Search results for 'Natural Language' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Miklós Erdélyi-Szabó, László Kálmán & Agi Kurucz (2008). Towards a Natural Language Semantics Without Functors and Operands. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (1):1-17.score: 186.0
    The paper sets out to offer an alternative to the function/argument approach to the most essential aspects of natural language meanings. That is, we question the assumption that semantic completeness (of, e.g., propositions) or incompleteness (of, e.g., predicates) exactly replicate the corresponding grammatical concepts (of, e.g., sentences and verbs, respectively). We argue that even if one gives up this assumption, it is still possible to keep the compositionality of the semantic interpretation of simple predicate/argument structures. In our opinion, (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Johan van Benthem (forthcoming). Natural Language and Logic of Agency. Journal of Logic, Language and Information:1-16.score: 186.0
    This light piece reflects on analogies between two often disjoint streams of research: the logical semantics and pragmatics of natural language and dynamic logics of general information-driven agency. The two areas show significant overlap in themes and tools, and yet, the focus seems subtly different in each, defying a simple comparison. We discuss some unusual questions that emerge when the two are put side by side, without any pretense at covering the whole literature or at reaching definitive conclusions.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Laureano Luna (2013). Indefinite Extensibility in Natural Language. The Monist 96 (2):295-308.score: 180.0
    The Monist’s call for papers for this issue ended: “if formalism is true, then it must be possible in principle to mechanize meaning in a conscious thinking and language-using machine; if intentionalism is true, no such project is intelligible”. We use the Grelling-Nelson paradox to show that natural language is indefinitely extensible, which has two important consequences: it cannot be formalized and model theoretic semantics, standard for formal languages, is not suitable for it. We also point out (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Jonathan Knowles (1998). The Language of Thought and Natural Language Understanding. Analysis 58 (4):264-272.score: 180.0
    Stephen Laurence and Eric Margolis have recently argued that certain kinds of regress arguments against the language of thought (LOT) hypothesis as an account of how we understand natural languages have been answered incorrectly or inadequately by supporters of LOT ('Regress arguments against the language of thought', Analysis, 57 (1), 60-6, J 97). They argue further that this does not undermine the LOT hypothesis, since the main sources of support for LOT are (or might be) independent of (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Nissim Francez & Roy Dyckhoff (2010). Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (6):447-477.score: 180.0
    The paper presents a proof-theoretic semantics (PTS) for a fragment of natural language, providing an alternative to the traditional model-theoretic (Montagovian) semantics (MTS), whereby meanings are truth-condition (in arbitrary models). Instead, meanings are taken as derivability-conditions in a dedicated natural-deduction (ND) proof-system. This semantics is effective (algorithmically decidable), adhering to the meaning as use paradigm, not suffering from several of the criticisms formulated by philosophers of language against MTS as a theory of meaning. In particular, Dummett’s (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. John-Michael Kuczynski (2010). Boguslawski's Analysis of Quantification in Natural Language. Journal of Pragmatics 42 (10):2836-2844.score: 180.0
    The semantic rules governing natural language quantifiers (e.g. "all," "some," "most") neither coincide with nor resemble the semantic rules governing the analogues of those expressions that occur in the artificial languages used by semanticists. Some semanticists, e.g. Peter Strawson, have put forth data-consistent hypotheses as to the identities of the semantic rules governing some natural-language quantifiers. But, despite their obvious merits, those hypotheses have been universally rejected. In this paper, it is shown that those hypotheses are (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Lucja Iwańska (1993). Logical Reasoning in Natural Language: It is All About Knowledge. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 3 (4):475-510.score: 180.0
    A formal, computational, semantically clean representation of natural language is presented. This representation captures the fact that logical inferences in natural language crucially depend on the semantic relation of entailment between sentential constituents such as determiner, noun, adjective, adverb, preposition, and verb phrases.The representation parallels natural language in that it accounts for human intuition about entailment of sentences, it preserves its structure, it reflects the semantics of different syntactic categories, it simulates conjunction, disjunction, and (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Bernardo Magnini, Elena Not, Oliviero Stock & Carlo Strapparava (2000). Natural Language Processing for Transparent Communication Between Public Administration and Citizens. Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (1):1-34.score: 180.0
    This paper presents two projects concerned with the application of natural language processing technology for improving communication between Public Administration and citizens. The first project, GIST,is concerned with automatic multilingual generation of instructional texts for form-filling. The second project, TAMIC, aims at providing an interface for interactive access to information, centered on natural language processing and supposed to be used by the clerk but with the active participation of the citizen.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Syed S. Ali & Stuart C. Shapiro (1993). Natural Language Processing Using a Propositional Semantic Network with Structured Variables. Minds and Machines 3 (4):421-451.score: 180.0
