Search results for 'Natural obligations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joseph Mazor (2013). Harms, Wrongs, and Indirect Natural Resource Conservation Obligations: A Reply to Benjamin Sachs. Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (2):212 - 215.score: 120.0
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  2. Benjamin Sachs (2013). Mazor on Indirect Obligations to Conserve Natural Resources for Future Generations. Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (2):208 - 211.score: 120.0
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  3. Samuel Clarke (2007). Discourse Concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion. In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell Pub. Ltd..score: 120.0
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  4. G. Geismann (2002). The Natural Law Formulation of the Categorical Imperative and the Derivation of Contextually Determined Obligations, by Julius Ebbinghaus. Kant-Studien 93 (3):371-373.score: 120.0
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  5. Helga Varden (2008). Kant's Non-Voluntarist Conception of Political Obligations: Why Justice is Impossible in the State of Nature. Kantian Review 13 (2):1-45.score: 68.0
    This paper presents and defends Kant’s non-voluntarist conception of political obligations. I argue that civil society is not primarily a prudential requirement for justice; it is not merely a necessary evil or moral response to combat our corrupting nature or our tendency to act viciously, thoughtlessly or in a biased manner. Rather, civil society is constitutive of rightful relations because only in civil society can we interact in ways reconcilable with each person’s innate right to freedom. Civil society is (...)
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  6. Carl Wellman (ed.) (2002). Rights and Duties. Routledge.score: 66.0
    Volume Six of the Six-Volume set, Rights and Duties joins the most significant writings in two crucial areas of ethical reflection and behavior. This collection provides students and scholars with the history of how humanity has argued for and against entitlements, rights, and protections for itself, and how humanity has argued for and against obligations, duties, and social responsibilities toward others.
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  7. Douglas MacKay (2013). Standard of Care, Institutional Obligations, and Distributive Justice. Bioethics 28 (2):352-359.score: 66.0
    The problem of standard of care in clinical research concerns the level of treatment that investigators must provide to subjects in clinical trials. Commentators often formulate answers to this problem by appealing to two distinct types of obligations: professional obligations and natural duties. In this article, I investigate whether investigators also possess institutional obligations that are directly relevant to the problem of standard of care, that is, those obligations a person has because she occupies a (...)
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  8. Edmund Wall (2008). Searle's Derivation, Natural Law, and Moral Relativism. Philosophia 36 (2):237-249.score: 66.0
    Some philosophers have maintained that even if John R. Searle’s attempted derivation of an evaluative proposition from purely descriptive premises is successful, moral ought would not have been derived. Searle agrees. I will argue that if Searle has successfully derived “ought,” then, based on various approaches taken towards the content of “morality,” this is moral ought. I will also trace out some of the benefits of a successful derivation of moral ought in relation to natural law ethics. I sketch (...)
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  9. Henrik Palmer Olsen (1999). Law in its Own Right. Hart Pub..score: 62.0
    Olsen and Toddington argue that equivocation on the central issue here - that of obligation - has brought legal theory to the point where leading legal ...
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  10. Michaela Rehm (2012). Obligation in Rousseau: Making Natural Law History? Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik/Annual Review of Law and Ethics 20:139-154.score: 62.0
    Is Rousseau an advocate of natural law or not? The purpose of Rehm’s paper is to suggest a positive answer to this controversially discussed question. On the one hand, Rousseau presents a critical history of traditional natural law theory which in his view is based on flawed suppositions: not upon natural, but on artificial qualities of man, and even rationality and sociability are counted among the latter. On the other hand he presents the self-confident manifesto for a (...)
     
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  11. Roger D. Masters (1989). Obligation and the New Naturalism. Biology and Philosophy 4 (1):17-32.score: 58.0
    Although it has become increasingly evident that an adequate theory of obligation must rest on evolutionary biology and human ethology, attempts toward this end need to explore the full range of personal, cultural, and political obligations observed in our species. The new naturalism reveals the complexity of social behavior and the defects of reductionist models that oversimplify the foundations of human duties and rights. Ultimately, this approach suggest a return to the Aristotelian concept of natural justice.
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  12. Edward Feser (2010). Classical Natural Law Theory, Property Rights, and Taxation. Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):21-52.score: 54.0
    Classical natural law theory derives moral conclusions from the essentialist and teleological understanding of nature enshrined in classical metaphysics. The paper argues that this understanding of nature is as defensible today as it was in the days of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas. It then shows how a natural law theory of the grounds and content of our moral obligations follows from this understanding of nature, and how a doctrine of natural rights follows in turn from (...)
