Search results for 'Natural Method' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Sort by:
  1. Kenneth J. Sufka & Derek D. Turner (2005). An Evolutionary Account of Chronic Pain: Integrating the Natural Method in Evolutionary Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 18 (2):243-257.score: 90.0
    This paper offers an evolutionary account of chronic pain. Chronic pain is a maladaptive by-product of pain mechanisms and neural plasticity, both of which are highly adaptive. This account shows how evolutionary psychology can be integrated with Flanagan's natural method, and in a way that avoids the usual charges of panglossian adaptationism and an uncritical commitment to a modular picture of the mind. Evolutionary psychology is most promising when it adopts a bottom-up research strategy that focuses on basic (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Sara T. Scharf (2009). Identification Keys, the "Natural Method," and the Development of Plant Identification Manuals. Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):73 - 117.score: 90.0
    The origins of field guides and other plant identification manuals have been poorly understood until now because little attention has been paid to 18th century botanical identification guides. Identification manuals came to have the format we continue to use today when botanical instructors in post-Revolutionary France combined identification keys (step-wise analyses focusing on distinctions between plants) with the "natural method" (clustering of similar plants, allowing for identification by gestalt) and alphabetical indexes. Botanical works featuring multiple but linked techniques (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Martha I. Gibson (2011). A Revolution in Method, Kant's “Copernican Hypothesis”, and the Necessity of Natural Laws. Kant-Studien 102 (1):1-21.score: 48.0
    In an effort to account for our a priori knowledge of synthetic necessary truths, Kant proposes to extend the successful method used in mathematics and the natural sciences to metaphysics. In this paper, a uniform account of that method is proposed and the particular contribution of the ‘Copernican hypothesis’ to our knowledge of necessary truths is explained. It is argued that, though the necessity of the truths is in a way owing to the object's relation to our (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Aspasia S. Moue, Kyriakos A. Masavetas & Haido Karayianni (2006). Tracing the Development of Thought Experiments in the Philosophy of Natural Sciences. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 37 (1):61 - 75.score: 45.0
    An overview is provided of how the concept of the thought experiment has developed and changed for the natural sciences in the course of the 20th century. First, we discuss the existing definitions of the term 'thought experiment' and the origin of the thought experimentation method, identifying it in Greek Presocratics epoch. Second, only in the end of the 19th century showed up the first systematic enquiry on thought experiments by Ernst Mach's work. After the Mach's work, a (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Owen J. Flanagan (1995). Consciousness and the Natural Method. Neuropsychologia 33:1103-15.score: 45.0
  6. Henry Wingate (2013). The Natural Method of Teaching Latin: Its Origins, Rationale, and Prospects. Classical World 106 (3):493-504.score: 45.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Maria Paula Diogo, Ana Carneiro & Ana Simões (2001). The Portuguese Naturalist Correia da Serra (1751-1823) and His Impact on Early Nineteenth-Century Botany. Journal of the History of Biology 34 (2):353 - 393.score: 45.0
    This paper focuses on the contributions to natural history, particularly in methods of plant classification of the Portuguese botanist, man of letters, diplomat, and Freemason Abbé José Correia da Serra (1751-1823), placing them in their national and international political and social contexts. Correia da Serra adopted the natural method of classification championed by the Frenchman Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, and introduced refinements of his own that owe much to parallel developments in zoology. He endorsed the view that the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Daniel Schwartz (2014). Is Baconian Natural History Theory-Laden? Journal of Early Modern Studies 3 (1).score: 45.0
    The recent surge of interest in Bacon's own attempts at natural history has revealed a complex interplay with his speculative ideas in natural philosophy. This research has given rise to the concern that his natural histories are theory-laden in a way that Bacon ought to find unacceptable, given his prescription in the Parasceve for a reliable body of factual instances that can be used as a storehouse for induction. This paper aims to resolve this tension by elaborating (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Nicholas Maxwell (forthcoming). Popper's Paradoxical Pursuit of Natural Philosophy. In J. Shearmur & G. Stokes (eds.), Cambridge Companion to Popper. Cambridge University Press.score: 36.0
