Search results for 'Natural history' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  19
    Richard W. Burkhardt (1999). Ethology, Natural History, the Life Sciences, and the Problem of Place. Journal of the History of Biology 32 (3):489 - 508.
    Investigators of animal behavior since the eighteenth century have sought to make their work integral to the enterprises of natural history and/or the life sciences. In their efforts to do so, they have frequently based their claims of authority on the advantages offered by the special places where they have conducted their research. The zoo, the laboratory, and the field have been major settings for animal behavior studies. The issue of the relative advantages of these different sites has (...)
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  2.  4
    Mary E. Sunderland (2013). Modernizing Natural History: Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology in Transition. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (3):369-400.
    Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ (...)
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  3.  3
    M. Eulàlia Gassó Miracle (2008). The Significance of Temminck's Work on Biogeography: Early Nineteenth Century Natural History in Leiden, the Netherlands. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4):677 - 716.
    C. J. Temminck, director of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie (now the National Museum of Natural History in Leiden) and a renowned ornithologist, gained his contemporary's respect thanks to the description of many new species and to his detailed monographs on birds. He also published a small number of works on biogeography describing the fauna of the Dutch colonies in South East Asia and Japan. These works are remarkable for two reasons. First, in them Temminck accurately described the (...)
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  4.  10
    James Llana (2000). Natural History and the "Encyclopédie". Journal of the History of Biology 33 (1):1 - 25.
    The general popularity of natural history in the eighteenth century is mirrored in the frequency and importance of the more than 4,500 articles on natural history in the "Encyclopédie". The main contributors to natural history were Daubenton, Diderot, Jaucourt and d'Holbach, but some of the key animating principles derive from Buffon, who wrote nothing specifically for the "Encyclopédie". Still, a number of articles reflect his thinking, especially his antipathy toward Linnaeus. There was in principle (...)
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  5.  9
    Mark V. Barrow (2000). The Specimen Dealer: Entrepreneurial Natural History in America's Gilded Age. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):493 - 534.
    The post-Civil War American natural history craze spawned a new institution -- the natural history dealer -- that has failed to receive the historical attention it deserves. The individuals who created these enterprises simultaneously helped to promote and hoped to profit from the burgeoning interest in both scientific and popular specimen collecting. At a time when other employment and educational prospects in natural history were severely limited, hundreds of dealers across the nation provided encouragement, (...)
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  6.  13
    Melinda B. Fagan (2007). Wallace, Darwin, and the Practice of Natural History. Journal of the History of Biology 40 (4):601 - 635.
    There is a pervasive contrast in the early natural history writings of the co-discoverers of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin. In his writings from South America and the Malay Archipelago (1848-1852, 1854-1862). Wallace consistently emphasized species and genera, and separated these descriptions from his rarer and briefer discussions of individual organisms. In contrast, Darwin's writings during the Beagle voyage (1831-1836) emphasized individual organisms, and mingled descriptions of individuals and groups. The contrast is explained by (...)
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  7. Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (1998). Consciousness: A Natural History. Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (3):260-94.
    The basic question cognitivists and most analytic philosophers of mind ask is how consciousness arises in matter. This article outlines basic reasons for thinking the question spurious. It does so by examining 1) definitions of life, 2) unjustified and unjustifiable uses of diacritical markings to distinguish real cognition from metaphoric cognition, 3) evidence showing that corporeal consciousness is a biological imperative, 4) corporeal matters of fact deriving from the evolution of proprioception. Three implications of the examination are briefly noted: 1) (...)
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  8.  23
    Peter Anstey & Michael Hunter (2008). Robert Boyle's 'Designe About Natural History'. Early Science and Medicine 13 (2):83-126.
    This paper provides an analysis of Robert Boyle's most detailed discussion of the Baconian method of natural history. In a long letter to Henry Oldenburg dated 13 June 1666 and in ancillary manuscript material, Boyle spells out the method or 'Designe' by which he believes experimental programs in natural philosophy should be written up. The 'Designe' is enormously important in giving a clear statement of the precise contours of Boyle's Baconian methodology and providing a key to understanding (...)
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  9.  3
    Thomas H. Ford (2015). The Natural History of Aesthetics. Journal of the Philosophy of History 9 (2):220-239.