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  13. Karl Olivecrona & Thomas Mautner (2011). The Two Levels in Natural Law Thinking. Jurisprudence 1 (2):197-224.score: 54.0
    Central parts of the natural law theories of Grotius and Pufendorf assume that persons by nature have individual realms of their own (suum), violations of which constitute a wrong. This is the basis for their accounts of promises, ownership and reactions against wrongs. These accounts are significantly independent of any assumption that a superior being imposes obligations: rather, the individuals themselves create obligations by their own acts of will. The translator's introducton draws attention to the author's relation (...)
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  14. Scott A. Davison (2009). A Natural Law Based Environmental Ethic. Ethics and the Environment 14 (1):pp. 1-13.score: 54.0
    In his recent book Natural Law and Practical Rationality , Mark Murphy develops a sophisticated version of a natural law account of practical rationality. I shall show that with only a few minor changes, Murphy's account can be developed into an environmental ethic that generates human obligations to non-human animals, plants, and perhaps even ecosystems and machines. (I shall not discuss here the plausibility of this extension of Murphy's account, relative to competing accounts in environmental ethics; that (...)
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  15. George Klosko (2004). Duties to Assist Others and Political Obligations. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (2):143-159.score: 54.0
    In response to recent criticisms of traditional theories of political obligation, scholars have advanced moral reasons for complying with the law that focus on natural duties to assist other people who are in need. In discussions of political obligation, these ‘rescue principles’ are presented as alternatives to traditional principles. I argue that theories of political obligation based on rescue principles are not able to fulfill the role theorists assign them. If the underlying assumptions of rescue theories are uncovered, they (...)
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  16. Hans Morten Haugen (2013). Human Rights in Natural Science and Technology Professions' Codes of Ethics? Business and Professional Ethics Journal 32 (1-2):49-76.score: 54.0
    No global professional codes for the natural science and technology professions exist. In light of how the application of new technology can affect individuals and communities, this discrepancy warrants greater scrutiny. This article analyzes the most relevant processes and seeks to explain why these processes have not resulted in global codes. Moreover, based on a human rights approach, the article gives recommendations on the future process and content of codes for science and technology professions. The relevance of human rights (...)
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  17. Joseph Boyle (2001). Fairness in Holdings: A Natural Law Account of Property and Welfare Rights. Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (1):206-226.score: 54.0
    In this essay I will try to develop a natural law justification of welfare rights. The justification I will undertake is from the perspective of Catholic natural law, that is, the strand of natural law that has been developed theoretically by Roman Catholic canonists, theologians, and philosophers since Aquinas, and affirmed by Catholic teachers as the basis for most moral obligations. Catholic natural law is, therefore, natural law as developed and understood by Catholics or (...)
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  18. Siegfried Van Duffel (2004). Natural Rights and Individual Sovereignty. Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (2):147–162.score: 54.0
    TO assert that one should come to terms with the past if one wants to understand the present would be to underline the obvious. And yet, even though we know much more of the history of natural rights theories now, especially of the origin of these theories before the seventeenth century, than we did, say, twenty years ago, this increase in knowledge seems to have had little impact on contemporary philosophical discussions about the nature of rights. Sometimes it seems (...)
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  19. David Boucher (2009). The Limits of Ethics in International Relations: Natural Law, Natural Rights, and Human Rights in Transition. OUP Oxford.score: 54.0
    Ethical constraints on relations among individuals within and between societies have always reflected or invoked a higher authority than the caprices of human will. For over two thousand years Natural Law and Natural Rights were the constellations of ideas and presuppositions that fulfilled this role in the west, and exhibited far greater similarities than most commentators want to admit. Such ideas were the lens through which Europeans evaluated the rest of the world. In his major new book David (...)
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  20. George Klosko (2005). Political Obligations. OUP Oxford.score: 54.0
    Political Obligations provides a full defense of a theory of political obligation based on the principle of fairness (or fair play), which is widely viewed as the strongest theory of obligation currently available. The work responds to the most important objections to the principle of fairness, and extends a theory based on fairness into a developed 'multiple principle' theory of obligation. In order to establish the need for such a theory, Political Obligations criticizes alternative theories of obligation based (...)
