Search results for 'Natural classification' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Dirk Stemerding (1993). How to Make Oneself Nature's Spokesman? A Latourian Account of Classification in Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Natural History. Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):193-223.score: 198.0
    Classification in eighteenth-century natural history was marked by a battle of systems. The Linnaean approach to classification was severely criticized by those naturalists who aspired to a truly natural system. But how to make oneself nature''s spokesman? In this article I seek to answer that question using the approach of the French anthropologist of science Bruno Latour in a discussion of the work of the French naturalists Buffon and Cuvier in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. (...)
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  2. Yury Viktor Kissin (2013). Natural Sciences: Definitions and Attempt at Classification. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (2):116-137.score: 198.0
    The article discusses the formal classification of natural sciences, which is based on several propositions: (a) natural sciences can be separated onto independent and dependent sciences based on the gnosiologic criterion and irreducibility criteria (principal and technical); (b) there are four independent sciences which form a hierarchy: physics ← chemistry ← terrestrial biology ← human psychology; (c) every independent science except for physics has already developed or will develop in the future a set of final paradigms formulated (...)
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  3. Andrew Lugg (1990). Pierre Duhem's Conception of Natural Classification. Synthese 83 (3):409 - 420.score: 180.0
    Duhem's discussion of physical theories as natural classifications is neither antithetical nor incidental to the main thrust of his philosophy of science. Contrary to what is often supposed, Duhem does not argue that theories are better thought of as economically organizing empirical laws than as providing information concerning the nature of the world. What he is primarily concerned with is the character and justification of the scientific method, not the logical status of theoretical entities. The crucial point to notice (...)
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  4. J. Katzav & C. A. Reed (2004). On Argumentation Schemes and the Natural Classification of Arguments. Argumentation 18 (2):239-259.score: 180.0
    We develop conceptions of arguments and of argument types that will, by serving as the basis for developing a natural classification of arguments, benefit work in artificial intelligence. Focusing only on arguments construed as the semantic entities that are the outcome of processes of reasoning, we outline and clarify our view that an argument is a proposition that represents a fact as both conveying some other fact and as doing so wholly. Further, we outline our view that, with (...)
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  5. Stephen B. Hawkins (2007). Desire and Natural Classification: Aristotle and Peirce on Final Cause. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 43 (3):521 - 541.score: 152.0
    : Peirce was greatly influenced by Aristotle, particularly on the topic of final cause. Commentators are therefore right to draw on Aristotle in the interpretation of Peirce's teleology. But these commentators sometimes fail to distinguish clearly between formal cause and final cause in Aristotle's philosophy. Unless form and end are clearly distinguished, no sense can be made of Peirce's important claim that 'desires create classes.' Understood in the context of his teleology, this claim may be considered Peirce's answer to nominalists (...)
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  6. Karen Merikangas Darling (2003). Motivational Realism: The Natural Classification for Pierre Duhem. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1125-1136.score: 150.0
    This paper addresses a central interpretive problem in understanding Pierre Duhem`s philosophy of science. The problem arises because there is textual support for both realist and antirealist readings of his work. I argue that his realist and antirealist claims are different. For Duhem, scientific reasoning leads straight to antirealism. But intuition (reasons of the heart) motivates, without justifying, a kind of realism. I develop this idea to suggest a motivational realist interpretation of Duhem`s philosophy.
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  7. John S. Wilkins & Malte C. Ebach (2013). The Nature of Classification: Relationships and Kinds in the Natural Sciences. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 150.0
    The Nature of Classification discusses an old and generally ignored issue in the philosophy of science: natural classification. It argues for classification to be a sometimes theory-free activity in science, and discusses the existence of scientific domains, theory-dependence of observation, the inferential relations of classification and theory, and the nature of the classificatory activity in general. It focuses on biological classification, but extends the discussion to physics, psychiatry, meteorology and other special sciences.