    Philosophy of science is seen by most as a meta-discipline – one that takes science as its subject matter, and seeks to acquire knowledge and understanding about science without in any way affecting, or contributing to, science itself. Karl Popper’s approach is very different. His first love is natural philosophy or, as he would put it, cosmology. This intermingles cosmology and the rest of natural science with epistemology, methodology and metaphysics. Paradoxically, however, one of his best known contributions, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Joseph Becker (1993). The Essential Nature of the Method of the Natural Sciences: Response to A. T. Nuyen's "Truth, Method, and Objectivity: Husserl and Gadamer on Scientific Method&Quot;. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 23 (1):73-76.score: 36.0
  11. Richard W. Miller (1987). Fact and Method: Explanation, Confirmation and Reality in the Natural and the Social Sciences. Princeton University Press.score: 36.0
    In this bold work of broad scope and rich erudition, Richard W. Miller sets out to reorient the philosophy of science.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Richmond Campbell (1990). Book Review:Fact and Method: Explanation, Confirmation, and Reality in the Natural and Social Sciences. Richard W. Miller. [REVIEW] Ethics 100 (4):897-.score: 36.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Gideon Freudenthal (1981). Adam Smith's Analytic-Synthetic Method and the 'System of Natural Liberty'. History of European Ideas 2 (2):135-154.score: 36.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Mary Domski (2013). Putting the Pieces Back Together Again: Reading Newton'sPrincipiathrough Newton's Method Steffen Ducheyne . “The Main Business of Natural Philosophy”: Isaac Newton's Natural-Philosophical Methodology . Dordrecht: Springer, 2012. Pp. Xxv+352. $189.00 (Cloth). William L. Harper . Isaac Newton's Scientific Method: Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity and Cosmology . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Pp. Xviii+424. $75.00 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 3 (2):318-333.score: 36.0
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Niccolò Guicciardini (2013). Harper and Ducheyne on Newton William L. Harper,Isaac Newton's Scientific Method, Turning Data Into Evidence About Gravity & Cosmology, Oxford University Press, 2011 Steffen Ducheyne,The Main Business of Natural Philosophy, Isaac Newton's Natural-Philosophical Methodology, Springer, 2102. Perspectives on Science 21 (4):463-481.score: 36.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Douglas Jesseph (1996). Hobbes and the Method of Natural Science. In Tom Sorell (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes. Cambridge University Press. 86--107.score: 36.0
  17. Peter Machamer (2000). The Concept of the Individual an D the Idea (L) of Method in Seventeenth-Century Natural Philosophy. In Peter K. Machamer, Marcello Pera & Aristeidēs Baltas (eds.), Scientific Controversies: Philosophical and Historical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. 81.score: 36.0
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. A. D. Ritchie (2001). Scientific Method: An Inquiry Into the Character and Validity of Natural Laws. Routledge.score: 36.0
    First published in 2000. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. G. Ambrosetti (1971). Christian Natural Law the Spirit and Method Of. American Journal of Jurisprudence 16 (1):290-301.score: 36.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Peter R. Anstey (2003). Locke on Method in Natural Philosophy. In , The Philosophy of John Locke: New Perspectives. Routledge. 26--42.score: 36.0
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. C. Joachim Classen (1976). Science and Method. On Aristotle's Theory of Natural Science. Philosophy and History 9 (2):155-157.score: 36.0
  22. Ronald Curtis (1993). The Essential Nature of the Method of the Natural Sciences: Response to A T Nuyen's Truth, Method, and Objectivity. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 23 (1):73-76.score: 36.0
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. K. D. Knorr-Cetina (1981). Social and Scientific Method or What Do We Make of the Distinction Between the Natural and the Social Sciences? Philosophy of the Social Sciences 11 (3):335-359.score: 36.0
  24. Ae Miller & Mg Miller (1994). Metaphysical Construction: The Central Method of the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 159:62-97.score: 36.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Gert H. Muller (1960). Review: Karel Louis de Bouvere, A Method in Proofs of Undefinability, with Applications to Functions in the Arithmetic of Natural Numbers. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 25 (3):271-273.score: 36.0
