Search results for 'Natural obligations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Samuel Clarke (2007). Discourse Concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion. In Elizabeth Schmidt Radcliffe, Richard McCarty, Fritz Allhoff & Anand Vaidya (eds.), Late Modern Philosophy: Essential Readings with Commentary. Blackwell Pub. Ltd.
     
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  2.  12
    Joseph Mazor (2013). Harms, Wrongs, and Indirect Natural Resource Conservation Obligations: A Reply to Benjamin Sachs. Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (2):212 - 215.
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  3.  1
    Benjamin Sachs (2013). Mazor on Indirect Obligations to Conserve Natural Resources for Future Generations. Ethics, Policy and Environment 16 (2):208 - 211.
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  4. Celia Deane-Drummond (2015). Natural Law Revisited: Wild Justice and Human Obligations for Other Animals. Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 35 (2):159-173.
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  5. G. Geismann (2002). The Natural Law Formulation of the Categorical Imperative and the Derivation of Contextually Determined Obligations, by Julius Ebbinghaus. Kant-Studien 93 (3):371-373.
     
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  6. Douglas MacKay (2013). Standard of Care, Institutional Obligations, and Distributive Justice. Bioethics 28 (2):352-359.
    The problem of standard of care in clinical research concerns the level of treatment that investigators must provide to subjects in clinical trials. Commentators often formulate answers to this problem by appealing to two distinct types of obligations: professional obligations and natural duties. In this article, I investigate whether investigators also possess institutional obligations that are directly relevant to the problem of standard of care, that is, those obligations a person has because she occupies a (...)
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  7.  35
    Bill Wringe (forthcoming). Global Collective Obligations, Just International Institutions And Pluralism. Book Chapter.
    It is natural to think of political philosophy as being concerned with reflection on some of the ways in which groups of human beings come together to confront together the problems that they face together: in other words, as the domain, par excellence, of collective action. From this point of view it might seem surprising that the notion of collective obligation rarely assumes centre-stage within the subject. If there are, or can be, collective obligations, then these must surely (...)
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  8.  82
    Douglas MacKay (2013). Standard of Care, Institutional Obligations, and Distributive Justice. Bioethics 28 (2):352-359.
    The problem of standard of care in clinical research concerns the level of treatment that investigators must provide to subjects in clinical trials. Commentators often formulate answers to this problem by appealing to two distinct types of obligations: professional obligations and natural duties. In this article, I investigate whether investigators also possess institutional obligations that are directly relevant to the problem of standard of care, that is, those obligations a person has because she occupies a (...)
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  9.  85
    Douglas MacKay (2013). Standard of Care, Institutional Obligations, and Distributive Justice. Bioethics 28 (2):352-359.
    The problem of standard of care in clinical research concerns the level of treatment that investigators must provide to subjects in clinical trials. Commentators often formulate answers to this problem by appealing to two distinct types of obligations: professional obligations and natural duties. In this article, I investigate whether investigators also possess institutional obligations that are directly relevant to the problem of standard of care, that is, those obligations a person has because she occupies a (...)
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  10.  88
    Carl Wellman (ed.) (2002). Rights and Duties. Routledge.
    Volume Six of the Six-Volume set, Rights and Duties joins the most significant writings in two crucial areas of ethical reflection and behavior. This collection provides students and scholars with the history of how humanity has argued for and against entitlements, rights, and protections for itself, and how humanity has argued for and against obligations, duties, and social responsibilities toward others.
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  11.  38
    Edmund Wall (2008). Searle's Derivation, Natural Law, and Moral Relativism. Philosophia 36 (2):237-249.
    Some philosophers have maintained that even if John R. Searle’s attempted derivation of an evaluative proposition from purely descriptive premises is successful, moral ought would not have been derived. Searle agrees. I will argue that if Searle has successfully derived “ought,” then, based on various approaches taken towards the content of “morality,” this is moral ought. I will also trace out some of the benefits of a successful derivation of moral ought in relation to natural law ethics. I sketch (...)
