Search results for 'Natural' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Order:
See also:
Bibliography: Natural Sciences
Bibliography: Moral Naturalism and Non-Naturalism in Meta-Ethics
Bibliography: Natural Sciences, Misc in Natural Sciences
Bibliography: Naturalizing Mental Content in Philosophy of Mind
Bibliography: Arguments from Naturalism against Theism in Philosophy of Religion
Bibliography: Moral Naturalism in Meta-Ethics
Bibliography: Moral Nonnaturalism in Meta-Ethics
Bibliography: The Naturalistic Fallacy in Meta-Ethics
Bibliography: Moral Naturalism and Non-Naturalism, Misc in Meta-Ethics
Bibliography: Natural Law Theory in Philosophy of Law
...
Other categories were found but are not shown. Use more specific keywords to find others, or browse the categories.
  1. Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2014). Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. In Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (eds.), Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. MIT 1-10.
    In this volume, leading philosophers of psychiatry examine psychiatric classification systems, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), asking whether current systems are sufficient for effective diagnosis, treatment, and research. Doing so, they take up the question of whether mental disorders are natural kinds, grounded in something in the outside world. Psychiatric categories based on natural kinds should group phenomena in such a way that they are subject to the same type of causal (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  2. Charles Darwin (2008/2006). On the Origin of Species: By Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Sterling Pub..
    Familiarity with Charles Darwin's treatise on evolution is essential to every well-educated individual. One of the most important books ever published--and a continuing source of controversy, a century and a half later--this classic of science is reproduced in a facsimile of the critically acclaimed first edition.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   244 citations  
  3. Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom (1990). Natural Language and Natural Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):707-27.
    Many people have argued that the evolution of the human language faculty cannot be explained by Darwinian natural selection. Chomsky and Gould have suggested that language may have evolved as the by-product of selection for other abilities or as a consequence of as-yet unknown laws of growth and form. Others have argued that a biological specialization for grammar is incompatible with every tenet of Darwinian theory – that it shows no genetic variation, could not exist in any (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   209 citations  
  4. Axel Gelfert (2015). Inner Speech, Natural Language, and the Modularity of the Mind. Kairos 14:7-29.
    Inner speech is a pervasive feature of our conscious mental lives. Yet its function and character remain an issue of philosophical debate. The present paper focuses on the relation between inner speech and natural language and on the cognitive functions that various contributors have ascribed to inner speech. In particular, it is argued that inner speech does not consist of bare, context-free internal presentations of sentential (or subsentential) content, but rather has an ineliminably perspectival element. The proposed model (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  5. Corine Besson (2010). Rigidity, Natural Kind Terms, and Metasemantics. In Helen Beebee & Nigel Sabbarton-Leary (eds.), The Semantics and Metaphysics of Natural Kinds. Routledge 25--44.
    A paradigmatic case of rigidity for singular terms is that of proper names. And it would seem that a paradigmatic case of rigidity for general terms is that of natural kind terms. However, many philosophers think that rigidity cannot be extended from singular terms to general terms. The reason for this is that rigidity appears to become trivial when such terms are considered: natural kind terms come out as rigid, but so do all other general terms, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  6. Moti Mizrahi (2014). The Problem of Natural Inequality: A New Problem of Evil. Philosophia 42 (1):127-136.
    In this paper, I argue that there is a kind of evil, namely, the unequal distribution of natural endowments, or natural inequality, which presents theists with a new evidential problem of evil. The problem of natural inequality is a new evidential problem of evil not only because, to the best of my knowledge, it has not yet been discussed in the literature, but also because available theodicies, such the free will defense and the soul-making (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7. Theodore Bach (2012). Gender Is a Natural Kind with a Historical Essence. Ethics 122 (2):231-272.
    Traditional debate on the metaphysics of gender has been a contrast of essentialist and social-constructionist positions. The standard reaction to this opposition is that neither position alone has the theoretical resources required to satisfy an equitable politics. This has caused a number of theorists to suggest ways in which gender is unified on the basis of social rather than biological characteristics but is “real” or “objective” nonetheless – a position I term social objectivism. This essay begins by making explicit the (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  8.  2
    Yury Viktor Kissin (2013). Natural Sciences: Definitions and Attempt at Classification. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (2):116-137.