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Louis A. Perrott (1979). Lived Aspects of Natural Scientific Method. Duquesne Studies in Phenomenological Psychology 3:97-110.score: 36.0
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. F. Rapp (1972). Weltanschauung and Method. Philosophical Essays on the Unity of the Natural and Social Sciences. Philosophy and History 5 (1):23-24.score: 36.0
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Sandra B. Rosenthal (1997). Scientific Method and Natural Attunement: The Illuminating Alliance of Dewey and Buddhism. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 11 (4):239 - 246.score: 36.0
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Michael Ruse (1974). The Triumph of the Darwinian Method by M. T, Ghiselin; Charles Darwin: The Years of Controversy by P. Vorzimmer; Wallace and Natural Selection by H. Lewis McKinney. [REVIEW] History of Science 12:43-58.score: 36.0
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Hyman Stock (1931). The Method of Descartes in the Natural Sciences. Jamaica, the Marion Press.score: 36.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Y. C. Zark (1996). Hobbes and the Method of Natural Science. In Tom Sorell (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes. Cambridge University Press.score: 36.0
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Theresa W. Tobin & Alison M. Jaggar (2013). Naturalizing Moral Justification: Rethinking the Method of Moral Epistemology. Metaphilosophy 44 (4):409-439.score: 33.0
    The companion piece to this article, “Situating Moral Justification,” challenges the idea that moral epistemology's mission is to establish a single, all-purpose reasoning strategy for moral justification because no reasoning practice can be expected to deliver authoritative moral conclusions in all social contexts. The present article argues that rethinking the mission of moral epistemology requires rethinking its method as well. Philosophers cannot learn which reasoning practices are suitable to use in particular contexts exclusively by exploring logical relations among concepts. (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Eileen Crist (1998). The Ethological Constitution of Animals as Natural Objects: The Technical Writings of Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 13 (1):61-102.score: 33.0
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Nicholas Maxwell (2004). Is Science Neurotic? Imperial College Press.score: 30.0
    Is Science Neurotic? sets out to show that science suffers from a damaging but rarely noticed methodological disease — “rationalistic neurosis.” Assumptions concerning metaphysics, human value and politics, implicit in the aims of science, are repressed, and the malaise has spread to affect the whole academic enterprise, with the potential for extraordinarily damaging long-term consequences. The book begins with a discussion of the aims and methods of natural science, and moves on to discuss social science, philosophy, education, psychoanalytic theory (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Witold Marciszewski (1997). Rational Beliefs as Produced by Computational Processes. Foundations of Science 2 (1):87-106.score: 30.0
    Intelligent problem-solving depends on consciously applied methods of thinking as well as inborn or trained skills. The latter are like resident programs which control processes of the kind called (in Unix) daemons. Such a computational process is a fitting reaction to situations (defined in the program in question) which is executed without any command of a computer user (or without any intention of the conscious subject). The study of intelligence should involve methods of recognizing those beliefs whose existence is due (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Nicholas Maxwell (2002). The Need for a Revolution in the Philosophy of Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 33 (2):381-408.score: 28.0
    There is a need to bring about a revolution in the philosophy of science, interpreted to be both the academic discipline, and the official view of the aims and methods of science upheld by the scientific community. At present both are dominated by the view that in science theories are chosen on the basis of empirical considerations alone, nothing being permanently accepted as a part of scientific knowledge independently of evidence. Biasing choice of theory in the direction of simplicity, unity (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Richard A. Spinello (2003). The Future of Intellectual Property. Ethics and Information Technology 5 (1):1-16.score: 27.0
