Search results for 'Natural classification' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  19
    Dirk Stemerding (1993). How to Make Oneself Nature's Spokesman? A Latourian Account of Classification in Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Natural History. Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):193-223.
    Classification in eighteenth-century natural history was marked by a battle of systems. The Linnaean approach to classification was severely criticized by those naturalists who aspired to a truly natural system. But how to make oneself nature''s spokesman? In this article I seek to answer that question using the approach of the French anthropologist of science Bruno Latour in a discussion of the work of the French naturalists Buffon and Cuvier in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. (...)
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  2.  2
    Yury Viktor Kissin (2013). Natural Sciences: Definitions and Attempt at Classification. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (2):116-137.
    The article discusses the formal classification of natural sciences, which is based on several propositions: (a) natural sciences can be separated onto independent and dependent sciences based on the gnosiologic criterion and irreducibility criteria (principal and technical); (b) there are four independent sciences which form a hierarchy: physics ← chemistry ← terrestrial biology ← human psychology; (c) every independent science except for physics has already developed or will develop in the future a set of final paradigms formulated (...)
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  3.  13
    Catherine Kendig (ed.) (2016). Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge.
    This edited volume of 13 new essays aims to turn past discussions of natural kinds on their head. Instead of presenting a metaphysical view of kinds based largely on an unempirical vantage point, it pursues questions of kindedness which take the use of kinds and activities of kinding in practice as significant in the articulation of them as kinds. The book brings philosophical study of current and historical episodes and case studies from various scientific disciplines to bear on (...)
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  4.  11
    Joeri Witteveen (2015). Natural Classification. Metascience 24 (2):275-278.
    Writing a book about ‘natural classification’ is not a natural thing to do these days. As the authors of The Nature of Classification point out, classification as a stand-alone topic—separated from discussions of hypothesis testing, experimentation and concept formation—was all the rage in mid-nineteenth century philosophy of science, but interest has steadily dwindled ever since. In most twentieth century philosophy of science, classification was treated either as a pre-scientific endeavor, (...)
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  5.  25
    Victor Gijsbers (2014). Unification as a Measure of Natural Classification. Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 29 (1):71-82.
    Recent interest in the idea that there can be scientific understanding without explanation lends new relevance to Duhem's notion of natural classification. According to Duhem, a classification that is natural teaches us something about nature without being explanatory. However, his conception of naturalnessleaves much to be desired from the point of view of contemporary discussions. In this paper, I argue that we can measure the naturalness of classification by using an amended (...)
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  6.  17
    J. Katzav & C. A. Reed (2004). On Argumentation Schemes and the Natural Classification of Arguments. Argumentation 18 (2):239-259.
    We develop conceptions of arguments and of argument types that will, by serving as the basis for developing a natural classification of arguments, benefit work in artificial intelligence. Focusing only on arguments construed as the semantic entities that are the outcome of processes of reasoning, we outline and clarify our view that an argument is a proposition that represents a fact as both conveying some other fact and as doing so wholly. Further, we outline our view that, with (...)
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  7.  25
    Andrew Lugg (1990). Pierre Duhem's Conception of Natural Classification. Synthese 83 (3):409 - 420.
    Duhem's discussion of physical theories as natural classifications is neither antithetical nor incidental to the main thrust of his philosophy of science. Contrary to what is often supposed, Duhem does not argue that theories are better thought of as economically organizing empirical laws than as providing information concerning the nature of the world. What he is primarily concerned with is the character and justification of the scientific method, not the logical status of theoretical entities. The crucial point to (...)
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  8.  6
    Sonia Maria Dion (2013). Pierre Duhem and the Inconsistency Between Instrumentalism and Natural Classification. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):12-19.
    To consider Pierre Duhem’s conception of natural classification as the aim of physical theory, along with his instrumentalist view on its nature, sets up an inconsistency in his philosophy of science which has not yet been solved. This paper argues that to solve it we have to take Duhem on his own terms and that a solution can only be found by interpreting his philosophy as an articulated system which necessarily involves the following connections: 1. The association of (...)
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  9. Alex Burri (1996). Realismus in Duhems Naturgemässer klassifikationRealism in Duhem's Natural Classification. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 27 (2):203-213.
    Realism in Duhem's Natural Classification. Pierre Duhem is an outstanding exponent of empiricism. According to the empiricist view scientific laws and theories merely describe formal relations between observable phenomena. Duhems' important notion of natural classification is intended to explain the predictive success of science. I shall argue that it can only be interpreted realistically. Besides the success of science, two further arguments are put forward in favor of realism: the fact that laws of nature are necessary, (...)