    The article discusses the formal classification of natural sciences, which is based on several propositions: (a) natural sciences can be separated onto independent and dependent sciences based on the gnosiologic criterion and irreducibility criteria (principal and technical); (b) there are four independent sciences which form a hierarchy: physics ← chemistry ← terrestrial biology ← human psychology; (c) every independent science except for physics has already developed or will develop in the future a set of final paradigms formulated in (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. Guy Bennett-Hunter (2013). Natural Theology and Literature. In Russell Re Manning John Hedley Brooke & Fraser Watts (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Natural Theology. Oxford University Press
    In this chapter, I hope to show, by referring to two specific literary examples, that works of literature can demonstrate the possibility of Natural <span class='Hi'>Theology</span> and can prompt their readers’ thinking along Natural Theological lines by allowing them to have experiences which mirror the structure of those dealt with by Natural <span class='Hi'>Theology</span>.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  10. Mohan Matthen & André Ariew (2002). Two Ways of Thinking About Fitness and Natural Selection. Journal of Philosophy 99 (2):55-83.
    How do fitness and natural selection relate to other evolutionary factors like architectural constraint, mode of reproduction, and drift? In one way of thinking, drawn from Newtonian dynamics, fitness is one force driving evolutionary change and added to other factors. In another, drawn from statistical thermodynamics, it is a statistical trend that manifests itself in natural selection histories. It is argued that the first model is incoherent, the second appropriate; a hierarchical realization model is proposed as a basis (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   63 citations  
  11.  69
    Marcus P. Adams (2016). Hobbes on Natural Philosophy as "True Physics" and Mixed Mathematics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 56:43-51.
    I offer an alternative account of the relationship of Hobbesian geometry to natural philosophy by arguing that mixed mathematics provided Hobbes with a model for thinking about it. In mixed mathematics, one may borrow causal principles from one science and use them in another science without there being a deductive relationship between those two sciences. Natural philosophy for Hobbes is mixed because an explanation may combine observations from experience (the ‘that’) with causal principles from geometry (the ‘why’). My (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. Tuomas E. Tahko (2015). Natural Kind Essentialism Revisited. Mind 124 (495):795-822.
    Recent work on Natural Kind Essentialism has taken a deflationary turn. The assumptions about the grounds of essentialist truths concerning natural kinds familiar from the Kripke-Putnam framework are now considered questionable. The source of the problem, however, has not been sufficiently explicated. The paper focuses on the Twin Earth scenario, and it will be demonstrated that the essentialist principle at its core (which I call IDENT)—that necessarily, a sample of a chemical substance, A, is of the same kind (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  13. Jonathan Birch (forthcoming). Natural Selection and the Maximization of Fitness. Biological Reviews.
    The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the ‘new’ interpretation of Fisher's fundamental (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  14. Norihiro Kamide & Motohiko Mouri (2007). Natural Deduction Systems for Some Non-Commutative Logics. Logic and Logical Philosophy 16 (2-3):105-146.
    Varieties of natural deduction systems are introduced for Wansing’s paraconsistent non-commutative substructural logic, called a constructive sequential propositional logic (COSPL), and its fragments. Normalization, strong normalization and Church-Rosser theorems are proved for these systems. These results include some new results on full Lambek logic (FL) and its fragments, because FL is a fragment of COSPL.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  13
    Charles Darwin (1993/1998). The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or, the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. Modern Library.
    Perhaps the most readable and accessible of the great works of scientific imagination, The Origin of Species sold out on the day it was published in 1859. Theologians quickly labeled Charles Darwin the most dangerous man in England, and, as the Saturday Review noted, the uproar over the book quickly "passed beyond the bounds of the study and lecture-room into the drawing-room and the public street." Yet, after reading it, Darwin's friend and colleague T. H. Huxley had a different reaction: (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   56 citations  
  16. Santiago Ginnobili (2010). La teoría de la selección natural darwiniana (The Darwinian Theory of Natural Selection). Theoria 25 (1):37-58.
