Search results for 'Natural science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Lydia Patton (2013). Review: Watkins (Ed), Immanuel Kant, Natural Science. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.score: 240.0
    Natural Science is a new volume of the Cambridge translations of Kant's works. It makes available some of the most significant texts of Kant's pre-Critical period, some appearing for the first time in English translation. The translations are largely clear and accurate. Eric Watkins is a sure and knowledgeable editor, and provides concise and informative introductions to each text.
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  2. Kenneth R. Westphal (1998). ‘On Hegel’s Early Critique of Kant’s Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science’. In S. Houlgate (ed.), Hegel and the Philosophy of Nature. SUNY.score: 212.0
    In 1801 Hegel charged that, on Kant’s analysis, forces are ‘either purely ideal, in which case they are not forces, or else they are transcendent’. I argue that this objection, which Hegel did not spell out, reveals an important and fundamental line of internal criticism of Kant’s Critical philosophy. I show that Kant’s basic forces of attraction and repulsion, which constitute matter, are merely ideal because Kant’s arguments for them are circular and beg the question, and they have no determinate (...)
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  3. Ian Hacking (1983). Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.score: 192.0
    This is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to debates (...)
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  4. E. J. Lowe (2006). The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science. Oxford University Press.score: 192.0
    E. J. Lowe, a prominent figure in contemporary metaphysics, sets out and defends his theory of what there is. His four-category ontology is a metaphysical system which recognizes four fundamental categories of beings: substantial and non-substantial particulars and substantial and non-substantial universals. Lowe argues that this system has an explanatory power which is unrivaled by more parsimonious theories and that this counts decisively in its favor. He shows that it provides a powerful explanatory framework for a unified account of causation, (...)
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  5. Jennifer McRobert, Concept Construction in Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.score: 192.0
    Kant's reasoning in his special metaphysics of nature is often opaque, and the character of his a priori foundation for Newtonian science is the subject of some controversy. Recent literature on the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science has fallen well short of consensus on the aims and reasoning in the work. Various of the doctrines and even the character of the reasoning in the Metaphysical Foundations have been taken to present insuperable obstacles to accepting Kant's claim to (...)
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  6. Helen De Cruz & Johan De Smedt (forthcoming). A Natural History of Natural Theology. The Cognitive Science of Theology and Philosophy of Religion. MIT Press.score: 192.0
    [from the publisher's website] Questions about the existence and attributes of God form the subject matter of natural theology, which seeks to gain knowledge of the divine by relying on reason and experience of the world. Arguments in natural theology rely largely on intuitions and inferences that seem natural to us, occurring spontaneously—at the sight of a beautiful landscape, perhaps, or in wonderment at the complexity of the cosmos—even to a nonphilosopher. In this book, Helen De Cruz (...)
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  7. Heinrich Rickert (1986). The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science: A Logical Introduction to the Historical Sciences. Cambridge University Press.score: 192.0
    Heinrich Rickert (1863-1936) was One of the leading neo-Kantian philosophers in Germany and a crucial figure in the discussions of the foundations of the social sciences in the first quarter of the twentieth century. His views were extremely influential, most significantly on Max Weber. The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science is Rickert's most important work, and it is here translated into English for the first time. It presents his systematic theory of knowledge and philosophy of (...), and deals particularly with historical knowledge and the problem of demarcating the natural from the human sciences. The theory Rickert develops is carefully argued and of great intrinsic interest. It departs from both positivism and neo-Hegelian idealism and is worked out by contrast to the views of others, particularly Dilthey and the early phenomenologists. (shrink)
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  8. Diana M. Judd (2008). Questioning Authority: Political Resistance and the Ethic of Natural Science. Transaction Publishers.score: 192.0
    Francis Bacon : a new interpretation of nature -- Thomas Hobbes' scientific approach to politics -- John Locke and the origins of political resistance -- The ethic and practice of modern natural science -- Critical theory and the critique of modernity -- Michel Foucault and the postmodern reaction.
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  9. Gregory R. Peterson (2014). On McCauley's Why Religion is Natural and Science is Not: Some Further Observations. Zygon 49 (3):716-727.score: 192.0
    Robert McCauley's Why Religion Is Natural and Science Is Not provides a summary interpretive statement of the standard model in cognitive science of religion, what I have previously called the HADD + ToM + Cultural Epidemiology model, along with a more general argument comparing religious cognition to scientific thinking and a novel framework for understanding both in terms of the concept of the maturationally natural. I here follow up on some observations made in a previous paper, (...)
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  10. David Atkinson (2003). Experiments and Thought Experiments in Natural Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 232:209-226.score: 186.0
    My theme is thought experiment in natural science, and its relation to real experiment. I shall defend the thesis that thought experiments that do not lead to theorizing and to a real experiment are generally of much less value that those that do so. To illustrate this thesis I refer to three examples, from three very different periods, and with three very different kinds of status. The first is the classic thought experiment in which Galileo imagined that he (...)