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  10.  21
    Jonathan Y. Tsou (forthcoming). Natural Kinds, Psychiatric Classification, and the History of the DSM. History of Psychiatry.
    This paper addresses philosophical issues concerning whether mental disorders are natural kinds and how the DSM should classify mental disorders. I argue that some mental disorders (e.g., schizophrenia, depression) are natural kinds in the sense that they are natural classes constituted by a set of stable biological mechanisms. I subsequently argue that a theoretical and causal approach to classification would provide a superior method for classifying natural kinds than the purely descriptive approach adopted by (...)
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  11.  54
    Stephen B. Hawkins (2007). Desire and Natural Classification: Aristotle and Peirce on Final Cause. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 43 (3):521 - 541.
    : Peirce was greatly influenced by Aristotle, particularly on the topic of final cause. Commentators are therefore right to draw on Aristotle in the interpretation of Peirce's teleology. But these commentators sometimes fail to distinguish clearly between formal cause and final cause in Aristotle's philosophy. Unless form and end are clearly distinguished, no sense can be made of Peirce's important claim that 'desires create classes.' Understood in the context of his teleology, this claim may be considered Peirce's answer to nominalists (...)
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  12. Karen Merikangas Darling (2003). Motivational Realism: The Natural Classification for Pierre Duhem. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1125-1136.
    This paper addresses a central interpretive problem in understanding Pierre Duhem`s philosophy of science. The problem arises because there is textual support for both realist and antirealist readings of his work. I argue that his realist and antirealist claims are different. For Duhem, scientific reasoning leads straight to antirealism. But intuition (reasons of the heart) motivates, without justifying, a kind of realism. I develop this idea to suggest a motivational realist interpretation of Duhem`s philosophy.
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  13.  41
    Karen Merikangas Darling (2003). Motivational Realism: The Natural Classification for Pierre Duhem. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1125-1136.
    This paper addresses a central interpretive problem in understanding Pierre Duhem's philosophy of science. The problem arises because there is textual support for both realist and antirealist readings of his work. I argue that his realist and antirealist claims are different. For Duhem, scientific reasoning leads straight to antirealism. But intuition (reasons of the heart) motivates, without justifying, a kind of realism. I develop this idea to suggest a motivational realist interpretation of Duhem's philosophy.
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  14.  15
    Olaf Breidbach (2007). The Search for the Basis of Natural Classification. The Monist 90 (4):483-498.
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  15.  3
    Sindhuja Bhakthavatsalam (2015). The Rationale Behind Pierre Duhem's Natural Classification. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 51:11-21.
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  16.  9
    Menachem Fisch (1984). Hempel's Ravens, the Natural Classification of Hypotheses and the Growth of Knowledge. Erkenntnis 21 (1):45 - 62.
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  17. Victor Gijsbers (2014). Unification as a Measure of Natural Classification. Theoria. An International Journal for Theory, History and Foundations of Science 29 (1):71.
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  18.  74
    John S. Wilkins & Malte C. Ebach (2013). The Nature of Classification: Relationships and Kinds in the Natural Sciences. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The Nature of Classification discusses an old and generally ignored issue in the philosophy of science: natural classification. It argues for classification to be a sometimes theory-free activity in science, and discusses the existence of scientific domains, theory-dependence of observation, the inferential relations of classification and theory, and the nature of the classificatory activity in general. It focuses on biological classification, but extends the discussion to physics, psychiatry, meteorology and other special sciences.
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  19.  11
    Francis Heylighen (1995). (Meta)Systems as Constraints on Variation— a Classification and Natural History of Metasystem Transitions. World Futures 45 (1):59-85.
    (1995). (Meta)systems as constraints on variation— a classification and natural history of metasystem transitions. World Futures: Vol. 45, The Quantum of Evolution, pp. 59-85.
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  20.  17
    David Oldroyd (2011). Mineralogy, Chemistry, Botany, Medicine, Geology, Agriculture, Meteorology, Classification,…: The Life and Times of John Walker , Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh University. [REVIEW] Metascience 20 (2):395-399.
    Mineralogy, chemistry, botany, medicine, geology, agriculture, meteorology, classification,…: The life and times of John Walker, Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh University Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9471-7 Authors David Oldroyd, School of History and Philosophy, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 Australia Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  21. Andrea Guasparri (2013). Explicit Nomenclature and Classification in Pliny’s Natural History XXXII. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):347-353.