    This paper is about the reconstruction of the Darwinian Theory of Natural Selection. My aim here is to outline the fundamental law of this theory in an informal way from its applications in The Origin of Species and to make explicit its fundamental concepts. I will introduce the theory-nets of special laws that arise from the specialization of the fundamental law. I will assume the metatheoretical structuralist frame. I will also point out many consequences that my (...)
    Translate
      Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  17. Andrea Borghini & Giorgio Lando (2011). Natural Properties, Supervenience, and Mereology. Humana.Mente 19:79-104.
    The interpretation of Lewis‘s doctrine of natural properties is difficult and controversial, especially when it comes to the bearers of natural properties. According to the prevailing reading – the minimalist view – perfectly natural properties pertain to the micro-physical realm and are instantiated by entities without proper parts or point-like. This paper argues that there are reasons internal to a broadly Lewisian kind of metaphysics to think that the minimalist view is fundamentally flawed and that a liberal (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  18. Helen De Cruz & Johan De Smedt (2015). A Natural History of Natural Theology. The Cognitive Science of Theology and Philosophy of Religion. MIT Press.
    [from the publisher's website] Questions about the existence and attributes of God form the subject matter of natural theology, which seeks to gain knowledge of the divine by relying on reason and experience of the world. Arguments in natural theology rely largely on intuitions and inferences that seem natural to us, occurring spontaneously—at the sight of a beautiful landscape, perhaps, or in wonderment at the complexity of the cosmos—even to a nonphilosopher. In this book, Helen De Cruz (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  19.  86
    Helen De Cruz (2015). The Relevance of Hume's Natural History of Religion for Cognitive Science of Religion. Res Philosophica 92 (3):653-674.
    Hume was a cognitive scientist of religion avant la lettre. His Natural History of Religion (1757 [2007]) locates the origins of religion in human nature. This paper explores similarities between some of his ideas and the cognitive science of religion, the multidisciplinary study of the psychological origins of religious beliefs. It also considers Hume’s distinction between two questions about religion: its foundation in reason (the domain of natural theology and philosophy of religion) and its origin in (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  4
    David Hume (2007/2006). Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Philosophical Review. Blackwell Pub. Ltd. 338-339.
    How do we know that God exists? One of Britain's greatest 18th-century philosophers addresses the age-old question in this timeless dialogue. Equally captivating as a philosophical argument and as a work of literature, this classic is particularly relevant in terms of its criticism of the reasoning behind Intelligent Design.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   84 citations  
  21.  15
    C. Armstrong (2015). Against 'Permanent Sovereignty' Over Natural Resources. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (2):129-151.
    The doctrine of permanent sovereignty over natural resources is a hugely consequential one in the contemporary world, appearing to grant nation-states both jurisdiction-type rights and rights of ownership over the resources to be found in their territories. But the normative justification for that doctrine is far from clear. This article elucidates the best arguments that might be made for permanent sovereignty, including claims from national improvement of or attachment to resources, as well as functionalist claims linking resource rights to (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  22.  27
    Pratima Bansal & Geoffrey Kistruck (2006). Seeing is (Not) Believing: Managing the Impressions of the Firm's Commitment to the Natural Environment. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 67 (2):165 - 180.
    This paper examines stakeholder responses to impression management tactics used by firms that express environmental commitment. We inductively analyzed data from 98 open-ended questionnaires and identified two impression management tactics that led respondents to believe that a firm was credible in its commitment to the natural environment. Approximately, half of the respondents responded to illustrative impression management tactics that provide images of, and/or broad-brush comments about, the firm’s commitment to the natural environment. The other half responded to demonstrative (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   25 citations  
  23. John Corcoran (1974). Aristotle's Natural Deduction System. In Ancient Logic and its Modern Interpretations. Boston,Reidel 85--131.
    This presentation of Aristotle's natural deduction system supplements earlier presentations and gives more historical evidence. Some fine-tunings resulted from conversations with Timothy Smiley, Charles Kahn, Josiah Gould, John Kearns,John Glanvillle, and William Parry.The criticism of Aristotle's theory of propositions found at the end of this 1974 presentation was retracted in Corcoran's 2009 HPL article "Aristotle's demonstrative logic".
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  24. Lynda Birke (2008). Talking About Horses: Control and Freedom in the World of "Natural Horsemanship". Society and Animals 16 (2):107-126.