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  8. Sonia Maria Dion (2013). Pierre Duhem and the Inconsistency Between Instrumentalism and Natural Classification. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):12-19.score: 150.0
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  9. Menachem Fisch (1984). Hempel's Ravens, the Natural Classification of Hypotheses and the Growth of Knowledge. Erkenntnis 21 (1):45 - 62.score: 150.0
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  10. Olaf Breidbach (2007). The Search for the Basis of Natural Classification. The Monist 90 (4):483-498.score: 150.0
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  11. Alex Burri (1996). Realismus in Duhems Naturgemässer klassifikationRealism in Duhem's Natural Classification. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 27 (2):203-213.score: 150.0
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  12. David Oldroyd (2011). Mineralogy, Chemistry, Botany, Medicine, Geology, Agriculture, Meteorology, Classification,…: The Life and Times of John Walker (1730–1803), Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh University. [REVIEW] Metascience 20 (2):395-399.score: 144.0
    Mineralogy, chemistry, botany, medicine, geology, agriculture, meteorology, classification,…: The life and times of John Walker (1730–1803), Professor of Natural History at Edinburgh University Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9471-7 Authors David Oldroyd, School of History and Philosophy, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 Australia Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  13. Francis Heylighen (1995). (Meta)Systems as Constraints on Variation— a Classification and Natural History of Metasystem Transitions. World Futures 45 (1):59-85.score: 144.0
    (1995). (Meta)systems as constraints on variation— a classification and natural history of metasystem transitions. World Futures: Vol. 45, The Quantum of Evolution, pp. 59-85.
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  14. Peter Anstey (2012). Francis Bacon and the Classification of Natural History. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.score: 132.0
  15. Seweryna Łuszczewska-Romahnowa (1961). Classification as a Kind of Distance Function. Natural Classifications. Studia Logica 12 (1):41 - 81.score: 130.0
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  16. Klaus Petrus (1996). Naturgemässe Klassifikation Und Kontinuität Wissenschaft Und GeschichteNatural Classification and Continuity, Science and History. Some Reflections on Pierre Duhem. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 27 (2):307-323.score: 120.0
    Duhem is commonly held to have founded his view of history of science as continuous on the ‘metaphsical assertion’ of natural classification. With the help of a strict distinction between formal and material characterization of natural classification I try to show that this imputation is problematic, if not simply incorrect. My analysis opens alternative perspectives on Duhem's talk of continuity, the ideal form of theories, and the rôle of ‘bon sens’; moreover it emphasizes some aspects of (...)
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  17. Manish Singh John Wilder, Jacob Feldman (2011). Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics. Cognition 119 (3):325.score: 120.0
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  18. John Wilder, Jacob Feldman & Manish Singh (2011). Superordinate Shape Classification Using Natural Shape Statistics. Cognition 119 (3):325-340.score: 120.0
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  19. Ana Hulton (2014). Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):102-105.score: 120.0
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  20. Deborah Rabinowitz & Michael J. Smith (1982). Inventorying Natural Areas Natural Heritage: Classification, Inventory, and Information Albert E. Radford Deborah Kay Strady Otte Lee J. Otte Jimmy R. Massey Paul D. Whitson. [REVIEW] BioScience 32 (6):545-545.score: 120.0
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  21. Matthew H. Slater (forthcoming). Muhammad Ali khAlidi Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axu021.score: 120.0
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  22. Andrea Guasparri (2013). Explicit Nomenclature and Classification in Pliny's Natural History XXXII. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):347-353.score: 120.0
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  23. Catherine Kendig (ed.) (forthcoming). Natural Kinds and Classification in Scientific Practice. Pickering & Chatto.score: 120.0
     
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  24. Wolfgang Lefevre (2001). Natural or Artificial Systems? The Eighteenth-Century Controversy on Classification of Animals and Plants and its Philosophical Contexts. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 220:191-209.score: 120.0
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  25. Mauro Murzi (2007). A Defence of Pluralism in the Debate About Natural Kinds-Case Studies From the Classification of Celestial Objects. Forum Philosophicum 12 (2).score: 120.0
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  26. A. D. Voûte (1943). Classification of Factors Influencing the Natural Growth of a Population of Insects. Acta Biotheoretica 7 (1-2).score: 120.0
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  27. Saeid Zibakalam (1997). Relativism Due to a Theory of Natural Rationality. The Research for This Article Was Fully Funded by TAFRESH University, TAFRESH, iRAN, and I Should Therefore Acknowledge Their Kind Support. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 28 (2):337-357.score: 102.0
    Edinburgh School's theory of natural rationality, enunciated to render symmetrical explanation plausible, thereby providing support for its relativism, is presented and evaluated. I have endeavoured to demonstrate that there are gross misinterpretations of Hesse's theory of science, network model, and her conceptions of classification of objects and of universals; that Edinburgh School's theory of natural rationality suffers from a considerable area of ignorance concerning its foundation. I have further shown that not only the theory is not descriptive (...)