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  12.  2
    Henrik Palmer Olsen (1999). Law in its Own Right. Hart Pub..
    Olsen and Toddington argue that equivocation on the central issue here - that of obligation - has brought legal theory to the point where leading legal ...
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  13.  7
    Allen Carlson & Arnold Berleant (eds.) (2004). The Aesthetics of Natural Environments. Broadview Press.
    The Aesthetics of Natural Environments is a collection of essays investigating philosophical and aesthetics issues that arise in our appreciation of natural environments. The introduction gives an historical and conceptual overview of the rapidly developing field of study known as environmental aesthetics. The essays consist of classic pieces as well as new contributions by some of the most prominent individuals now working in the field and range from theoretical to applied approaches. The topics covered include the nature and (...)
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  14. Edward Feser (2010). Classical Natural Law Theory, Property Rights, and Taxation. Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (1):21-52.
    Classical natural law theory derives moral conclusions from the essentialist and teleological understanding of nature enshrined in classical metaphysics. The paper argues that this understanding of nature is as defensible today as it was in the days of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas. It then shows how a natural law theory of the grounds and content of our moral obligations follows from this understanding of nature, and how a doctrine of natural rights follows in turn from (...)
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  15. Lisa H. Newton (2005). Business Ethics and the Natural Environment. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Business Ethics and the Natural Environment_ examines the present status of relations between corporate enterprise and the natural environment in the world today. •Discusses such questions as: What obligations does a corporation have toward the environment? To respect entities unprotected by law? To care about future generations? •Argues that environmentally-friendly business practices yield dividends exceeding expectations, and that the competitive firm of the 21st century will follow “green” standards •Provides a background in ethics, a survey of business (...)
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  16.  34
    Aaron Maltais (2014). Political Obligations in a Sea of Tyranny and Crushing Poverty. Legal Theory 20 (3):186-209.
    Christopher Wellman is the strongest proponent of the natural-duty theory of political obligations and argues that his version of the theory can satisfy the key requirement of ; namely, justifying to members of a state the system of political obligations they share in. Critics argue that natural-duty theories like Wellman's actually require well-ordered states and/or their members to dedicate resources to providing the goods associated with political order to needy outsiders. The implication is that natural-duty (...)
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  17. R. Mary Hayden Lemmons (2011). Ultimate Normative Foundations: The Case for Aquinas's Personalist Natural Law. Lexington Books.
    Ultimate Normative Foundations: The Case for Personalist Natural Law Across the Globe explores the indefeasibility and universality of certain moral obligations and proscriptions. Rose Mary Hayden Lemmons defends the personalist natural law formulated by Aquinas as a normative foundation that is able to both meet those objections and specify interpersonal obligations as well as juridical obligations concerning inalienable rights, religious liberty, and Just War theory. Academics concerned with philosophy, theology, or law will find this book (...)
     
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  18.  51
    George Klosko (2004). Duties to Assist Others and Political Obligations. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (2):143-159.
    In response to recent criticisms of traditional theories of political obligation, scholars have advanced moral reasons for complying with the law that focus on natural duties to assist other people who are in need. In discussions of political obligation, these ‘rescue principles’ are presented as alternatives to traditional principles. I argue that theories of political obligation based on rescue principles are not able to fulfill the role theorists assign them. If the underlying assumptions of rescue theories are uncovered, they (...)
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  19.  84
    Siegfried Van Duffel (2004). Natural Rights and Individual Sovereignty. Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (2):147–162.
    TO assert that one should come to terms with the past if one wants to understand the present would be to underline the obvious. And yet, even though we know much more of the history of natural rights theories now, especially of the origin of these theories before the seventeenth century, than we did, say, twenty years ago, this increase in knowledge seems to have had little impact on contemporary philosophical discussions about the nature of rights. Sometimes it seems (...)
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  20.  5
    C. F. Goodey (2001). From Natural Disability to the Moral Man: Calvinism and the History of Psychology. History of the Human Sciences 14 (3):1-29.