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  11. Gary Hatfield (1995). Remaking the Science of Mind: Psychology as a Natural Science. In C. Fox, R. Porter & R. Wokler (eds.), Inventing Human Science. University of California Press.score: 186.0
    In Inventing Human Science, ed. by Christopher Fox, Roy Porter, and Robert Wokler (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 184–231. Key words: Wolff, Bonnet, Godart, Krüger, Hartley, Priestley, history of psychology in the 17th and 18th centuries, history of experiment in psychology, psychology as a natural science, idea of a natural science.
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  12. C. E. Cleland (2011). Prediction and Explanation in Historical Natural Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):551-582.score: 186.0
    In earlier work ( Cleland [2001] , [2002]), I sketched an account of the structure and justification of ‘prototypical’ historical natural science that distinguishes it from ‘classical’ experimental science. This article expands upon this work, focusing upon the close connection between explanation and justification in the historical natural sciences. I argue that confirmation and disconfirmation in these fields depends primarily upon the explanatory (versus predictive or retrodictive) success or failure of hypotheses vis-à-vis empirical evidence. The account (...)
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  13. A. P. (1998). The Scope of Hermeneutics in Natural Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (2):273-298.score: 186.0
    Hermeneutics, or interpretation, is concerned with the generation, transmission, and acceptance of meaning within the lifeworld, and was the original method of the human sciences stemming, from F. Schleiermacher and W. Dilthey. The `hermeneutic philosophy' refers mostly to Heidegger. This paper addresses natural science from the perspective of Heidegger's analysis of meaning and interpretation. Its purpose is to incorporate into the philosophy of science those aspects of historicality, culture, and tradition that are absent from the traditional analysis (...)
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  14. Donald L. McCabe (1997). Classroom Cheating Among Natural Science and Engineering Majors. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (4):433-445.score: 186.0
    The topic of cheating among college students has received considerable attention in the education and psychology literatures. But most of this research has been conducted with relatively small samples and individual projects have generally focused on students from a single campus. These studies have improved our understanding of cheating in college, but it is difficult to generalize their findings and it is also difficult to develop a good understanding of the differences that exist among different academic majors. Understanding such differences (...)
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  15. Patrick Heelan (1983). Natural Science as a Hermeneutic of Instrumentation. Philosophy of Science 50 (2):181-204.score: 186.0
    The author proposes the thesis that all perception, including observation in natural science, is hermeneutical as well as causal; that is, the perceiver (or observer) learns to 'read' instrumental or other perceptual stimuli as one learns to read a text. This hermeneutical aspect at the heart of natural science is located where it might be least expected, within acts of scientific observation. In relation to the history of science, the question is addressed to what extent (...)
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  16. Devin Henry, Optimality and Teleology in Aristotle's Natural Science.score: 184.0
    In this paper I examine the role of optimality reasoning in Aristotle’s natural science. By “optimality reasoning” I mean reasoning that appeals to some conception of “what is best” in order to explain why things are the way they are. We are first introduced to this pattern of reasoning in the famous passage at Phaedo 97b8-98a2, where (Plato’s) Socrates invokes “what is best” as a cause (aitia) of things in nature. This passage can be seen as the intellectual (...)
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  17. Immanuel Kant (2004). Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.score: 184.0
    Kant was centrally concerned with issues in the philosophy of natural science throughout his career. The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science presents his most mature reflections on these themes in the context of both his 'critical' philosophy, presented in the Critique of Pure Reason, and the natural science of his time. This volume presents a new translation, by Michael Friedman, which is especially clear and accurate. There are explanatory notes indicating some of the main (...)
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  18. Michael Friedman (2012). Newton and Kant: Quantity of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):482-503.score: 180.0
    Immanuel Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) provides metaphysical foundations for the application of mathematics to empirically given nature. The application that Kant primarily has in mind is that achieved in Isaac Newton's Principia (1687). Thus, Kant's first chapter, the Phoronomy, concerns the mathematization of speed or velocity, and his fourth chapter, the Phenomenology, concerns the empirical application of the Newtonian notions of true or absolute space, time, and motion. This paper concentrates on Kant's second and third (...)
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  19. Hans Morten Haugen (2013). Human Rights in Natural Science and Technology Professions' Codes of Ethics? Business and Professional Ethics Journal 32 (1-2):49-76.score: 180.0
    No global professional codes for the natural science and technology professions exist. In light of how the application of new technology can affect individuals and communities, this discrepancy warrants greater scrutiny. This article analyzes the most relevant processes and seeks to explain why these processes have not resulted in global codes. Moreover, based on a human rights approach, the article gives recommendations on the future process and content of codes for science and technology professions. The relevance of (...)