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  28. Saeid Zibakalam (1997). Relativism Due to a Theory of Natural Rationality. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 28 (2):337 - 357.score: 102.0
    Edinburgh School's theory of natural rationality, enunciated to render symmetrical explanation plausible, thereby providing support for its relativism, is presented and evaluated. I have endeavoured to demonstrate that there are gross misinterpretations of Hesse's theory of science, network model, and her conceptions of classification of objects and of universals; that Edinburgh School's theory of natural rationality suffers from a considerable area of ignorance concerning its foundation. I have further shown that not only the theory is not descriptive (...)
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  29. Milena Ivanova (2010). Pierre Duhem's Good Sense as a Guide to Theory Choice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):58-64.score: 90.0
    This paper examines Duhem’s concept of good sense as an attempt to support a non rule-governed account of rationality in theory choice. Faced with the underdetermination of theory by evidence thesis and the continuity thesis, Duhem tried to account for the ability of scientists to choose theories that continuously grow to a natural classification. I will examine the concept of good sense and the problems that stem from it. I will also present a recent attempt by David Stump (...)
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  30. Klaus Petrus (1996). Naturgemässe Klassifikation Und Kontinuität Wissenschaft Und Geschichte. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 27 (2):307 - 323.score: 90.0
    Natural classification and continuity, science and history. Some Reflections on Pierre Duhem. Duhem is commonly held to have founded his view of history of science as continuous on the 'metaphysical assertion' of natural classification. With the help of a strict distinction between formal and material characterization of natural classification I try to show that this imputation is problematic, if not simply incorrect. My analysis opens alternative perspectives on Duhem's talk of continuity, the ideal form (...)
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  31. Jonathan Y. Tsou (forthcoming). DSM-5 and Psychiatry's Second Revolution: Descriptive Vs. Theoretical Approaches to Psychiatric Classification. In Steeves Demazeux & Patrick Singy (eds.), The DSM-5 in Perspective: Philosophical Reflections on the Psychiatric Babel. Springer.score: 84.0
    A large part of the controversy surrounding the publication of DSM-5 stems from the possibility of replacing the purely descriptive approach to classification favored by the DSM since 1980. This paper examines the question of how mental disorders should be classified, focusing on the issue of whether the DSM should adopt a purely descriptive or theoretical approach. I argue that the DSM should replace its purely descriptive approach with a theoretical approach that integrates causal information into the DSM’s descriptive (...)
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  32. Miles MacLeod & Thomas A. C. Reydon (2013). Natural Kinds in Philosophy and in the Life Sciences: Scholastic Twilight or New Dawn? [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (2):89-99.score: 84.0
    This article, which is intended both as a position paper in the philosophical debate on natural kinds and as the guest editorial to this thematic issue, takes up the challenge posed by Ian Hacking in his paper, “Natural Kinds: Rosy Dawn, Scholastic Twilight.” Whereas a straightforward interpretation of that paper suggests that according to Hacking the concept of natural kinds should be abandoned, both in the philosophy of science and in philosophy more generally, we suggest that an (...)
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  33. Robert J. O'Hara (1991). Representations of the Natural System in the Nineteenth Century. Biology and Philosophy 6 (2):255-274.score: 84.0
    ‘The Natural System’ is the abstract notion of the order in living diversity. The richness and complexity of this notion is revealed by the diversity of representations of the Natural System drawn by ornithologists in the Nineteenth Century. These representations varied in overall form from stars, to circles, to maps, to evolutionary trees and cross-sections through trees. They differed in their depiction of affinity, analogy, continuity, directionality, symmetry, reticulation and branching, evolution, and morphological convergence and divergence. Some representations (...)