    We describe a knowledge representation and inference formalism, based on an intensional propositional semantic network, in which variables are structures terms consisting of quantifier, type, and other information. This has three important consequences for natural language processing. First, this leads to an extended, more natural formalism whose use and representations are consistent with the use of variables in natural language in two ways: the structure of representations mirrors the structure of the language and allows (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Inger Lytje (1989). Natural Language Understanding Within a Cognitive Semantics Framework. AI and Society 4 (4):276-290.score: 180.0
    The article argues that cognitive linguistic theory may prove an alternative to the Montague paradigm for designing natural language understanding systems. Within this framework it describes a system which models language understanding as a dialogical process between user and computer. The system operates with natural language texts as input and represent language meaning as entity-relationship diagrams.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Geoffrey K. Pullum (1987). Natural Language Interfaces and Strategic Computing. AI and Society 1 (1):47-58.score: 180.0
    Modern weaponry is often too complex for unaided human operation, and is largely or totally controlled by computers. But modern software, particularly artificial intelligence software, exhibits such complexity and inscrutability that there are grave dangers associated with its use in non-benign applications. Recent efforts to make computer systems more accessible to military personnel through natural language processing systems, as proposed in the Strategic Computing Initiative of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, increases rather than decreases the dangers of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom (1990). Natural Language and Natural Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):707-27.score: 162.0
    Many people have argued that the evolution of the human language faculty cannot be explained by Darwinian natural selection. Chomsky and Gould have suggested that language may have evolved as the by-product of selection for other abilities or as a consequence of as-yet unknown laws of growth and form. Others have argued that a biological specialization for grammar is incompatible with every tenet of Darwinian theory – that it shows no genetic variation, could not exist in any (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Hao Tang (2014). A Meeting of the Conceptual and the Natural: Wittgenstein on Learning a Sensation‐Language. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (1).score: 156.0
    Since the rise of modern natural science there has been deep tension between the conceptual and the natural. Wittgenstein's discussion of how we learn a sensation-language contains important resources that can help us relieve this tension. The key here, I propose, is to focus our attention on animal nature, conceived as partially re-enchanted (in the sense recommended by John McDowell). To see how nature, so conceived, helps us relieve the tension in question, it is crucial to gain (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Larry Hauser (1995). Natural Language and Thought: Doing Without Mentalese. Behavior and Philosophy 23 (2):41-47.score: 152.0
    Hauser defends the proposition that our languages of thought are public languages. One group of arguments points to the coincidence of clearly productive (novel, unbounded) cognitive competence with overt possession of recursive symbol systems. Another group relies on phenomenological experience. A third group cites practical and methodological considerations: Occam's razor and the "streetlight principle" (other things being equal, look under the lamp) that motivate looking for instantiations of outer languages in thought first.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. John Haugeland (1979). Understanding Natural Language. Journal of Philosophy 76 (November):619-32.score: 150.0
  16. Fred Sommers, Natural Language and Everyday Reasoning.score: 150.0
  17. James Franklin & S. W. K. Chan (1998). Symbolic Connectionism in Natural Language Disambiguation. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 9:739-755.score: 150.0
    Uses connectionism (neural networks) to extract the "gist" of a story in order to represent a context going forward for the disambiguation of incoming words as a text is processed.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Harold O. Kiess (1968). Effects of Natural Language Mediators on Short-Term Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (1):7.score: 150.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Michael Levison (2012). The Semantic Representation of Natural Language. Bloomsbury Academic.score: 150.0
    Introduction -- Basic concepts -- Previous approaches -- Semantic expressions: introduction -- Formal issues -- Semantic expressions: basic features -- Advanced features -- Applications: capture -- Three little pigs -- Applications: creation.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. William E. Montague, Jack A. Adams & Harold O. Kiess (1966). Forgetting and Natural Language Mediation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (6):829.score: 150.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Barbara Abbott (1995). Natural Language and Thought: Thinking in English. Behavior and Philosophy 23 (2):49-55.score: 150.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Jack A. Adams, Howard I. Thorsheim & John S. McIntyre (1969). Item Length, Acoustic Similarity, and Natural Language Mediation as Variables in Short-Term Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):39.score: 150.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Jay L. Garfield (ed.) (1987). Modularity in Knowledge Representation and Natural-Language Understanding. MIT Press.score: 150.0
  24. Clinton B. Walker, William E. Montague & Alexander J. Wearing (1970). Natural Language Associability in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):264.score: 150.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Anton Sukhoverkhov (2012). Natural Signs and the Origin of Language. Biosemiotics 5 (2):153-159.score: 144.0
    This article considers natural signs and their role in the origin of language. Natural signs, sometimes called primary signs, are connected with their signified by causal relationships, concomitance, or likeliness. And their acquisition is directed by both objective reality and past experience (memory). The discovery and use of natural signs is a required prerequisite of existence for any living systems because they are indispensable to movement, the search for food, regulation, communication, and many other information-related activities. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. M. Dolores Jiménez López (2006). A Grammar Systems Approach to Natural Language Grammar. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (4):419 - 454.score: 132.0