    Pliny’s Natural History has been traditionally considered as the unoriginal work of an uncritical compiler. This has also been held to be true of the “biological” books, especially when one compares them with the works of Aristotle, one of Pliny’s main authorities in this domain. Aristotle’s achievements would be remarkable, especially in the field of classification, of which the philosopher is traditionally celebrated as the scientific father. However, by carefully reading HN XXXII it is possible to find a (...)
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  22. Muhammad Ali Khalidi (2015). Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
    The notion of 'natural kinds' has been central to contemporary discussions of metaphysics and philosophy of science. Although explicitly articulated by nineteenth-century philosophers like Mill, Whewell and Venn, it has a much older history dating back to Plato and Aristotle. In recent years, essentialism has been the dominant account of natural kinds among philosophers, but the essentialist view has encountered resistance, especially among naturalist metaphysicians and philosophers of science. Informed by detailed examination of classification in the (...) and social sciences, this book argues against essentialism and for a naturalist account of natural kinds. By looking at case studies drawn from diverse scientific disciplines, from fluid mechanics to virology and polymer science to psychiatry, the author argues that natural kinds are nodes in causal networks. On the basis of this account, he maintains that there can be natural kinds in the social sciences as well as the natural sciences. (shrink)
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  23. Muhammad Ali Khalidi (2013). Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
    The notion of 'natural kinds' has been central to contemporary discussions of metaphysics and philosophy of science. Although explicitly articulated by nineteenth-century philosophers like Mill, Whewell and Venn, it has a much older history dating back to Plato and Aristotle. In recent years, essentialism has been the dominant account of natural kinds among philosophers, but the essentialist view has encountered resistance, especially among naturalist metaphysicians and philosophers of science. Informed by detailed examination of classification in the (...) and social sciences, this book argues against essentialism and for a naturalist account of natural kinds. By looking at case studies drawn from diverse scientific disciplines, from fluid mechanics to virology and polymer science to psychiatry, the author argues that natural kinds are nodes in causal networks. On the basis of this account, he maintains that there can be natural kinds in the social sciences as well as the natural sciences. (shrink)
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  24.  22
    Peter Anstey (2012). Francis Bacon and the Classification of Natural History. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.
  25.  27
    John Dupré (2015). Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences, by Muhammad Ali Khalidi. Mind 124 (493):358-361.
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  26.  11
    Mauro Murzi (2007). A Defence of Pluralism in the Debate About Natural Kinds-Case Studies From the Classification of Celestial Objects. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 12 (2).
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  27.  4
    Georg Theiner (2016). Muhammad Ali Khalidi: Natural Categories and Human Kinds. Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (1):247-255.
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  28.  8
    A. D. Voûte (1943). Classification of Factors Influencing the Natural Growth of a Population of Insects. Acta Biotheoretica 7 (1-2):99-116.
    Um bei einer Wertung der Faktoren, die das Wachstum einer Population beeinflussen, zu einer richtigen Einsicht zu gelangen, empfiehlt es sich, nicht den relativen Wert dieser Faktoren in Bezug auf die in Rede stehende Insektenpopulation auszudrücken, sondern ihre absolute Grösse in Faktoreinheiten zum Ausdruck zu bringen — wie: Wärme in Grad Celsius, Luftfeuchtigkeit in Prozenten, Zahl der im Bevölkerungsmilieu vorgefundenen Raubinsekten oder Parasiten. Auf dieser Grundlage liessen sich Faktoren in folgender Weise aufteilen: Faktoren ersten Grades : Allgemeine Faktoren : Unabhängige (...)
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  29.  10
    Matthew H. Slater (2015). Muhammad Ali khAlidi Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):1017-1023.
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  30.  8
    Ana Hulton (2014). Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):102-105.
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  31.  9
    Klaus Petrus (1996). Naturgemässe Klassifikation Und Kontinuität Wissenschaft Und GeschichteNatural Classification and Continuity, Science and History. Some Reflections on Pierre Duhem. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 27 (2):307-323.
    Duhem is commonly held to have founded his view of history of science as continuous on the ‘metaphsical assertion’ of natural classification. With the help of a strict distinction between formal and material characterization of natural classification I try to show that this imputation is problematic, if not simply incorrect. My analysis opens alternative perspectives on Duhem's talk of continuity, the ideal form of theories, and the rôle of ‘bon sens’; moreover it emphasizes some aspects of (...)
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  32.  4
    John Wilder, Jacob Feldman & Manish Singh (2011). Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics. Cognition 119 (3):325-340.
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  33.  11
    Seweryna Łuszczewska-Romahnowa (1961). Classification as a Kind of Distance Function. Natural Classifications. Studia Logica 12 (1):41 - 81.