    _ Source: _Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 220 - 239 Art has been crucial for Western philosophy roughly since Kant – that is, for what is becoming known as “correlationist” philosophy – because it has so often had assigned to it a singular ontological status. The artwork, in this view, is material being that has been transfigured and shot through with subjectivity. The work of art, what art does and how it works have all been understood as mediating between the (...)
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  10.  20
    Dirk Stemerding (1993). How to Make Oneself Nature's Spokesman? A Latourian Account of Classification in Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Natural History. Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):193-223.
    Classification in eighteenth-century natural history was marked by a battle of systems. The Linnaean approach to classification was severely criticized by those naturalists who aspired to a truly natural system. But how to make oneself nature''s spokesman? In this article I seek to answer that question using the approach of the French anthropologist of science Bruno Latour in a discussion of the work of the French naturalists Buffon and Cuvier in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century. These (...)
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  11. Daniel Schwartz (2014). Is Baconian Natural History Theory-Laden? Journal of Early Modern Studies 3 (1).
    The recent surge of interest in Bacon's own attempts at natural history has revealed a complex interplay with his speculative ideas in natural philosophy. This research has given rise to the concern that his natural histories are theory-laden in a way that Bacon ought to find unacceptable, given his prescription in the Parasceve for a reliable body of factual instances that can be used as a storehouse for induction. This paper aims to resolve this tension by (...)
     
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  12.  3
    Kristin Johnson (2004). "The Ibis": Transformations in a Twentieth Century British Natural History Journal. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):515 - 555.
    The contents of the British Ornithologists' Union's journal, "The Ibis," during the first half of the 20th century illustrates some of the transformations that have taken place in the naturalist tradition. Although later generations of ornithologists described these changes as logical and progressive, their historical narratives had more to do with legitimizing the infiltration of the priorities of evolutionary theory, ecology, and ethology than analyzing the legacy of the naturalist tradition on its own terms. Despite ornithologists' claim that the journal's (...)
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  13.  8
    Stephane Schmitt (2010). Lacepède's Syncretic Contribution to the Debates on Natural History in France Around 1800. Journal of the History of Biology 43 (3):429 - 457.
    Lacepède was a key figure in the French intellectual world from the Old Regime to the Restoration, since he was not only a scientist, but also a musician, a writer, and a politician. His brilliant career is a good example of the progress of the social status of scientists in France around 1800. In the life sciences, he was considered the heir to Buffon and continued the latter's Histoire naturelle, but he also borrowed ideas from anti-Buffonian (e.g. Linnaean) scientists. He (...)
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  14.  14
    Dalia Nassar (2015). Analogy, Natural History and the Philosophy of Nature: Kant, Herder and the Problem of Empirical Science. Journal of the Philosophy of History 9 (2):240-257.
  15.  6
    Samuel J. M. M. Alberti (2001). Amateurs and Professionals in One County: Biology and Natural History in Late Victorian Yorkshire. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 34 (1):115 - 147.
    My goals in this paper are twofold: to outline the refashioning of amateur and professional roles in life science in late Victorian Yorkshire, and to provide a revised historiography of the relationship between amateurs and professionals in this era. Some historical treatments of this relationship assume that amateurs were demoralized by the advances of laboratory science, and so ceased to contribute and were left behind by the autonomous "new biology." Despite this view, I show that many amateurs played a vital (...)
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  16. Nicholas Jardine, James A. Secord & E. C. Spary (1996). Cultures of Natural History. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  17. Stephen T. Asma (2002). Stuffed Animals and Pickled Heads: The Culture and Evolution of Natural History Museums. Journal of the History of Biology 35 (1):185-187.
     
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  18. Michael T. Ghiselin & Alan E. Leviton (eds.) (2000). Cultures and Institutions of Natural History: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science. California Academy of Sciences.
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  19.  18
    Dana Jalobeanu (2012). Francis Bacon's Natural History and the Senecan Natural Histories of Early Modern Europe. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.
  20.  10
    Peter Anstey Hunter & Michael (2008). Robert Boyle's 'Designe About Natural History'. Early Science and Medicine 13 (2):83-126.
  21.  10
    Silvia Manzo (2012). Francis Bacon's Natural History and Civil History: A Comparative Survey. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.
  22.  8
    Laura Georgescu & Mădălina Giurgea (2012). Redefining the Role of Experiment in Bacon's Natural History: How Baconian Was Descartes Before Emerging From His Cocoon? Early Science and Medicine 17 (1):158-180.