    This paper explores how horses are represented in the discourses of "natural horsemanship" , an approach to training and handling horses that advocates see as better than traditional methods. In speaking about their horses, NH enthusiasts move between two registers: On one hand, they use a quasi-scientific narrative, relying on terms and ideas drawn from ethology, to explain the instinctive behavior of horses. Within this mode of narrative, the horse is "other" and must be understood through the human learning (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  25.  46
    Kourken Michaelian (2011). Is Memory a Natural Kind? Memory Studies 4 (2):170-189.
    Though researchers often refer to memory as if it were a unitary phenomenon, a natural kind, the apparent heterogeneity of the various "kinds" of memory casts doubt on this default view. This paper argues, first, that kinds of memory are individuated by memory systems. It argues, second, for a view of the nature of kinds of memory informed by the tri-level hypothesis. If this approach to kinds of memory is right, then memory is not in fact a natural (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   11 citations  
  26. Craig Paterson (2010). Review of Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia: A Natural Law Ethics Approach. [REVIEW] Ethics and Medicine 26 (1):23-4.
    As medical technology advances and severely injured or ill people can be kept alive and functioning long beyond what was previously medically possible, the debate surrounding the ethics of end-of-life care and quality-of-life issues has grown more urgent. In this lucid and vigorous book, Craig Paterson discusses assisted suicide and euthanasia from a fully fledged but non-dogmatic secular natural law perspective. He rehabilitates and revitalises the natural law approach to moral reasoning by developing a pluralistic (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. Markku Keinänen (2015). A Trope Nominalist Theory of Natural Kinds. In Ghislain Guigon & Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (eds.), Nominalism about Properties. Routledge 156-174.
    In this chapter, I present the first systematic trope nominalist approach to natural kinds of objects. It does not identify natural kinds with the structures of mind-independent entities (objects, universals or tropes). Rather, natural kinds are abstractions from natural kind terms and objects belong to a natural kind if they satisfy their mind-independent application conditions. By relying on the trope theory SNT (Keinänen 2011), I show that the trope parts of a simple object determine the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28.  59
    Roberta L. Millstein (2002). Are Random Drift and Natural Selection Conceptually Distinct? Biology and Philosophy 17 (1):33-53.
    The latter half of the twentieth century has been marked by debates in evolutionary biology over the relative significance of natural selection and random drift: the so-called “neutralist/selectionist” debates. Yet John Beatty has argued that it is difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish the concept of random drift from the concept of natural selection, a claim that has been accepted by many philosophers of biology. If this claim is correct, then the neutralist/selectionist debates seem (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   30 citations  
  29. Corine Besson (2012). Empty Natural Kind Terms and Dry-Earth. Erkenntnis 76 (3):403-425.
    This paper considers the problem of assigning meanings to empty natural kind terms. It does so in the context of the Twin-Earth externalist-internalist debate about whether the meanings of natural kind terms are individuated by the external physical environment of the speakers using these terms. The paper clarifies and outlines the different ways in which meanings could be assigned to empty natural kind terms. And it argues that externalists do not have the semantic resources to assign them (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  30. John S. Wilkins (2013). Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds. Science and Education 22 (2):221-240.
    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in A System of Logic. However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have always employed, of kinds as being types that need not have necessary and sufficient characters and (...)
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  31. Anders Nes (2016). The Sense of Natural Meaning in Conscious Inference. In T. Breyer & C. Gutland (eds.), Phenomenology of Thinking. Routledge 97-115.
    The paper addresses the phenomenology of inference. It proposes that the conscious character of conscious inferences is partly constituted by a sense of meaning; specifically, a sense of what Grice called ‘natural meaning’. In consciously drawing the (outright, categorical) conclusion that Q from a presumed fact that P, one senses the presumed fact that P as meaning that Q, where ‘meaning that’ expresses natural meaning. This sense of natural meaning is phenomenologically analogous, I suggest, to our sense (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  32.  59
    Andrea Borghini & Giorgio Lando (2015). Natural Properties and Atomicity in Modal Realism. Metaphysica 16 (1):103-122.