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  34.  3
    Manish Singh John Wilder, Jacob Feldman (2011). Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics. Cognition 119 (3):325.
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  35.  1
    Sheldon Richmond (2015). Book Review: Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences by Muhammad Ali Khalidi. [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 45 (2):283-288.
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  36. Wolfgang Lefevre (2001). Natural or Artificial Systems? The Eighteenth-Century Controversy on Classification of Animals and Plants and its Philosophical Contexts. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 220:191-209.
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  37. Richard Richards (2015). Wilkins, John S, and Ebach, Malte C, The Nature of Classification: Relationships and Kinds in the Natural Sciences. Science and Education 24 (4):463-468.
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  38. Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2014). Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. In Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (eds.), Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. MIT 1-10.
    In this volume, leading philosophers of psychiatry examine psychiatric classification systems, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), asking whether current systems are sufficient for effective diagnosis, treatment, and research. Doing so, they take up the question of whether mental disorders are natural kinds, grounded in something in the outside world. Psychiatric categories based on natural kinds should group phenomena in such a way that they are subject to the same type of (...)
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  39.  19
    Saeid Zibakalam (1997). Relativism Due to a Theory of Natural Rationality. The Research for This Article Was Fully Funded by TAFRESH University, TAFRESH, iRAN, and I Should Therefore Acknowledge Their Kind Support. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 28 (2):337-357.
    Edinburgh School's theory of natural rationality, enunciated to render symmetrical explanation plausible, thereby providing support for its relativism, is presented and evaluated. I have endeavoured to demonstrate that there are gross misinterpretations of Hesse's theory of science, network model, and her conceptions of classification of objects and of universals; that Edinburgh School's theory of natural rationality suffers from a considerable area of ignorance concerning its foundation. I have further shown that not only the (...) is not descriptive of the actuality of people's reasoning, but it in fact is normatively laden. Even if these problems can be overcome, I have shown that it ultimately does not render all beliefs equivalent insofar as rationality status is concerned, and hence symmetrical explanation will still not be possible. Concerning the Edinburgh School's interest theory, I have argued that there are some incoherencies in the proposed positions; and that even if these are rectified the resulting theory leads to grotesque absurdities. (shrink)
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  40.  3
    Saeid Zibakalam (1997). Relativism Due to a Theory of Natural Rationality. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 28 (2):337 - 357.
    Edinburgh School's theory of natural rationality, enunciated to render symmetrical explanation plausible, thereby providing support for its relativism, is presented and evaluated. I have endeavoured to demonstrate that there are gross misinterpretations of Hesse's theory of science, network model, and her conceptions of classification of objects and of universals; that Edinburgh School's theory of natural rationality suffers from a considerable area of ignorance concerning its foundation. I have further shown that not only the (...) is not descriptive of the actuality of people's reasoning, but it in fact is normatively laden. Even if these problems can be overcome, I have shown that it ultimately does not render all beliefs equivalent insofar as rationality status is concerned, and hence symmetrical explanation will still not be possible. Concerning the Edinburgh School's interest theory, I have argued that there are some incoherencies in the proposed positions; and that even if these are rectified the resulting theory leads to grotesque absurdities. (shrink)
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  41.  1
    Juergen Heinrich Maar & Eder João Lenardão (2015). The Brazilian Contribution of Alcindo Flores Cabral to the Periodic Classification. Foundations of Chemistry 17 (1):5-22.
    This paper presents the contributions of Alcindo Flores Cabral, professor of Chemistry at the Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, nowadays part of the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, to chemistry teaching. It is a contribution almost unknown to the Brazilian chemical community, although recognized as valuable by several renowned chemists abroad, like W. Hückel, G. Charlot, F. Strong, E. Fessenden and others. Cabral’s innovative helical representation is presented in connection not only with contemporary representations, but also an incursion is made into (...)
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  42. Milena Ivanova (2010). Pierre Duhem's Good Sense as a Guide to Theory Choice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):58-64.
    This paper examines Duhem’s concept of good sense as an attempt to support a non rule-governed account of rationality in theory choice. Faced with the underdetermination of theory by evidence thesis and the continuity thesis, Duhem tried to account for the ability of scientists to choose theories that continuously grow to a natural classification. I will examine the concept of good sense and the problems that stem from it. I will also present a recent attempt by David Stump (...)
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  43.  12
    Klaus Petrus (1996). Naturgemässe Klassifikation Und Kontinuität Wissenschaft Und Geschichte. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 27 (2):307 - 323.