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  21. Murray Sheard (2008). Corporate Responsibilities and Property Rights in the Management of Natural Resources. Philosophy of Management 6 (2):99-106.score: 54.0
    Businesses interface with the natural world through rights to property. The shape of these rights and the responsibilities we assign to managers are important determinants of both patterns of resource use and pollutant levels. Consequently, conflicts have arisen between regulating bodies, indigenous groups, andcorporations over the entitlements of businesses in the use of their property when that property is ecologically sensitive or significant.In this paper I develop an account of the ethical responsibilities of managers regarding their treatment of the (...)
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  22. Margaret Somerville (2011). Children's Human Rights to Natural Biological Origins and Family Structure. Bioethics Research Notes 23 (1):1.score: 54.0
    Somerville, Margaret Over the millennia of human history, the idea that children - at least those born into a marriage - had rights with respect to their biological parents was taken for granted and reflected in law and public policy. But with same-sex marriage, which gives same-sex spouses the right to found a family, that is no longer the case. Likewise, children's rights with respect to their biological origins were not an issue when there was no technoscience that could be (...)
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  23. C. F. Goodey (2001). From Natural Disability to the Moral Man: Calvinism and the History of Psychology. History of the Human Sciences 14 (3):1-29.score: 54.0
    Some humanist theologians within the French Reformed Church in the 17th century developed the notion that a disability of the intellect could exist in nature independently of any moral defect, freeing its possessors from any obligations of natural law. Sharpened by disputes with the church leadership, this notion began to suggest a species-type classification that threatened to override the importance of the boundary between elect and reprobate in the doctrine of predestination. This classification seems to look forward to (...)
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  24. Allen Carlson & Arnold Berleant (eds.) (2004). The Aesthetics of Natural Environments. Broadview Press.score: 54.0
    The Aesthetics of Natural Environments is a collection of essays investigating philosophical and aesthetics issues that arise in our appreciation of natural environments. The introduction gives an historical and conceptual overview of the rapidly developing field of study known as environmental aesthetics. The essays consist of classic pieces as well as new contributions by some of the most prominent individuals now working in the field and range from theoretical to applied approaches. The topics covered include the nature and (...)
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  25. Anver M. Emon (2010). Islamic Natural Law Theories. OUP Oxford.score: 54.0
    This book offers the first sustained jurisprudential inquiry into Islamic natural law theory. It introduces readers to competing theories of Islamic natural law theory based on close readings of Islamic legal sources from as early as the 9th and 10th centuries CE. In popular debates about Islamic law, modern Muslims perpetuate an image of Islamic law as legislated by God, to whom the devout are bound to obey. Reason alone cannot obligate obedience; at most it can confirm or (...)
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  26. Tito Magri (1996). Natural Obligation and Normative Motivation in Hume's Treatise. Hume Studies 22 (2):231-253.score: 50.0
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  27. Mark Tunick (1998). The Scope of Our Natural Duties. Journal of Social Philosophy 29 (2):87-96.score: 50.0
    The natural duty theory holds that "we have a natural duty to support the laws and institutions of a just state" (Jeremy Waldron). We owe this not because we ever promised to support these laws and institutions, nor because fair play requires we support the cooperative ventures from which we receive benefits. The claim is that we have a general duty to promote institutions that do something justice requires wherever these institutions may be, a duty that does not (...)
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  28. Matthew Lipman (1959). Natural Obligation, Natural Appropriation. Journal of Philosophy 56 (5):246-252.score: 50.0
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  29. John F. Quinn (1976). Saint Bonaventure and Our Natural Obligation to Confess the Truth. Franciscan Studies 35 (1):194-211.score: 50.0
  30. John C. Cahalan (2002). Natural Obligation: How Rationally Known Truth Determines Ethical Good and Evil. The Thomist 66 (1):101-132.score: 50.0
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  31. Thomas Pink (2007). Normativity and Reason. Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (3):406-431.score: 48.0
    Moral obligation is a demand of reason—a demanding kind of rational justification. How to understand this rational demand? Much recent philosophy, as in the work of Scanlon, takes obligatoriness to be a reason-giving feature of an action. But the paper argues that moral obligatoriness should instead be understood as a mode of justificatory support—as a distinctive justificatory force of demand. The paper argues that this second model of obligation, the Force model, was central to the natural law tradition in (...)