    Taking as its starting point significant similarities between a formal language model—Grammar Systems—and a grammatical theory—Autolexical Syntax—in this paper we suggest the application of the former to the topic of the latter. To show the applicability of Grammar Systems Theory to grammatical description, we introduce a formal-language-theoretic framework for the architecture of natural language grammar: Linguistic Grammar Systems. We prove the adequacy of this model by highlighting its features (modularity, parallelism, interaction) and by showing the similarity (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Keith Frankish (1998). Natural Language and Virtual Belief. In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press. 248.score: 126.0
    This chapter outlines a new argument for the view that language has a cognitive role. I suggest that humans exhibit two distinct kinds of belief state, one passively formed, the other actively formed. I argue that actively formed beliefs (_virtual beliefs_, as I call them) can be identified with _premising policies_, and that forming them typically involves certain linguistic operations. I conclude that natural language has at least a limited cognitive role in the formation and manipulation of (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Friederike Moltmann (2013). Reference to Numbers in Natural Language. Philosophical Studies 162 (3):499 - 536.score: 120.0
    A common view is that natural language treats numbers as abstract objects, with expressions like the number of planets, eight, as well as the number eight acting as referential terms referring to numbers. In this paper I will argue that this view about reference to numbers in natural language is fundamentally mistaken. A more thorough look at natural language reveals a very different view of the ontological status of natural numbers. On this view, (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. William J. Rapaport (1988). Syntactic Semantics: Foundations of Computational Natural Language Understanding. In James H. Fetzer (ed.), Aspects of AI. Kluwer.score: 120.0
    This essay considers what it means to understand natural language and whether a computer running an artificial-intelligence program designed to understand natural language does in fact do so. It is argued that a certain kind of semantics is needed to understand natural language, that this kind of semantics is mere symbol manipulation (i.e., syntax), and that, hence, it is available to AI systems. Recent arguments by Searle and Dretske to the effect that computers cannot (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Angelika Kratzer, Situations in Natural Language Semantics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 120.0
    Situation semantics was developed as an alternative to possible worlds semantics. In situation semantics, linguistic expressions are evaluated with respect to partial, rather than complete, worlds. There is no consensus about what situations are, just as there is no consensus about what possible worlds or events are. According to some, situations are structured entities consisting of relations and individuals standing in those relations. According to others, situations are particulars. In spite of unresolved foundational issues, the partiality provided by situation semantics (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Godehard Link (1983). Logical Semantics for Natural Language. Erkenntnis 19 (1-3):261 - 283.score: 120.0
    It is now a quarter of a century ago that Wolfgang Stegmfiller wrote his monograph 'Das Wahrheitsproblem und die Idee der Semantik' (1957) which dealt with Tarski's and Carnap's foundational work in the field of semantics. While this book is about the definition of the basic semantical concepts in artificial formal languages there is an article written a year earlier (1956) in which Stegmfiller addresses himself specifically to the relation between logic and natural language. Here he gives a (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Friederike Moltmann (2013). Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language. Oxford University Press.score: 120.0
    Philosophers have defended various views about abstract objects by appealing to metaphysical considerations, considerations regarding mathematics or science, and, not infrequently, intuitions about natural language. This book pursues the question of how and whether natural language allows for reference to abstract objects in a fully systematic way. By making full use of contemporary linguistic semantics, it presents a much greater range of linguistic generalizations than has previously been taken into consideration in philosophical discussions, and it argues (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Jaakko Hintikka (2002). Negation in Logic and in Natural Language. Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):585-600.score: 120.0
    In game-theoretical semantics, perfectlyclassical rules yield a strong negation thatviolates tertium non datur when informationalindependence is allowed. Contradictorynegation can be introduced only by a metalogicalstipulation, not by game rules. Accordingly, it mayoccur (without further stipulations) onlysentence-initially. The resulting logic (extendedindependence-friendly logic) explains several regularitiesin natural languages, e.g., why contradictory negation is abarrier to anaphase. In natural language, contradictory negationsometimes occurs nevertheless witin the scope of aquantifier. Such sentences require a secondary interpretationresembling the so-called substitutionalinterpretation of quantifiers.This interpretation (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Martin Stokhof & Hans Kamp, Information in Natural Language.score: 120.0
    Natural languages are vehicles of information, arguably the most important, certainly the most ubiquitous that humans possess. Our everyday interactions with the world, with each other and with ourselves depend on them. And even where in the specialised contexts of science we use dedicated formalisms to convey information, their use is embedded in natural language.1..