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  23.  23
    Guido Giglioni (2012). Historia and Materia: The Philosophical Implications of Francis Bacon's Natural History. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.
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  24.  22
    Peter Anstey (2012). Francis Bacon and the Classification of Natural History. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.
  25.  20
    Laura Georgescu & Madalina Giurgea (2012). Redefining the Role of Experiment in Bacon's Natural History: How Baconian Was Descartes Before Emerging From His Cocoon? Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.
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  26.  18
    Ian G. Stewart (2012). Res, Veluti Per Machinas, Conficiatur: Natural History and the'Mechanical'Reform of Natural Philosophy. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.
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  27.  13
    Jill Kraye (2012). Aπαθ&Epsi;Ια and Πρ&Ogr;Παθ&Epsi;Ιαι in Early Modern Discussions of the Passions: Stoicism, Christianity and Natural History. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):230-253.
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  28.  8
    F. Töpfer & U. Wiesing (2005). The Medical Theory of Richard Koch II: Natural Philosophy and History. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 8 (3):323-334.
    Richard Koch1 became known in the 1920s with works on basic medical theory. Among these publications, the character of medical action and its status within the theory of science was presented as the most important theme. While science is inherently driven by the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake, medicine pursues the practical purpose of helping the sick. Therefore, medicine must be seen as an active relationship between a helping and a suffering person. While elucidating this relationship, Koch discusses (...)
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  29.  10
    James A. T. Lancaster (2012). Natural Knowledge as a Propaedeutic to Self-Betterment Francis Bacon and the Transformation of Natural History. Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):181-196.
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  30. Willem B. Drees (2000). From Nothing Until Now Faith in the Natural History of Our Universe. Farmington Institute for Christian Studies.
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  31. John Hill, Whiston, Benjamin White, Paul Vaillant & Lockyer Davis (1752). Essays in Natural History and Philosophy. Containing a Series of Discoveries, by the Assistance of Microscopes. Printed for J. Whiston and B. White, at Mr. Boyle's Head in Fleetstreet; P. Vaillant, in the Strand; and L. Davis, at Lord Bacon's Head in Fleetstreet.
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  32. Helen De Cruz (2015). The Relevance of Hume's Natural History of Religion for Cognitive Science of Religion. Res Philosophica 92 (3):653-674.
    Hume was a cognitive scientist of religion avant la lettre. His Natural History of Religion (1757 [2007]) locates the origins of religion in human nature. This paper explores similarities between some of his ideas and the cognitive science of religion, the multidisciplinary study of the psychological origins of religious beliefs. It also considers Hume’s distinction between two questions about religion: its foundation in reason (the domain of natural theology and philosophy of religion) and its origin in human (...)
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  33.  16
    Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). Suppressing Synonymy with a Homonym: The Emergence of the Nomenclatural Type Concept in Nineteenth Century Natural History. Journal of the History of Biology.
    ‘Type’ in biology is a polysemous term. In a landmark article, Paul Farber (Journal of the History of Biology 9(1): 93–119, 1976) argued that this deceptively plain term had acquired three different meanings in early nineteenth century natural history alone. ‘Type’ was used in relation to three distinct type concepts, each of them associated with a different set of practices. Important as Farber’s analysis has been for the historiography of natural history, his account conceals an (...)
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  34.  2
    Peter S. Alagona (2012). A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 45 (4):651 - 680.
    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay (...)
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  35.  63
    David Hume (2007). A Dissertation on the Passions: The Natural History of Religion: A Critical Edition. Oxford University Press.
    Tom Beauchamp presents the definitive scholarly edition of two famous works by David Hume, both originally published in 1757. In A Dissertation on the Passions Hume sets out his original view of the nature and central role of passion and emotion. The Natural History of Religion is a landmark work in the study of religion as a natural phenomenon. Authoritative critical texts are accompanied by a full array of editorial matter.
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  36.  84
    J. C. A. Gaskin (ed.) (1998/2009). David Hume: Principal Writings on Religion Including Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and, the Natural History of Religion. Oxford University Press.
    David Hume is one of the most provocative philosophers to have written in English. His Dialogues ask if a belief in God can be inferred from what is known of the universe, or whether such a belief is even consistent with such knowledge. The Natural History of Religion investigates the origins of belief, and follows its development from polytheism to dogmatic monotheism. Together, these works constitute the most formidable attack upon religious belief ever mounted by a philosopher. This (...)