    Some humanist theologians within the French Reformed Church in the 17th century developed the notion that a disability of the intellect could exist in nature independently of any moral defect, freeing its possessors from any obligations of natural law. Sharpened by disputes with the church leadership, this notion began to suggest a species-type classification that threatened to override the importance of the boundary between elect and reprobate in the doctrine of predestination. This classification seems to look forward to (...)
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  21.  30
    Hans Morten Haugen (2013). Human Rights in Natural Science and Technology Professions' Codes of Ethics? Business and Professional Ethics Journal 32 (1-2):49-76.
    No global professional codes for the natural science and technology professions exist. In light of how the application of new technology can affect individuals and communities, this discrepancy warrants greater scrutiny. This article analyzes the most relevant processes and seeks to explain why these processes have not resulted in global codes. Moreover, based on a human rights approach, the article gives recommendations on the future process and content of codes for science and technology professions. The relevance of human rights (...)
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  22.  46
    Karl Olivecrona & Thomas Mautner (2010). The Two Levels in Natural Law Thinking. Jurisprudence 1 (2):197-224.
    Central parts of the natural law theories of Grotius and Pufendorf assume that persons by nature have individual realms of their own, violations of which constitute a wrong. This is the basis for their accounts of promises, ownership and reactions against wrongs. These accounts are significantly independent of any assumption that a superior being imposes obligations: rather, the individuals themselves create obligations by their own acts of will. The translator's introducton draws attention to the author's relation to (...)
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  23.  43
    Annette C. Baier (1990). Natural Virtues, Natural Vices. Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (1):24.
    David Hume has been invoked by those who want to found morality on human nature as well as by their critics. He is credited with showing us the fallacy of moving from premises about what is the case to conclusions about what ought to be the case; and yet, just a few pages after the famous is-ought remarks in A Treatise of Human Nature, he embarks on his equally famous derivation of the obligations of justice from facts about the (...)
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  24.  51
    Scott A. Davison (2009). A Natural Law Based Environmental Ethic. Ethics and the Environment 14 (1):pp. 1-13.
    In his recent book Natural Law and Practical Rationality , Mark Murphy develops a sophisticated version of a natural law account of practical rationality. I shall show that with only a few minor changes, Murphy's account can be developed into an environmental ethic that generates human obligations to non-human animals, plants, and perhaps even ecosystems and machines. (I shall not discuss here the plausibility of this extension of Murphy's account, relative to competing accounts in environmental ethics; that (...)
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  25.  11
    Murray Sheard (2008). Corporate Responsibilities and Property Rights in the Management of Natural Resources. Philosophy of Management 6 (2):99-106.
    Businesses interface with the natural world through rights to property. The shape of these rights and the responsibilities we assign to managers are important determinants of both patterns of resource use and pollutant levels. Consequently, conflicts have arisen between regulating bodies, indigenous groups, andcorporations over the entitlements of businesses in the use of their property when that property is ecologically sensitive or significant.In this paper I develop an account of the ethical responsibilities of managers regarding their treatment of the (...)
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  26.  14
    Margaret Somerville (2011). Children's Human Rights to Natural Biological Origins and Family Structure. Bioethics Research Notes 23 (1):1.
    Somerville, Margaret Over the millennia of human history, the idea that children - at least those born into a marriage - had rights with respect to their biological parents was taken for granted and reflected in law and public policy. But with same-sex marriage, which gives same-sex spouses the right to found a family, that is no longer the case. Likewise, children's rights with respect to their biological origins were not an issue when there was no technoscience that could be (...)
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  27.  23
    Joseph Boyle (2001). Fairness in Holdings: A Natural Law Account of Property and Welfare Rights. Social Philosophy and Policy 18 (1):206-226.
    In this essay I will try to develop a natural law justification of welfare rights. The justification I will undertake is from the perspective of Catholic natural law, that is, the strand of natural law that has been developed theoretically by Roman Catholic canonists, theologians, and philosophers since Aquinas, and affirmed by Catholic teachers as the basis for most moral obligations. Catholic natural law is, therefore, natural law as developed and understood by Catholics or (...)