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  34. Wolfgang Lefèvre (2012). Viewing Chemistry Through its Ways of Classifying. Foundations of Chemistry 14 (1):25-36.score: 72.0
    The focus of this contribution lies on eighteenth-century chemistry up to Lavoisier’s anti-phlogistic chemical system. Some main features of chemistry in this period will be examined by discussing classificatory practices and the understanding of the substances these practices imply. In particular, the question will be discussed of whether these practices can be regarded as natural historical practices and, hence, whether chemistry itself was a special natural history (part I). Furthermore, discussion of the famous Methode de nomenclature chimique (1787) (...)
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  35. Ladislav Tondl (1998). What is the Thematic Structure of Science? Journal for General Philosophy of Science 29 (2):245-264.score: 72.0
    The paper justifies the concept of “thematic structure” or “order of knowledge” over the traditional “classification of sciences” due to the uncertainty of many classification criteria. The thematic structure of science has, of course, various levels and various dimensions. Arguments against any forms of separating the humanities from sciences in the traditional sense of the term are presented and discussed. Equally unacceptable are attempts at sharp separation of technical disciplines and humanities. The thematic structure of humanities is not (...)
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  36. Maria Paula Diogo, Ana Carneiro & Ana Simões (2001). The Portuguese Naturalist Correia da Serra (1751-1823) and His Impact on Early Nineteenth-Century Botany. Journal of the History of Biology 34 (2):353 - 393.score: 72.0
    This paper focuses on the contributions to natural history, particularly in methods of plant classification of the Portuguese botanist, man of letters, diplomat, and Freemason Abbé José Correia da Serra (1751-1823), placing them in their national and international political and social contexts. Correia da Serra adopted the natural method of classification championed by the Frenchman Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, and introduced refinements of his own that owe much to parallel developments in zoology. He endorsed the view that (...)
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  37. Matt L. Drabek (2010). Interactive Classification and Practice in the Social Sciences. Poroi 6 (2):62-80.score: 66.0
    This paper examines the ways in which social scientific discourse and classification interact with the objects of social scientific investigation. I examine this interaction in the context of the traditional philosophical project of demarcating the social sciences from the natural sciences. I begin by reviewing Ian Hacking’s work on interactive classification and argue that there are additional forms of interaction that must be treated.
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  38. Michael Cuffaro (2011). On Thomas Hobbes's Fallible Natural Law Theory. History of Philosophy Quarterly 28 (2):175-190.score: 66.0
    It is not clear, on the face of it, whether Thomas Hobbes's legal philosophy should be considered to be an early example of legal positivism or continuous with the natural-law tradition. On the one hand, Hobbes's command theory of law seems characteristically positivistic. On the other hand, his conception of the "law of nature," as binding on both sovereign and subject, seems to point more naturally toward a natural-law reading of his philosophy. Yet despite this seeming ambiguity, Hobbes (...)
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  39. Olivier Rieppel (2005). Monophyly, Paraphyly, and Natural Kinds. Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):465-487.score: 66.0
    A long-standing debate has dominated systematic biology and the ontological commitments made by its theories. The debate has contrasted individuals and the part – whole relationship with classes and the membership relation. This essay proposes to conceptualize the hierarchy of higher taxa is terms of a hierarchy of homeostatic property cluster natural kinds (biological species remain largely excluded from the present discussion). The reference of natural kind terms that apply to supraspecific taxa is initially fixed descriptively; the extension (...)
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  40. Marco J. Nathan & Andrea Borghini (2014). Development and Natural Kinds. Synthese 191 (3):539-556.score: 66.0
    While philosophers tend to consider a single type of causal history, biologists distinguish between two kinds of causal history: evolutionary history and developmental history. This essay studies the peculiarity of development as a criterion for the individuation of biological traits and its relation to form, function, and evolution. By focusing on examples involving serial homologies and genetic reprogramming, we argue that morphology (form) and function, even when supplemented with evolutionary history, are sometimes insufficient to individuate traits. Developmental mechanisms bring in (...)
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  41. Sara T. Scharf (2009). Identification Keys, the "Natural Method," and the Development of Plant Identification Manuals. Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):73 - 117.score: 66.0
    The origins of field guides and other plant identification manuals have been poorly understood until now because little attention has been paid to 18th century botanical identification guides. Identification manuals came to have the format we continue to use today when botanical instructors in post-Revolutionary France combined identification keys (step-wise analyses focusing on distinctions between plants) with the "natural method" (clustering of similar plants, allowing for identification by gestalt) and alphabetical indexes. Botanical works featuring multiple but linked techniques to (...)