    This paper uses two recentworks as a springboard for discussing theproper contours of intellectual propertyprotection. Professor Lessig devotes much ofThe Future of Ideas to demonstrating howthe expanding scope of intellectual propertyprotection threatens the Internet as aninnovation commons. Similarly, ProfessorLitman''s message in Digital Copyright isthat copyright law is both too complicated andtoo restrictive. Both authors contend that asa result of overprotecting individual rights,creativity is stifled and the vitality of theintellectual commons is in jeopardy. It isdifficult to evaluate the claims and policyprescriptions (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Marion Godman (2013). Psychiatric Disorders Qua Natural Kinds: The Case of the “Apathetic Children”. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):144-152.score: 27.0
    In this article I examine some of the issues involved in taking psychiatric disorders as natural kinds. I begin by introducing a permissive model of natural kind-hood that at least prima facie seems to allow psychiatric disorders to be natural kinds. The model, however, hinges on there in principle being some grounding that is shared by all members of a kind, which explain all or most of the additional shared projectible properties. This leads us to the following (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Helen Thornton (2005). State of Nature or Eden?: Thomas Hobbes and His Contemporaries on the Natural Condition of Human Beings. University of Rochester Press.score: 27.0
    State of nature or Eden? -- Hobbes' state of nature as an account of the fall? -- Hobbes' own belief or unbelief -- The contemporary reaction to Leviathan -- Hobbes and commentaries on Genesis -- A note on method and chapter order -- Good and evil -- Hobbes on good and evil -- The 'seditious doctrines' of the schoolmen -- The contemporary reaction -- The scriptural account -- The state of nature as an account of the fall? -- Equality (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Celina A. Lértora Mendoza (2007). Averroes y Tomás de Aquino sobre el concepto de ciencia natural. Veritas 52 (3).score: 27.0
    At the beginning of the Book 1 of the Physica, Aristotle sets the question on the matter and subject of natural science. This issue refers to the concept of the science, which he starts bringing up. Natural Science (philosophia naturalis) has, since then, been especially enquired into, above all in terms of the original Aristotle’s commentary. Averroes dedicates a concise and, at the same time comprehensive Proem on the subject. Thomas Aquinas, on the contrary, and in opposition to (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Angela Ales Bello (2008). The Human Being in the Context of Nature: Philosophical Anthropology and Natural Sciences in Hedwig Conrad-Martius. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 18 (4):425-443.score: 27.0
    The most original aspect of Hedwig Conrad-Martius’ research is her interpretation of nature, performed through the phenomenological method. She pinpoints the very essences of the natural phenomena, discovering entelechies inside them and a trans-physical dimension. She reads the evolution of nature in a new way, against the deterministic interpretation of it. Inside nature one can discover many levels, qualitatively different. The human being participates to all of them, but his/her peculiarity is linked to the mental–spiritual life.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. E. T. Gendlin (1995). Crossing and Dipping: Some Terms for Approaching the Interface Between Natural Understanding and Logical Formulation. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 5 (4):547-560.score: 27.0
    Gendlin proposes experiential concepts as bridges between phenomenology and logical formulation. His method moves back and forth, aiming to increase both natural understanding and logical formulation. On thesubjective side, the concepts requiredirect reference tofelt orimplicit meaning. There is no equivalence between this and the logical side. Rather, in logical explication, the implicit iscarried forward, a relation shown by many functions. The subjective is no inner parallel. It performsspecific functions in language. Once these are located, they also lead to (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Miren Boehm (2013). The Concept of Body in Hume's Treatise. Protosociology:206-220.score: 27.0
    Hume’s views concerning the existence of body or external objects are notoriously difficult and intractable. The paper sheds light on the concept of body in Hume’s Treatise by defending three theses. First, that Hume’s fundamental tenet that the only objects that are present to the mind are perceptions must be understood as methodological, rather than metaphysical or epistemological. Second, that Hume considers legitimate the fundamental assumption of natural philosophy that through experience and observation we know body. Third, that many (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (2013). The Natural Vs. The Human Sciences:: Myth, Methodology and Ontology. Discusiones Filosóficas 14 (22):25-41.score: 27.0