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  32. Robert Merrihew Adams (1987). Divine Commands and the Social Nature of Obligation. Faith and Philosophy 4 (3):262-275.score: 48.0
    Divine command metaethics is one of those theories according to which the nature of obligation is grounded in personal or social relationships. In this paper I first try to show how facts about human relationships can fill some of the role that facts of obligation aresupposed to play, specifically with regard to moral motivation and guilt. Then I note certain problems that arise for social theories of obligation, and argue that they can be dealt with more adequately by an expansion (...)
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  33. Mark C. Murphy (2001). Natural Law, Consent, and Political Obligation. Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (1):70-92.score: 48.0
    There is a story about the connection between the rise of consent theories of political obligation and the fall of natural law theories of political obligation that is popular among political philosophers but nevertheless false. The story is, to put it crudely, that the rise of consent theory in the modern period coincided with, and came as a result of, the fall of the natural law theory that dominated during the medieval period. Neat though it is, the story (...)
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  34. George Klosko (2001). The Natural Basis of Political Obligation. Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (1):93-114.score: 48.0
    Though questions of political obligation have long been central to liberal political theory, discussion has generally focused on voluntaristic aspects of the individual's relationship to the state, as opposed to other factors through which the state is able to ground compliance with its laws. The individual has been conceptualized as naturally without political ties, whether or not formally in a state of nature, and questions of political obligation have centered on accounting for political bonds.Footnotes* For helpful comments on and discussion (...)
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  35. Matthias Kiesselbach (2011). Hobbes's Struggle with Contractual Obligation. On the Status of the Laws of Nature in Hobbes's Work. Hobbes Studies 23 (2):105-123.score: 46.0
    This paper argues that throughout his intellectual career, Hobbes remains unsatisfied with his own attempts at proving the invariant advisability of contract-keeping. Not only does he see himself forced to abandon his early idea that contractual obligation is a matter of physical laws. He also develops and retains doubts concerning its theoretical successor, the doctrine that the obligatoriness characteristic of contracts is the interest in self-preservation in alliance with instrumental reason - i.e. prudence. In fact, it is during his work (...)
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  36. Ian Hunter (2004). Conflicting Obligations: Pufendorf, Leibniz and Barbeyrac on Civil Authority. History of Political Thought 25 (4):670-699.score: 42.0
    Barbeyrac's republication of and commentary on Leibniz' attack on Pufendorf's natural-law doctrine is often seen as symptomatic of the failure of all three early moderns to solve a particular moral-philosophical problem: that of the relationship between civil authority and morality. Making use of the first English translation of Barbeyrac's work, this article departs from the usual view by arguing that here we are confronted by three conflicting constructions of civil obligation, arising not from the common intellectual terrain of moral (...)
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  37. T. Christiano & S. Sciaraffa (2003). Legal Positivism and the Nature of Legal Obligation. Law and Philosophy 22 (5):487-512.score: 40.0
  38. George Klosko (1994). Political Obligation and the Natural Duties of Justice. Philosophy and Public Affairs 23 (3):251–270.score: 40.0
  39. Neal A. Tognazzini (2007). The Hybrid Nature of Promissory Obligation. Philosophy and Public Affairs 35 (3):203–232.score: 40.0
  40. A. P. D'Entrèves (1968). On the Nature of Political Obligation. Philosophy 43 (166):309 - 323.score: 40.0
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  41. William R. Neblett (1973). W. D. Ross and the Nature of Moral Obligation. Journal of Value Inquiry 7 (1):40-51.score: 40.0
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  42. David Lefkowitz (2004). The Nature of Fairness and Political Obligation. Social Theory and Practice 30 (1):1-31.score: 40.0
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  43. Frederic B. Fitch (1966). Natural Deduction Rules for Obligation. American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (1):27 - 38.score: 40.0
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  44. J. R. Cameron (1972). The Nature of Institutional Obligation. Philosophical Quarterly 22 (89):318-332.score: 40.0
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  45. Robert Elliot (1992). Intrinsic Value, Environmental Obligation and Naturalness. The Monist 75 (2):138-160.score: 40.0
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  46. Mendel F. Cohen (1990). Obligation and Human Nature in Hume's Philosophy. Philosophical Quarterly 40 (160):316-341.score: 40.0
  47. Peter P. Kirschenmann (1993). Our Obligations to Nature and the Future. Social Philosophy Today 9:383-403.score: 40.0
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  48. David Bilchitz (2013). Corporations and Fundamental Rights: What is the Nature of Their Obligations, If Any?. In. In Christopher Luetege (ed.), Handbook of the Philosophical Foundations of Business Ethics. Springer. 1053--1076.score: 40.0
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