    Natural classification and continuity, science and history. Some Reflections on Pierre Duhem. Duhem is commonly held to have founded his view of history of science as continuous on the 'metaphysical assertion' of natural classification. With the help of a strict distinction between formal and material characterization of natural classification I try to show that this imputation is problematic, if not simply incorrect. My analysis opens alternative perspectives on Duhem's talk of continuity, the ideal form (...)
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  44. L. R. Franklin-Hall (2015). Natural Kinds as Categorical Bottlenecks. Philosophical Studies 172 (4):925-948.
    Both realist and anti-realist accounts of natural kinds possess prima facie virtues: realists can straightforwardly make sense of the apparent objectivity of the natural kinds, and anti-realists, their knowability. This paper formulates a properly anti-realist account designed to capture both merits. In particular, it recommends understanding natural kinds as ‘categorical bottlenecks,’ those categories that not only best serve us, with our idiosyncratic aims and cognitive capacities, but also those of a wide range of alternative agents. By endorsing (...)
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  45.  28
    Miles MacLeod & Thomas A. C. Reydon (2013). Natural Kinds in Philosophy and in the Life Sciences: Scholastic Twilight or New Dawn? [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):89-99.
    This article, which is intended both as a position paper in the philosophical debate on natural kinds and as the guest editorial to this thematic issue, takes up the challenge posed by Ian Hacking in his paper, “Natural Kinds: Rosy Dawn, Scholastic Twilight.” Whereas a straightforward interpretation of that paper suggests that according to Hacking the concept of natural kinds should be abandoned, both in the philosophy of science and in philosophy more generally, we suggest that an (...)
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  46.  40
    Jonathan Y. Tsou (2015). DSM-5 and Psychiatry's Second Revolution: Descriptive Vs. Theoretical Approaches to Psychiatric Classification. In Steeves Demazeux & Patrick Singy (eds.), The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. Springer 43-62.
    A large part of the controversy surrounding the publication of DSM-5 stems from the possibility of replacing the purely descriptive approach to classification favored by the DSM since 1980. This paper examines the question of how mental disorders should be classified, focusing on the issue of whether the DSM should adopt a purely descriptive or theoretical approach. I argue that the DSM should replace its purely descriptive approach with a theoretical approach that integrates causal information into the DSM’s (...)
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  47.  11
    Robert J. O'Hara (1991). Representations of the Natural System in the Nineteenth Century. Biology and Philosophy 6 (2): 255–274.
    "The Natural System" is the abstract notion of the order in living diversity. The richness and complexity of this notion is revealed by the diversity of representations of the Natural System drawn by ornithologists in the Nineteenth Century. These representations varied in overall form from stars, to circles, to maps, to evolutionary trees and cross-sections through trees. They differed in their depiction of affinity, analogy, continuity, directionality, symmetry, reticulation and branching, evolution, and morphological convergence and divergence. (...)
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  48.  5
    Robert J. O'Hara (1988). Diagrammatic Classifications of Birds, 1819–1901: Views of the Natural System in 19th-Century British Ornithology. Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici: pp. 2746–2759.
    Classifications of animals and plants have long been represented by hierarchical lists of taxa, but occasional authors have drawn diagrammatic versions of their classifications in an attempt to better depict the "natural relationships" of their organisms. Ornithologists in 19th-century Britain produced and pioneered many types of classificatory diagrams, and these fall into three groups: (a) the quinarian systems of Vigors and Swainson (1820s and 1830s); (b) the "maps" of Strickland and Wallace (1840s and 1850s); and (c) the evolutionary diagrams (...)
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  49.  6
    Catherine Kendig (2016). Homologizing as Kinding. In C. Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge
    Homology is a natural kind concept, but one that has been notoriously elusive to pin down. There has been sustained debate over the nature of correspondence and the units of comparison. But this continued debate over its meaning has focused on defining homology rather than on its use in practice. The aim of this chapter is to concentrate on the practices of homologizing. I define “homologizing” to be a concept-in-use. Practices of homologizing are kinds of rule following, the satisfaction (...)
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  50.  4
    Catherine Kendig (2016). Activities of Kinding in Scientific Practice. In C. Kendig (ed.), Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Routledge
    Discussions over whether these natural kinds exist, what is the nature of their existence, and whether natural kinds are themselves natural kinds aim to not only characterize the kinds of things that exist in the world, but also what can knowledge of these categories provide. Although philosophically critical, much of the past discussions of natural kinds have often answered these questions in a way that is unresponsive to, or has actively avoided, discussions of the empirical use (...)
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