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  28.  7
    Ulrich Schmidt (2014). An Examination of C. Stephen Evans’s “Natural Signs and Knowledge of God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments”. Philosophy and Theology 26 (1):151-185.
    In his excellent book Natural Signs and Knowledge of God: A New Look at Theistic Arguments, C. Stephen Evans argues that what underlies the classical theistic arguments are theistic natural signs. The awareness of our own contingency underlies the cosmological argument, beneficial order underlies the teleological argument, our experience of feeling moral obligations underlies the moral argument, and the intrinsic value of human beings underlies the axiological argument. Natural signs point to an entity without forcing belief (...)
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  29.  4
    Hubert Lehmann (1990). Legal Concepts in a Natural Language Based Expert System. Ratio Juris 3 (2):245-253.
    . A new approach to the formalization of concepts used in legal reasoning such as obligation and cause is presented. The formalization is based on the linguistic use of the concepts both in legal language and in ordinary language, and has been motivated by work on a legal expert system with a natural language interface. Particularly for the concept of obligation this yields quite different results from those obtained by the usual approach of deontic logic: So‐called paradoxes are avoided, (...)
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  30. J. Budziszewski (2009). The Line Through the Heart: Natural Law as Fact, Theory, and Sign of Contradiction. Intercollegiate Studies Institute.
    The suicidal proclivity of our time, writes the acclaimed philosopher J. Budziszewski, is to deny the obvious. Our hearts are riddled with desires that oppose their deepest longings, because we demand to have happiness on terms that make happiness impossible. Why? And what can we do about it? Budziszewski addresses these vital questions in his brilliantly persuasive new book, _The Line Through the Heart_. The answers can be discovered in an exploration of natural law—a venture that, with Budziszewski as (...)
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  31. Lisa H. Newton (2008). Business Ethics and the Natural Environment. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Business Ethics and the Natural Environment_ examines the present status of relations between corporate enterprise and the natural environment in the world today. •Discusses such questions as: What obligations does a corporation have toward the environment? To respect entities unprotected by law? To care about future generations? •Argues that environmentally-friendly business practices yield dividends exceeding expectations, and that the competitive firm of the 21st century will follow “green” standards •Provides a background in ethics, a survey of business (...)
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  32. Lisa H. Newton (2008). Business Ethics and the Natural Environment. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Business Ethics and the Natural Environment_ examines the present status of relations between corporate enterprise and the natural environment in the world today. •Discusses such questions as: What obligations does a corporation have toward the environment? To respect entities unprotected by law? To care about future generations? •Argues that environmentally-friendly business practices yield dividends exceeding expectations, and that the competitive firm of the 21st century will follow “green” standards •Provides a background in ethics, a survey of business (...)
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  33. Lisa H. Newton (2005). Business Ethics and the Natural Environment. Wiley-Blackwell.
    _Business Ethics and the Natural Environment_ examines the present status of relations between corporate enterprise and the natural environment in the world today. •Discusses such questions as: What obligations does a corporation have toward the environment? To respect entities unprotected by law? To care about future generations? •Argues that environmentally-friendly business practices yield dividends exceeding expectations, and that the competitive firm of the 21st century will follow “green” standards •Provides a background in ethics, a survey of business (...)
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  34. Thomas Pink (2007). Normativity and Reason. Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (3):406-431.
    Moral obligation is a demand of reason—a demanding kind of rational justification. How to understand this rational demand? Much recent philosophy, as in the work of Scanlon, takes obligatoriness to be a reason-giving feature of an action. But the paper argues that moral obligatoriness should instead be understood as a mode of justificatory support—as a distinctive justificatory force of demand. The paper argues that this second model of obligation, the Force model, was central to the natural law tradition in (...)
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  35.  24
    Martyna Koszkało (2012). Rozważania Franciszka Suareza nad zakresem działania mocy absolutnej Boga w odniesieniu do prawa naturalnego. Filo-Sofija 12 (17):121-135.