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Moti Mizrahi (2012). A Decision Procedure for Evaluating Natural Language Arguments. APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy 12 (1):11-12.score: 120.0
    In this paper, I present a decision procedure for evaluating arguments expressed in natural language. I think that other instructors of informal logic and critical thinking might find this decision procedure to be a useful addition to their teaching resources.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Jakub Szymanik (2009). Quantifiers in TIME and SPACE. Computational Complexity of Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language. Dissertation, University of Amsterdamscore: 120.0
    In the dissertation we study the complexity of generalized quantifiers in natural language. Our perspective is interdisciplinary: we combine philosophical insights with theoretical computer science, experimental cognitive science and linguistic theories. -/- In Chapter 1 we argue for identifying a part of meaning, the so-called referential meaning (model-checking), with algorithms. Moreover, we discuss the influence of computational complexity theory on cognitive tasks. We give some arguments to treat as cognitively tractable only those problems which can be computed in (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Jakub Szymanik (2010). Computational Complexity of Polyadic Lifts of Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (3):215-250.score: 120.0
    We study the computational complexity of polyadic quantifiers in natural language. This type of quantification is widely used in formal semantics to model the meaning of multi-quantifier sentences. First, we show that the standard constructions that turn simple determiners into complex quantifiers, namely Boolean operations, iteration, cumulation, and resumption, are tractable. Then, we provide an insight into branching operation yielding intractable natural language multi-quantifier expressions. Next, we focus on a linguistic case study. We use computational complexity (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Daphna Heller & Lynsey Wolter (2011). On Identification and Transworld Identity in Natural Language: The Case of -Ever Free Relatives. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (2):169-199.score: 120.0
    An -ever free relative is felicitous only when the speaker doesn’t know, or doesn’t care about, the identity of the entity denoted. In this paper we investigate what it means to identify an entity by examining the non-identification condition on -ever free relatives. Following Dayal (In A. Lawson (Ed.), Proceedings of SALT VII, 1997 ), we analyze -ever free relatives as definites with a modal dimension. We show that the variation in the identity of the entity across the possible worlds (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Varol Akman (1995). Book Review -- Hans Kamp and Uwe Reyle, From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Model-Theoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory. [REVIEW] .score: 120.0
    This is a review of From Discourse to Logic: Introduction to Model-theoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory, by Hans Kamp and Uwe Reyle, published by Kluwer Academic Publishers in 1993.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Sebastian Löbner (2000). Polarity in Natural Language: Predication, Quantification and Negation in Particular and Characterizing Sentences. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (3):213-308.score: 120.0
    The present paper is an attempt at the investigation of the nature of polarity contrast in natural languages. Truth conditions for natural language sentences are incomplete unless they include a proper definition of the conditions under which they are false. It is argued that the tertium non datur principle of classical bivalent logical systems is empirically invalid for natural languages: falsity cannot be equated with non-truth. Lacking a direct intuition about the conditions under which a sentence (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Arianna Betti (2004). Lesniewski's Early Liar, Tarski and Natural Language. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 127 (1-3):267-287.score: 120.0
    This paper is a contribution to the reconstruction of Tarski’s semantic background in the light of the ideas of his master, Stanislaw Lesniewski. Although in his 1933 monograph Tarski credits Lesniewski with crucial negative results on the semantics of natural language, the conceptual relationship between the two logicians has never been investigated in a thorough manner. This paper shows that it was not Tarski, but Lesniewski who first avowed the impossibility of giving a satisfactory theory of truth for (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Anita Fetzer (2002). Micro Situations and Macro Structures: Natural-Language Communication and Context. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 7 (3):255-291.score: 120.0
