This article presents an analysis of Gödel's dialectica interpretation via a refinement of intuitionistic logic known as linear logic. Linear logic comes naturally into the picture once one observes that the structural rule of contraction is the main cause of the lack of symmetry in Gödel's interpretation. We use the fact that the dialectica interpretation of intuitionistic logic can be viewed as a composition of Girard's embedding of intuitionistic logic into linear logic followed by de Paiva's dialectica interpretation of linear (...) logic. We then investigate the various properties of the dialectica interpretation, such as the characterisation theorem, and variants of Gödel's interpretation within the linear logic context. The role of contraction in extensions to classical logic, arithmetic and analysis is also discussed. (shrink)
After a brief biography of Thomas Aquinas, the article follows up the work of Leonard Boyle to show how the Summa serves to meet the requirements of a pedagogical project in the Dominican Order and more generally in the medieval Church. Intended for the initial and continuing formation of Dominican friars and students of conventual schools, the Summa is composed in a literary genre perfectly suited to this purpose, which governs its structure. The detailed presentation of the notion of sacra (...) doctrina elaborated in q. 1 provides the occasion to show how this notion itself determines the organization of the material. Finally, the presentation of the contents of the Summa’s three parts brings out the internal organization of the work and stimulates the reading of it. (shrink)
This article presents a parametrized functional interpretation. Depending on the choice of two parameters one obtains well-known functional interpretations such as Gödel's Dialectica interpretation, Diller-Nahm's variant of the Dialectica interpretation, Kohlenbach's monotone interpretations, Kreisel's modified realizability, and Stein's family of functional interpretations. A functional interpretation consists of a formula interpretation and a soundness proof. I show that all these interpretations differ only on two design choices: first, on the number of counterexamples for A which became witnesses for ¬A when defining (...) the formula interpretation and, second, the inductive information about the witnesses of A which is considered in the proof of soundness. Sufficient conditions on the parameters are also given which ensure the soundness of the resulting functional interpretation. The relation between the parametrized interpretation and the recent bounded functional interpretation is also discussed. (shrink)
This article reviews Daniel Garber's _Descartes's Metaphysical Physics (1992) and Michael Friedman's _ Kant and the Exact Sciences (1992). By treating Descartes and Kant in their historical context, these books portray the close connection between philosophy and science in the early modern period. These examples of philosophy that are engaged with the important intellectual movements of its day can serve as a model for philosophy now.
Este artigo se ocupa de questões metafilosóficas. Nele, discutiremos as razões que fazem com que a filosofia, diferentemente da ciência, problematize a si mesma como empreendimento cognitivo. Em particular, procuraremos identificar como e por que a filosofia acaba se constituindo em problema para si mesma. À exceção das ciências sociais onde há estudos críticos do tipo sociologia da sociologia, a ciência em geral não põe em discussão a si mesma. Raros são os casos em que a ciência chega ao extremo (...) de questionar a própria cognitividade. A filosofia, em alguns de seus mais lúcidos e profícuos exercícios, não se furta a se avaliar como projeto cognitivo. Com esse tipo de preocupação metafilosófica, nosso artigo questionará a pretensão das grandes filosofias de protagonizar revoluções. Defenderemos a tese de que inexistem as revoluções postuladas pelos filósofos, destacando que a incomensurabilidade subsistente entre as filosofias não é provocada por rupturas conceituais ou explicativas e sim pela adoção de diferentes pressuposições absolutas, conforme definidas por Collingwood. (shrink)
This paper proposes an initial epistemological course related to the notions of life, cognition, and culture from the fundamental elements of the complexity theory and, specifically, related to the notion of self-eco-organization. With these, we pretend to search isomorphic or transverse properties to all these notions; emphasizing the ideas of complexity, autonomy and dependence. El presente trabajo propone un derrotero epistemológico preliminar en torno a las nociones de vida, cognición y cultura, desde la base de algunos elementos de la teoría (...) de la complejidad y en específico, en torno a la noción de auto-eco-organización. Con ellos, se pretende la búsqueda de isomorfismos o propiedades transversales a todas estas nociones, centrándose en la ideas de complejidad, autonomía y dependencia. (shrink)