    The paper pinpoints certain unrecognized difficulties that surface for recombination and duplication in modal realism when we ask whether the following inter-world fixity claims hold true: 1) A property is perfectly natural in a world iff it is perfectly natural in every world where it is instantiated; 2) Something is mereologically atomic in a world iff all of its duplicates in every world are atomic. In connection to 1), the hypothesis of idlers prompts four variants of Lewis’s doctrine (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  33.  71
    Peter Godfrey-Smith (2009). Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection. OUP Oxford.
    The book presents a new way of understanding Darwinism and evolution by natural selection, combining work in biology, philosophy, and other fields.
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   71 citations  
  34. Ian Hacking (1983). Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.
    This is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to debates about realism. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   409 citations  
  35.  8
    Dennis Des Chene (1996). Physiologia: Natural Philosophy in Late Aristotelian and Cartesian Thought. Cornell University Press.
    Physiologia provides an accessible and comprehensive guide to late Aristotelian natural philosophy; with that context in hand, it offers new interpretations of major themes in Descartes’s natural philosophy.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   24 citations  
  36.  55
    Alexander Bird (forthcoming). The Metaphysics of Natural Kinds. Synthese:1-30.
    This paper maps the landscape for a range of views concerning the metaphysics of natural kinds. I consider a range of increasingly ontologically committed views concerning natural kinds and the possible arguments for them. I then ask how these relate to natural kind essentialism, arguing that essentialism requires commitment to kinds as entities. I conclude by examining the homeostatic property cluster view of kinds in the light of the general understanding of kinds developed.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37. L. R. Franklin-Hall (2015). Natural Kinds as Categorical Bottlenecks. Philosophical Studies 172 (4):925-948.
    Both realist and anti-realist accounts of natural kinds possess prima facie virtues: realists can straightforwardly make sense of the apparent objectivity of the natural kinds, and anti-realists, their knowability. This paper formulates a properly anti-realist account designed to capture both merits. In particular, it recommends understanding natural kinds as ‘categorical bottlenecks,’ those categories that not only best serve us, with our idiosyncratic aims and cognitive capacities, but also those of a wide range of alternative agents. By endorsing (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  38. Chris Cosans (2004). The Meaning of Natural Childbirth. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 47 (2):266-272.
    This paper uses the different approaches to natural childbirth to explore the ethical issues involved in respecting the human body in a scientific society.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39.  28
    Miles MacLeod & Thomas A. C. Reydon (2013). Natural Kinds in Philosophy and in the Life Sciences: Scholastic Twilight or New Dawn? [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):89-99.
    This article, which is intended both as a position paper in the philosophical debate on natural kinds and as the guest editorial to this thematic issue, takes up the challenge posed by Ian Hacking in his paper, “Natural Kinds: Rosy Dawn, Scholastic Twilight.” Whereas a straightforward interpretation of that paper suggests that according to Hacking the concept of natural kinds should be abandoned, both in the philosophy of science and in philosophy more generally, we suggest that an (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  40.  88
    John Finnis (1980/1979). Natural Law and Natural Rights. Oxford University Press.
    This new edition includes a substantial postscript by the author, in which he responds to thirty years of discussion, criticism and further work in the field to ...
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   168 citations  
  41.  10
    Stefan Petkov, Wei Wang & Yi Lei (forthcoming). Explanatory Unification and Natural Selection Explanations. Biology and Philosophy:1-21.
    The debate between the dynamical and the statistical interpretations of natural selection is centred on the question of whether all explanations that employ the concepts of natural selection and drift are reducible to causal explanations. The proponents of the statistical interpretation answer negatively, but insist on the fact that selection/drift arguments are explanatory. However, they remain unclear on where the explanatory power comes from. The proponents of the dynamical interpretation answer positively and try (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42.  17
    Bence Nanay (2010). Natural Selection and the Limited Nature of Environmental Resources. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (4):418-419.
    In this paper, I am clarifying and defending my argument in favor of the claim that cumulative selection can explain adaptation provided that the environmental resources are limited. Further, elaborate on what this limitation of environmental resources means and why it is relevant for the explanatory power of natural selection.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  43.  69
    Nissim Francez & Roy Dyckhoff (2010). Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (6):447-477.