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  37.  15
    Phillip R. Sloan (2006). Kant on the History of Nature: The Ambiguous Heritage of the Critical Philosophy for Natural History. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (4):627-648.
    This paper seeks to show Kant’s importance for the formal distinction between descriptive natural history and a developmental history of nature that entered natural history discussions in the late eighteenth century. It is argued that he developed this distinction initially upon Buffon’s distinctions of ‘abstract’ and ‘physical’ truths, and applied these initially in his distinction of ‘varieties’ from ‘races’ in anthropology. In the 1770s, Kant appears to have given theoretical preference to the ‘history’ of (...)
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  38.  37
    James G. Buickerood (1985). The Natural History of the Understanding: Locke and the Rise of Facultative Logic in the Eighteenth Century. History and Philosophy of Logic 6 (1):157-190.
    Whatever its merits and difficulties, the concept of logic embedded in much of the "new philosophy" of the early modern period was then understood to supplant contemporary views of formal logic. The notion of compiling a natural history of the understanding constituted the basis of this new concept of logic. The following paper attempts to trace this view of logic through some of the major and numerous minor texts of the period, centering on the development and influence of (...)
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  39.  4
    M. Eulàlia Gassó Miracle (2008). The Significance of Temminck’s Work on Biogeography: Early Nineteenth Century Natural History in Leiden, The Netherlands. Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4):677-716.
    C. J. Temminck, director of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie and a renowned ornithologist, gained his contemporary's respect thanks to the description of many new species and to his detailed monographs on birds. He also published a small number of works on biogeography describing the fauna of the Dutch colonies in South East Asia and Japan. These works are remarkable for two reasons. First, in them Temminck accurately described the species composition of poorly explored regions, like the Sunda Islands and (...)
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  40.  4
    Victoria Carroll (2004). The Natural History of Visiting: Responses to Charles Waterton and Walton Hall. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 35 (1):31-64.
    Natural history collections are typically studied in terms of how they were formed rather than how they were received. This gives us only half the picture. Visiting accounts can increase our historical understanding of collections because they can tell us how people in the past understood them. This essay examines the responses of visitors to Walton Hall in West Yorkshire, home of the traveller-naturalist Charles Waterton and his famous taxidermic collection. Waterton’s specimens were not interpreted in isolation. Firstly, (...)
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  41.  14
    A. Marshall (1998). A Postmodern Natural History of the World: Eviscerating the GUTs From Ecology and Environmentalism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 29 (1):137-164.
    Postmodernism was not launched by the development of Warholesque pop art in the 1960s, nor was it initiated by the explosive destruction of the Pruitt-Igoe modern housing project of St Louis, Missouri in 1972, or by the commissioning of Jean-Francois Lyotard's work on knowledge in advanced societies by the Quebec government in the late 1970s. Postmodernism began with the publication of a paper entitled `The individualistic concept of plant the association' in 1926 by the plant ecologist Henry Gleason. If we (...)
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  42. L. J. (2003). From Natural History to Political Economy: The Enlightened Mission of Domenico Vandelli in Late Eighteenth-Century Portugal. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (4):781-803.
    This article presents the main features of the work of Domenico Vandelli (1735-1816), an Italian-born man of science who lived a large part of his life in Portugal. Vandelli's scientific interests as a naturalist paved the way to his activities as a reformer and adviser on economic and financial issues. The topics covered in his writings are similar to those discussed by Linnaeus, with whom Vandelli corresponded. They clearly reveal that the scientific preparation indispensable for a better knowledge of (...) resources was also a fundamental condition for correctly addressing problems of efficiency in their economic allocation. The key argument put forward in this article is that the relationship between natural history and the agenda for economic reform and development deserves to be further analysed. It is indeed a central element in the emergence of political economy as an autonomous scientific discourse during the last decades of the eighteenth century. (shrink)
     
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  43.  6
    José Luís Cardoso (2003). From Natural History to Political Economy: The Enlightened Mission of Domenico Vandelli in Late Eighteenth-Century Portugal. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (4):781-803.