O problema da corporalidade em Leibniz se vincula necessariamente à discussão sobre o estatuto da matéria em uma Metafísica cuja base são as mônadas imateriais. Veremos que, neste contexto, o material deverá ser fenomênico, mas nem por isso ilusório. O objetivo deste trabalho é mostrar como o campo fenomênico, cujo caso exemplar é o corpo, pode ganhar um suporte metafísico e racionalmente justificado, constituindo o que Leibniz chama de fenômenos bem fundados. Para tal, deverá ser feito um exame cuidadoso da (...) natureza das Forças no pensamento leibniziano e de como elas apresentam o vínculo procurado entre Física e Metafísica. Leibniz on Phenomenon and CorporalityThe problem of corporality in Leibniz is necessarily attached to the discussion on the nature of matter in a Metaphysics whose basis are the immaterial monads. We will see that, in this context, although the material must be phenomenic, it is not necessarily ilusory. The aim of this paper is to show how the phenomenic domain, whose exemplar case is the body, may be metaphysically founded and rationally justifyed, constituting what Leibniz calls well founded phenomena. In order to do it, it is necessary to examine Leibniz's conception of the nature of the Forces and how they could present the link between Physics and Metaphysics. (shrink)
El presente trabajo propone un derrotero epistemológico preliminar en torno a las nociones de vida, cognición y cultura, desde la base de algunos elementos de la teoría de la complejidad y en específico, en torno a la noción de auto-eco-organización. Con ellos, se pretende la búsqueda de isomorfism..
the objective of this article, making use of the theory of Hannah Arendt, is to show as the disruption with regimes of exception if it effected by means of transistions, of a vision of the politics as confrontation and violence for a model of the consensus and its counterpart was to occult the divergent ways with that the social subjetividades breach with the rational model, overshadowing the interpretations of the memory in the democratic normalization.
A longstanding goal of computer vision is to build a system that can automatically understand a 3D scene from a single image. This requires extracting semantic concepts and 3D information from 2D images which can depict an enormous variety of environments that comprise our visual world. This paper summarizes our recent efforts toward these goals. First, we describe the richly annotated SUN database which is a collection of annotated images spanning 908 different scene categories with object, attribute, and geometric labels (...) for many scenes. This database allows us to systematically study the space of scenes and to establish a benchmark for scene and object recognition. We augment the categorical SUN database with 102 scene attributes for every image and explore attribute recognition. Finally, we present an integrated system to extract the 3D structure of the scene and objects depicted in an image. (shrink)
Pupil dilation indexes cognitive events of behavioral relevance, like the storage of information to memory and the deployment of attention. Yet, given the slow temporal response of the pupil dilation, it is not known from previous studies whether the pupil can index cognitive events in the short time-scale of ~100 ms. Here we measured the size of the pupil in the Attentional Blink (AB) experiment, a classic demonstration of attentional limitations in processing rapidly presented stimuli. In the AB, two targets (...) embedded in a sequence have to be reported and the second stimulus is often missed if presented between 200 ms and 500 ms after the first. We show that pupil dilation can be used as a marker of cognitive processing in AB, revealing both the timing and amount of cognitive processing. Specifically, we found that in the time range where the AB is known to occur: (i) the pupil dilation was delayed, mimicking the pattern of response times in the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm, (ii) the amplitude of the pupil was reduced relative to that of larger lags, even for correctly identified targets, and (iii) the amplitude of the pupil was smaller for missed than for correctly reported targets. These results support two-stage theories of the Attentional Blink where a second processing stage is delayed inside the interference regime, and indicate that the pupil dilation can be used as a marker of cognitive processing in the time scale of ~100 ms. Furthermore, given the known relation between the pupil dilation and the activity of the locus coeruleus, our results also support theories that link the serial stage to the action of a specific neuromodulator, norepinephrine. (shrink)
Medical Genetics is a relatively new field of scientific work that involves a lot of enthusiastic professionals, both in routine (clinical) and research (scientific projects). In either field, different geneticists feel different responsibilities for their work, either because they are different people (personal responsibility) or because they have a different rank in the respective departments (professional responsibility). This paper presents the philosophical views of several authors on the sense of responsibility from the Classical times until the present and reveals the (...) practical, daily responsibilities that are met by these professionals, in four areas of responsibility: personal, professional, scientific and sociatal framework. (shrink)