    The paper presents a proof-theoretic semantics (PTS) for a fragment of natural language, providing an alternative to the traditional model-theoretic (Montagovian) semantics (MTS), whereby meanings are truth-condition (in arbitrary models). Instead, meanings are taken as derivability-conditions in a dedicated natural-deduction (ND) proof-system. This semantics is effective (algorithmically decidable), adhering to the meaning as use paradigm, not suffering from several of the criticisms formulated by philosophers of language against MTS as a theory of meaning. In particular, Dummett’s manifestation argument (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   9 citations  
  44.  13
    Jacob Stegenga (2014). Population Pluralism and Natural Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (1):axu003.
    I defend a radical interpretation of biological populations—what I call population pluralism—which holds that there are many ways that a particular grouping of individuals can be related such that the grouping satisfies the conditions necessary for those individuals to evolve together. More constraining accounts of biological populations face empirical counter-examples and conceptual difficulties. One of the most intuitive and frequently employed conditions, causal connectivity—itself beset with numerous difficulties—is best construed by considering the relevant causal relations as ‘thick’ causal concepts. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  45. Jason T. Eberl, Eleanor K. Kinney & Matthew J. Williams (2011). Foundation for a Natural Right to Health Care. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (6):537-557.
    Discussions concerning whether there is a natural right to health care may occur in various forms, resulting in policy recommendations for how to implement any such right in a given society. But health care policies may be judged by international standards including the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The rights enumerated in the UDHR are grounded in traditions of moral theory, a philosophical analysis of which is necessary in order to adjudicate the value of specific policies designed to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  46. Santiago Ginnobili (2011). Selección artificial, selección sexual, selección natural. Metatheoria – Revista de Filosofía E Historia de la Ciencia 2 (1):61-78.
    En On the Origin of Species Darwin distingue explícitamente entre tres tipos de selección: la selección natural, la artificial y la sexual. En este trabajo, a partir de un estudio más sistemático que historiográfico, se intenta encontrar la relación entre estos tres tipos de selección en la obra de Darwin. Si bien la distinción entre estos distintos mecanismos es de suma importancia en la obra de Darwin, la tesis de este trabajo es que tanto la selección artificial como la (...)
    Translate
      Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47.  44
    Stuart Glennan (2009). Productivity, Relevance and Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):325-339.
    Recent papers by a number of philosophers have been concerned with the question of whether natural selection is a causal process, and if it is, whether the causes of selection are properties of individuals or properties of populations. I shall argue that much confusion in this debate arises because of a failure to distinguish between causal productivity and causal relevance. Causal productivity is a relation that holds between events connected via continuous causal processes, while causal relevance is a relationship (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  48. Siegfried Jaag (2014). Dispositional Essentialism and the Grounding of Natural Modality. Philosophers' Imprint 14 (34).
    Dispositional essentialism is a non-Humean view about the essences of certain fundamental or natural properties that looms large in recent metaphysics , not least because it promises to explain neatly the natural modalities such as laws of nature, counterfactuals, causation and chance. In the current paper, however, several considerations are presented that indicate a serious tension between its essentialist core thesis and natural “metaphysical” interpretations of its central explanatory claims.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. Helen De Cruz (2014). The Enduring Appeal of Natural Theological Arguments. Philosophy Compass 9 (2):145-153.
    Natural theology is the branch of theology and philosophy that attempts to gain knowledge of God through non-revealed sources. In a narrower sense, natural theology is the discipline that presents rational arguments for the existence of God. Given that these arguments rarely directly persuade those who are not convinced by their conclusions, why do they enjoy an enduring appeal? This article examines two reasons for the continuing popularity of natural theological arguments: (i) they appeal to intuitions that (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50.  80
    Katherine Hawley & Alexander Bird (2011). What Are Natural Kinds? Philosophical Perspectives 25 (1):205-221.
    We articulate a view of natural kinds as complex universals. We do not attempt to argue for the existence of universals. Instead, we argue that, given the existence of universals, and of natural kinds, the latter can be understood in terms of the former, and that this provides a rich, flexible framework within which to discuss issues of indeterminacy, essentialism, induction, and reduction. Along the way, we develop a 'problem of the many' for universals.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000