    I argue that the human sciences (i.e. humanities, social- and behavioural sciences) should not try to imitate the methodology of the natural sciences. The human sciences study meaningful phenomena whose nature is decisively different from the merely physical phenomena studied by the natural sciences, and whose study therefore require different methods; meaningful phenomena do not obviously obey natural laws while the merely physical necessarily does. This is not to say that the human sciences do not study an (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Nissim Francez (2014). Harmony in Multiple-Conclusion Natural-Deduction. Logica Universalis 8 (2):215-259.score: 27.0
    The paper studies the extension of harmony and stability, major themes in proof-theoretic semantics, from single-conclusion natural-deduction systems to multiple-conclusions natural-deduction, independently of classical logic. An extension of the method of obtaining harmoniously-induced general elimination rules from given introduction rules is suggested, taking into account sub-structurality. Finally, the reductions and expansions of the multiple-conclusions natural-deduction representation of classical logic are formulated.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Carlos Hernán Marín Ospina (2009). Dedicatoria, a los lectores, sobre la vida e historia de Tucídides en La Guerra del Peloponeso de Tucídides. Logos 15:9-28.score: 27.0
    El artículo consta de dos partes: en la primera se hacen algunos comentarios aclaratorios y de contexto acerca del origen de los tres textos de Thomas Hobbes, de los cuales se presenta una versión en castellano y constituyen la segunda parte y la más relevante del artículo. La primera parte se centra en hacer evidente la importancia de éstos, considerados representativos del periodo de juventud del autor y su papel y lugar en el pensamiento político hobbesiano, así como la relación (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. S. W. P. Steen (1972). Mathematical Logic with Special Reference to the Natural Numbers. Cambridge [Eng.]University Press.score: 27.0
    This book presents a comprehensive treatment of basic mathematical logic. The author's aim is to make exact the vague, intuitive notions of natural number, preciseness, and correctness, and to invent a method whereby these notions can be communicated to others and stored in the memory. He adopts a symbolic language in which ideas about natural numbers can be stated precisely and meaningfully, and then investigates the properties and limitations of this language. The treatment of mathematical concepts in (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Alberto Vanzo (forthcoming). Christian Wolff and Experimental Philosophy. In Daniel Garber & Donald Rutherford (eds.), Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy. Oxford University Press. vol. 7.score: 27.0
    This chapter discusses the relation between Christian Wolff's philosophy and the methodological views of early modern experimental philosophers. The chapter argues for three claims. First, Wolff's system relies on experience at every step and his views on experiments, observations, hypotheses, and the a priori are in line with those of experimental philosophers. Second, the study of Wolff's views demonstrates the influence of experimental philosophy in early eighteenth-century Germany. Third, references to Wolff's empiricism and rationalism are best identified or replaced with (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Nicholas Maxwell (2011). We Need an Academic Revolution. Oxford Magazine (309):15-18.score: 24.0
    Universities today betray both reason and humanity. They are still dominated by the idea, inherited from the past, that the best way the academic enterprise can help promote human welfare is, in the first instance, to pursue the intellectual aim of acquiring knowledge. First, knowledge and technological know-how are to be acquired; then, secondarily, they can be applied to help solve social problems. But academic inquiry conducted in this way – knowledge-inquiry as it may be called – violates the most (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Nicholas Maxwell, What’s Wrong With Aim-Oriented Empiricism?score: 24.0
    For four decades it has been argued that we need to adopt a new conception of science called aim-oriented empiricism. This has far-reaching implications and repercussions for science, the philosophy of science, academic inquiry in general, conception of rationality, and how we go about attempting to make progress towards as good a world as possible. Despite these far-reaching repercussions, aim-oriented empiricism has so far received scant attention from philosophers of science. Here, sixteen objections to the validity of the argument for (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 1000