel's Bons Mots. Stanford University Press.
    This work, by two of the most innovative and challenging of contemporary thinkers, pivots on a Remark added by Hegel in 1831 to the second edition of his Science of Logic. As a model of close reading applied both to philosophical texts and the making of philosophical systems, The Speculative Remark played a significant role in transforming the practice of philosophy away from system building to analysis of specific linguistic detail, with meticulous attention to etymological, philological, and rhetorical nuance. The (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. Nancy Bruce, DeeDee Gollwitzer, Gerald Zettel, Gary Steinberg & Karen Boepple (forthcoming). Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Members January 23, 2008 Laguna Hills Community Center. Laguna.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. Alison Hills (2007). Intentions, Foreseen Consequences and the Doctrine of Double Effect. Philosophical Studies 133 (2):257 - 283.
    The difficulty of distinguishing between the intended and the merely foreseen consequences of actions seems to many to be the most serious problem for the doctrine of double effect. It has led some to reject the doctrine altogether, and has left some of its defenders recasting it in entirely different terms. I argue that these responses are unnecessary. Using Bratman’s conception of intention, I distinguish the intended consequences of an action from the merely foreseen in a way that can be (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  43. Jean-Luc Nancy & Tracy B. Strong (1992). La Comparution /the Compearance: From the Existence of "Communism" to the Community of "Existence". Political Theory 20 (3):371-398.
  44.  30
    Alison Hills (2004). Is Ethics Rationally Required? Inquiry 47 (1):1 – 19.
    Sidgwick argued that utilitarianism was not rationally required because it could not be shown that a utilitarian theory of practical reason was better justified than a rival egoist theory of practical reason: there is a 'dualism of practical reason' between utilitarianism and egoism. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the dualism argument also applies to Kant's moral theory, the moral law. A prudential theory that is parallel to the moral law is devised, and it is argued that the moral (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  45.  67
    Stanley Cavell & David Hills (1980). Cavell on Expression. Journal of Philosophy 77 (11):745-746.
  46.  31
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2003). "Our World" an Interview. Angelaki 8 (2):43 – 54.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47.  29
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2006). Within My Breast, Alas, Two Souls . Topoi 25 (1-2):69-73.
    The obsession is pursued of a word, a sign, a thought that is identical with the thing it signifies, where there is no space between the two. And the nightmare is entertained that, if such an identity is not attained, then intellectual work in general is worth nothing and should be destroyed.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48.  19
    David Hills (2007). Drawing Distinctions: The Varieties of Graphic Expression by Maynard, Patrick. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 65 (2):235–238.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49.  17
    David Hills (1976). Reply to Gass. Journal of Philosophy 73 (19):739-742.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50.  11
    Jean-Luc Nancy (2004). Rives, Bords, Limites. Angelaki 9 (2):41 – 53.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1000