    FRANCIS SUÁREZ’S VIEWS ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE ABSOLUTE POWER OF GOD AND THE NATURAL LAW The article presents Francis Suárez’s views concerning the problem of the possibility of granting dispensation from the natural law by the absolute power of God. Suárez’s opinions on this matter were shown in his comprehensive work on the philosophy of law: De legibus ac Deo legislatore, in Book II De lege aeterna, naturali, et jure gentium, chapter XV entitled Utrum Deus dispensare possit (...)
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  36.  7
    Ian Hunter (2004). Conflicting Obligations: Pufendorf, Leibniz and Barbeyrac on Civil Authority. History of Political Thought 25 (4):670-699.
    Barbeyrac's republication of and commentary on Leibniz' attack on Pufendorf's natural-law doctrine is often seen as symptomatic of the failure of all three early moderns to solve a particular moral-philosophical problem: that of the relationship between civil authority and morality. Making use of the first English translation of Barbeyrac's work, this article departs from the usual view by arguing that here we are confronted by three conflicting constructions of civil obligation, arising not from the common intellectual terrain of moral (...)
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  37. Helga Varden (2006). Locke's Waste Restriction and His Strong Voluntarism. Locke Studies 6:127-141.
    This paper argues that there is a conflict between two principles informing Locke’s political philosophy, namely his waste restriction and his strong voluntarism. Locke’s waste restriction is proposed as a necessary, enforceable restriction upon rightful private property holdings and it yields arguments to preserve and redistribute natural resources. Locke’s strong voluntarism is proposed as the liberal ideal of political obligations. It expresses Locke’s view that each individual has a natural political power, which can only be transferred to (...)
     
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  38.  32
    Ryan Windeknecht (2012). Law Without Legitimacy or Justification? The Flawed Foundations of Philosophical Anarchism. Res Publica 18 (2):173-188.
    In this article, I examine A. John Simmons’s philosophical anarchism, and specifically, the problems that result from the combination of its three foundational principles: the strong correlativity of legitimacy rights and political obligations; the strict distinction between justified existence and legitimate authority; and the doctrine of personal consent, more precisely, its supporting assumptions about the natural freedom of individuals and the non-natural states into which individuals are born. As I argue, these assumptions, when combined with the strong (...)
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  39.  7
    Abner Shimony (2002). Some Intellectual Obligations of Epistemological Naturalism. In David B. Malament (ed.), Reading Natural Philosophy: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics. Open Court 297--313.
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  40.  10
    Roger D. Masters (1989). Obligation and the New Naturalism. Biology and Philosophy 4 (1):17-32.
    Although it has become increasingly evident that an adequate theory of obligation must rest on evolutionary biology and human ethology, attempts toward this end need to explore the full range of personal, cultural, and political obligations observed in our species. The new naturalism reveals the complexity of social behavior and the defects of reductionist models that oversimplify the foundations of human duties and rights. Ultimately, this approach suggest a return to the Aristotelian concept of natural justice.
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  41.  4
    Molly Farneth (2013). Gender and the Ethical Given. Journal of Religious Ethics 41 (4):643-667.
    G. W. F. Hegel's discussion of the Antigone in the Phenomenology of Spirit has provoked ongoing debate about his views on gender. This essay offers an interpretation of Hegel as condemning social arrangements that take the authoritativeness of identities and obligations to be natural or merely given. Hegel criticizes the ancient Greeks' understanding of both the human law and the divine law; in so doing, he provides resources for a critique of essentialist approaches to sex and gender. On (...)
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  42.  1
    Bryan Kibbe (2011). Aging and Disasters: Facing Natural and Other Disasters. In Ethics, Aging, and Society: The Critical Turn. Springer Publishing 255-279.
    “Aging and Disasters,” is an effort to tell a consistent and compelling story about the elderly amidst catastrophic disaster, and to then develop an ethical analysis and practical strategy for addressing the unique situation of the elderly. In the first portion of the chapter I make the case that the elderly are routinely overlooked amidst catastrophic disasters, and thereby often suffer disproportionately relative to the general population. More than being just a vulnerable population of people, the elderly are susceptible to (...)
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  43. Helga Varden (2006). Locke's Waste Restriction and His Strong Voluntarism. Locke Studies 6:127-141.