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  42. Jessica Bolker (2013). The Use of Natural Kinds in Evolutionary Developmental Biology. Biological Theory 7 (2):121-129.score: 66.0
    Evolutionary developmental biologists categorize many different kinds of things, from ontogenetic stages to modules of gene activity. The process of categorization—the establishment of “kinds”—is an implicit part of describing the natural world in consistent, useful ways, and has an essentially practical rather than philosophical basis. Kinds commonly serve one of three purposes: they may function (1) as practical tools for communication; (2) to support prediction and generalization; or (3) as a basis for theoretical discussions. Beyond the minimal requirement that (...)
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  43. M. Eulàlia Gassó Miracle (2011). On Whose Authority? Temminck's Debates on Zoological Classification and Nomenclature: 1820-1850. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):445 - 481.score: 66.0
    By following the arguments between Coenraad J. Temminck and fellow ornithologists Louis J.-P. Vieillot and Nicholas Vigors, this paper sketches, to a degree, the state of zoological classification and nomenclature between 1825 and 1840 in Europe. The discussions revolved around the problems caused by an unstable nomenclature, the different definitions of genera and species and the best method to achieve a natural system of classification. As more and more naturalists concerned with classifying and arranging the groups of (...)
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  44. Juergen Heinrich Maar & Eder João Lenardão (2012). A contribuição brasileira de Alcindo Flores Cabral à classificação periódica dos elementos. Scientiae Studia 10 (4):773-798.score: 66.0
    Este artigo apresenta a contribuição de Alcindo Flores Cabral (1907-1982) - professor de química da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, hoje incorporada à Universidade Federal de Pelotas - ao ensino de química, uma contribuição quase desconhecida pela própria comunidade química brasileira, embora reconhecida como relevante por diversos químicos estrangeiros importantes, como W. Hückel, G. Charlot, F. Strong, E. Fessenden e outros. A inovadora representação helicoidal de Cabral é apresentada não só em conexão com representações contemporâneas, mas também inclui-se uma incursão (...)
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  45. Nico M. Franz (2005). Outline of an Explanatory Account of Cladistic Practice. Biology and Philosophy 20 (2-3):489-515.score: 60.0
    A naturalistic account of the strengths and limitations of cladistic practice is offered. The success of cladistics is claimed to be largely rooted in the parsimony-implementing congruence test. Cladists may use the congruence test to iteratively refine assessments of homology, and thereby increase the odds of reliable phylogenetic inference under parsimony. This explanation challenges alternative views which tend to ignore the effects of parsimony on the process of character individuation in systematics. In a related theme, the concept of homeostatic property (...)
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  46. Vernon Pratt (1982). Aristotle and the Essence of Natural History. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 4 (2):203 - 223.score: 60.0
    It has been claimed that in a single line of development the science of taxonomy stretches from Aristotle to the present day and that the Aristotelian 'essence' lies at the heart of much later thought about grouping. I try to establish some basic features of Aristotle's conception of 'essence', and then consider in more detail the conception of essence that entered into 18th century thought about classification, with a view to establishing discontinuities. 18th century thought, I note, has two (...)
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  47. Hope A. Olson, Jihee Beak & Inkyung Choi (2013). Le naturel est artificiel : l'héritage de la scientia scientiarum. Hermes 66:, [ p.].score: 60.0
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  48. Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & Matthew H. Slater (eds.) (2011). Carving Nature at its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science. Mit Press.score: 58.0
    Are there natural kinds of things around which our theories cut? The essays in this volume offer reflections by a distinguished group of philosophers on a series of intertwined issues in the metaphysics and epistemology of classification.
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  49. Ian Hacking (2007). Natural Kinds: Rosy Dawn, Scholastic Twilight. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 82 (61):203-239.score: 54.0
    The rosy dawn of my title refers to that optimistic time when the logical concept of a natural kind originated in Victorian England. The scholastic twilight refers to the present state of affairs. I devote more space to dawn than twilight, because one basic problem was there from the start, and by now those origins have been forgotten. Philosophers have learned many things about classification from the tradition of natural kinds. But now it is in disarray and (...)
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