    This article presents the main features of the work of Domenico Vandelli , an Italian-born man of science who lived a large part of his life in Portugal. Vandelli’s scientific interests as a naturalist paved the way to his activities as a reformer and adviser on economic and financial issues. The topics covered in his writings are similar to those discussed by Linnaeus, with whom Vandelli corresponded. They clearly reveal that the scientific preparation indispensable for a better knowledge of (...) resources was also a fundamental condition for correctly addressing problems of efficiency in their economic allocation. The key argument put forward in this article is that the relationship between natural history and the agenda for economic reform and development deserves to be further analysed. It is indeed a central element in the emergence of political economy as an autonomous scientific discourse during the last decades of the eighteenth century.Author Keywords: Vandelli; Linnaeus; Natural History; Political Economy; Enlightenment. (shrink)
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  44.  3
    Diarmid A. Finnegan (2008). 'An Aid to Mental Health': Natural History, Alienists and Therapeutics in Victorian Scotland. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 39 (3):326-337.
    In the nineteenth century natural history was widely regarded as a rational and ‘distracting’ pursuit that countered the ill-effects, physical and mental, of urban life. This familiar argument was not only made by members of naturalists’ societies but was also borrowed and adapted by alienists concerned with the moral treatment of the insane. This paper examines the work of five long-serving superintendents in Victorian Scotland and uncovers the connections made between an interest in natural history and (...)
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  45. Andrea Guasparri (2013). Explicit Nomenclature and Classification in Pliny’s Natural History XXXII. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):347-353.
    Pliny’s Natural History has been traditionally considered as the unoriginal work of an uncritical compiler. This has also been held to be true of the “biological” books, especially when one compares them with the works of Aristotle, one of Pliny’s main authorities in this domain. Aristotle’s achievements would be remarkable, especially in the field of classification, of which the philosopher is traditionally celebrated as the scientific father. However, by carefully reading HN XXXII it is possible to find a (...)
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  46.  33
    P. J. E. Kail (2007). Understanding Hume's Natural History of Religion. Philosophical Quarterly 57 (227):190–211.
    Hume's 'Natural History of Religion' offers a naturalized account of the causes of religious thought, an investigation into its 'origins' rather than its 'foundation in reason'. Hume thinks that if we consider only the causes of religious belief, we are provided with a reason to suspend the belief. I seek to explain why this is so, and what role the argument plays in Hume's wider campaign against the rational acceptability of religious belief. In particular, I argue that the (...)
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  47.  84
    Mark Collier (2011). Hume's Natural History of Justice. In C. Taylor & S. Buckle (eds.), Hume and the Enlightenment.
    In Book III, Part 2 of the Treatise, Hume presents a natural history of justice. Self-interest clearly plays a central role in his account; our ancestors invented justice conventions, he maintains, for the sake of reciprocal advantage. But this is not what makes his approach so novel and attractive. Hume recognizes that prudential considerations are not sufficient to explain how human beings – with our propensities towards temporal discounting and free-riding – could have established conventions for social exchange (...)
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  48.  47
    Lorne Falkenstein (2003). Hume's Project in ‘the Natural History of Religion’. Religious Studies 39 (1):1-21.
    There are good reasons to think that at least a part of Hume's project in the ‘The natural history of religion’ was to buttress a philosophical critique of the reasonableness of religious belief undertaken in other works, and to attack a fundamentalist account of the history of religion and the foundations of morality. But there are also problems with supposing that Hume intended to achieve either of these goals. I argue that two problems in particular – accounting (...)
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  49.  30
    Iain Hamilton Grant (2013). The Universe in the Universe: German Idealism and the Natural History of Mind. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:297-316.
    Recent considerations of mind and world react against philosophical naturalisation strategies by maintaining that the thought of the world is normatively driven to reject reductive or bald naturalism. This paper argues that we may reject bald or naturalism without sacrificing nature to normativity and so retreating from metaphysics to transcendental idealism. The resources for this move can be found in the Naturphilosophie outlined by the German Idealist philosopher F.W.J. Schelling. He argues that because thought occurs in the same universe as (...)
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  50.  13
    Diana F. Ackerman (1990). A Natural History of the Senses. Random House.
    A. NATURAL. HISTORY. OF. THE. SENSES. “This is one of the best books of the year—by any measure you want to apply. It is interesting, informative, very well written. This book can be opened on any page and read with relish.... thoroughly  ...
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