    This paper argues that there is a conflict between two principles informing Locke’s political philosophy, namely his waste restriction and his strong voluntarism. Locke’s waste restriction is proposed as a necessary, enforceable restriction upon rightful private property holdings and it yields arguments to preserve and redistribute natural resources. Locke’s strong voluntarism is proposed as the liberal ideal of political obligations. It expresses Locke’s view that each individual has a natural political power, which can only be transferred to (...)
     
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  44.  5
    Jonathan Gorman (2004). Historians and Their Duties. History and Theory 43 (4):103-117.
    We need to specify what ethical responsibility historians, as historians, owe, and to whom. We should distinguish between natural duties and (non-natural) obligations, and recognize that historians' ethical responsibility is of the latter kind. We can discover this responsibility by using the concept of “accountability”. Historical knowledge is central. Historians' central ethical responsibility is that they ought to tell the objective truth. This is not a duty shared with everybody, for the right to truth varies with the (...)
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  45.  14
    Hans Werner Ingensiep (1996). Tierseele und tierethische Argumentationen in der deutschen philosophischen Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 4 (1):103-118.
    The existence of an animal soul and problems of animal ethics are often discussed in the German philosophical literature of the 18th century, especially in response to the cartesian theory of the beast machine. The following paper presents firstly a view into the early discussions and doctrines about animal souls (e.g., Winkler, Meier). It unfolds secondly some strategies for the legitimation of the death of animals, including contemporary concepts of soul, mainly under the influence of Leibniz. The third part examines (...)
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  46. Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (2014). Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. In Harold Kincaid & Jacqueline Anne Sullivan (eds.), Classifying Psychopathology: Mental Kinds and Natural Kinds. MIT 1-10.
    In this volume, leading philosophers of psychiatry examine psychiatric classification systems, including the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), asking whether current systems are sufficient for effective diagnosis, treatment, and research. Doing so, they take up the question of whether mental disorders are natural kinds, grounded in something in the outside world. Psychiatric categories based on natural kinds should group phenomena in such a way that they are subject to the same type of causal explanations and (...)
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  47. Charles Darwin (2008/2006). On the Origin of Species: By Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Sterling Pub..
    Familiarity with Charles Darwin's treatise on evolution is essential to every well-educated individual. One of the most important books ever published--and a continuing source of controversy, a century and a half later--this classic of science is reproduced in a facsimile of the critically acclaimed first edition.
     
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  48. Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom (1990). Natural Language and Natural Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):707-27.
    Many people have argued that the evolution of the human language faculty cannot be explained by Darwinian natural selection. Chomsky and Gould have suggested that language may have evolved as the by-product of selection for other abilities or as a consequence of as-yet unknown laws of growth and form. Others have argued that a biological specialization for grammar is incompatible with every tenet of Darwinian theory – that it shows no genetic variation, could not exist in any intermediate forms, (...)
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  49. Axel Gelfert (2015). Inner Speech, Natural Language, and the Modularity of the Mind. Kairos 14:7-29.
    Inner speech is a pervasive feature of our conscious mental lives. Yet its function and character remain an issue of philosophical debate. The present paper focuses on the relation between inner speech and natural language and on the cognitive functions that various contributors have ascribed to inner speech. In particular, it is argued that inner speech does not consist of bare, context-free internal presentations of sentential (or subsentential) content, but rather has an ineliminably perspectival element. The proposed model of (...)
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  50. Corine Besson (2010). Rigidity, Natural Kind Terms, and Metasemantics. In Helen Beebee & Nigel Sabbarton-Leary (eds.), The Semantics and Metaphysics of Natural Kinds. Routledge 25--44.
    A paradigmatic case of rigidity for singular terms is that of proper names. And it would seem that a paradigmatic case of rigidity for general terms is that of natural kind terms. However, many philosophers think that rigidity cannot be extended from singular terms to general terms. The reason for this is that rigidity appears to become trivial when such terms are considered: natural kind terms come out as rigid, but so do all other general terms, and in (...)
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