    This contribution investigates the role ofcontext in natural-language communication bydifferentiating between linguistic andsociocultural contexts. It is firmly anchoredto a dialogue framework and based on arelational conception of context as astructured and interactionally organisedphenomenon. However, context is not onlyexamined from this bottom-up or microperspective, but also from a top-down or macroviewpoint as pre- and co-supposed socioculturalcontext. Here, context is not solely seen as aninteractionally organised phenomenon, butrather as a sociocultural apparatus whichstrongly influences the interpretation of microsituations.The section, micro building (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Edward L. Keenan (1993). Natural Language, Sortal Reducibility and Generalized Quantifiers. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (1):314-325.score: 120.0
    Recent work in natural language semantics leads to some new observations on generalized quantifiers. In § 1 we show that English quantifiers of type $ $ are booleanly generated by their generalized universal and generalized existential members. These two classes also constitute the sortally reducible members of this type. Section 2 presents our main result--the Generalized Prefix Theorem (GPT). This theorem characterizes the conditions under which formulas of the form Q1x 1⋯ Qnx nRx 1⋯ xn and q1x 1⋯ (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Shalom Lappin, An Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing for Natural Language Semantics.score: 120.0
    We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types.1 We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like most. We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a type-theoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Jakub Szymanik (2007). A Note on Some Neuroimaging Study of Natural Language Quantifiers Comprehension. Neuropsychologia 45 (9):2158-2160.score: 120.0
    We discuss McMillan et al. (2005) paper devoted to study brain activity during comprehension of sentences with generalized quantifiers. According to the authors their results verify a particular computational model of natural language quantifier comprehension posited by several linguists and logicians (e. g. see van Benthem, 1986). We challenge this statement by invoking the computational difference between first-order quantifiers and divisibility quantifiers (e. g. see Mostowski, 1998). Moreover, we suggest other studies on quantifier comprehension, which can throw more (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Michael Mccord & Arendse Bernth (2005). A Metalogical Theory of Natural Language Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (1):73 - 116.score: 120.0
    We develop a framework for natural language semantics which handles intensionality via metalogical constructions and deals with degree truth values in an integrated way. We take an axiomatic set theory, ZF, as the foundation for semantic representations, but we make ZF a metalanguage for part of itself by embedding a language ℒ within ZF which is basically a copy of the part of ZF consisting of set expressions. This metalogical set-up is used for handling propositional attitude verbs (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Tim Fernando, Three Processes in Natural Language Interpretation.score: 120.0
    To address complications involving ambiguity, presupposition and implicature, three processes underlying natural language interpretation are isolated: translation, entailment and attunement. A meta-language integrating these processes is outlined, elaborating on a proof-theoretic approach to presupposition.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Thomas F. Icard (2012). Inclusion and Exclusion in Natural Language. Studia Logica 100 (4):705-725.score: 120.0
    We present a formal system for reasoning about inclusion and exclusion in natural language, following work by MacCartney and Manning. In particular, we show that an extension of the Monotonicity Calculus, augmented by six new type markings, is sufficient to derive novel inferences beyond monotonicity reasoning, and moreover gives rise to an interesting logic of its own. We prove soundness of the resulting calculus and discuss further logical and linguistic issues, including a new connection to the classes of (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Jouko Väänänen & Dag Westerståhl (2002). On the Expressive Power of Monotone Natural Language Quantifiers Over Finite Models. Journal of Philosophical Logic 31 (4):327-358.score: 120.0
    We study definability in terms of monotone generalized quantifiers satisfying Isomorphism Closure, Conservativity and Extension. Among the quantifiers with the latter three properties - here called CE quantifiers - one finds the interpretations of determiner phrases in natural languages. The property of monotonicity is also linguistically ubiquitous, though some determiners like an even number of are highly non-monotone. They are nevertheless definable in terms of monotone CE quantifiers: we give a necessary and sufficient condition for such definability. We further (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000