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  20. Kenneth R. Westphal (1995). Does Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science Fill a Gap in the Critique of Pure Reason? Synthese 103 (1):43 - 86.score: 180.0
    In 1792 and 1798 Kant noticed two basic problems with hisMetaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (MAdN) which opened a crucial gap in the Critical system as a whole. Why is theMAdN so important? I show that the Analogies of Experience form an integrated proof of transeunt causality. This is central to Kant's answer to Hume. This proof requires explicating the empirical concept of matter as the moveable in space, it requires the specifically metaphysical principle that every physical event (...)
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  21. Martin Eger (1997). Achievements of the Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Natural Science A Comparison with Constructivist Sociology. Man and World 30 (3):343-367.score: 180.0
    The hermeneutic-phenomenological approach to the natural sciences has a special interest in the interpretive phases of these sciences and in the circumstances, cognitive and social, that lead to divergent as well as convergent interpretations. It tries to ascertain the role of the hermeneutic circle in research; and to this end it has developed, over the past three decades or so, a number of adaptations of hermeneutic and phenomenological concepts to processes of experimentation and theory-making. The purpose of the present (...)
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  22. Jacqueline Cramer & Wolfgang Daele (1985). Is Ecology an 'Alternative' Natural Science? Synthese 65 (3):347 - 375.score: 180.0
    This article discusses whether ecology represents an alternative type of natural science, that is normatively committed. Central questions are:-how man and human action are integrated into the subject matter of ecology.
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  23. Yvon Gauthier (1985). Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science Ian Hacking Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 287 P. [REVIEW] Dialogue 24 (01):162-.score: 180.0
    This is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to debates (...)
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  24. Pierre Kerszberg (2005). Natural Science and the Experience of Nature. Angelaki 10 (1):187 – 199.score: 180.0
    (2005). Natural Science and the Experience of Nature. Angelaki: Vol. 10, continental philosophy and the sciences the german traditionissue editor: damian veal, pp. 187-199.
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  25. Thomas Baldwin (2013). Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenological Critique of Natural Science. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:189-219.score: 180.0
    In his Phenomenology of Perception Merleau-Ponty maintains that our own existence cannot be understood by the methods of natural science; furthermore, because fundamental aspects of the world such as space and time are dependent on our existence, these too cannot be accounted for within natural science. So there cannot be a fully scientific account of the world at all. The key thesis Merleau-Ponty advances in support of this position is that perception is not, as he puts (...)
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  26. R. John Bench (1989). Health Science, Natural Science, and Clinical Knowledge. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (2):147-164.score: 180.0
    The epistemological status of health science, natural science, and clinical knowledge is explored. It is shown that ‘health science’, a term increasingly used in association with the clinical knowledge of the therapies, nursing, and other health occupations, is not fully a science in the sense of the natural sciences. It is rather a hybrid which relates applications of natural science, behavioral science, and the humanities to problems in health. The same may (...)
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  27. Timothy E. Eastman (1998). Process Thought and Natural Science, II. Process Studies 27 (3-4):237-240.score: 180.0
    The ongoing research program of process thought meets some of its most crucial tests in efforts towards a comprehensive philosophy of nature. Contributors to the two special focus issues on natural science for the Process Studies journal provide many examples of such tests and commentary that reflect contemporary scientific thought. A core element of modern scientific methodology is the search for invariant, physical relationships that simplify our understanding of complex systems. In addition to a preference for some form (...)
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  28. Garrett Barden (2006). Natural Science and Existential Intelligibility. Yearbook of the Irish Philosophical Society 2006:31 - 39.score: 180.0
    This paper deals with the contention, coming from two main sources in scientific theory (theory of evolution and string theory), that the conclusions of these theories demonstrate the nonexistence of God. In response to this, the author seeks to show that neither of these arguments is sound; he is not particularly concerned here with proving the existence of God. In the course of the paper, a certain amount of confusion concerning the requirements which these two scientific theories would make of (...)
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  29. Immanuel Kant (2012). Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.score: 180.0
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Thoughts on the true estimation of living forces and assessment of the demonstrations that Leibniz and other scholars of mechanics have made use of in this controversial subject, together with some prefatory considerations pertaining to the force of bodies in general (1746-1749) Translated by Jeffrey B. Edwards and Martin Schönfeld; 2. Examination of the question whether the rotation of the Earth on its axis by which it brings about the alternation of day and night has (...)
     
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  30. Marvin Stauch (1992). Natural Science, Social Science, and Democratic Practice: Some Political Implications of the Distinction Between the Natural and the Human Sciences. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (3):337-356.score: 176.0
    This article examines some of the contributions to the contemporary debate over the question of whether there is an important distinction to be made between the natural and the human sciences. In particular, the article looks at the arguments that Charles Taylor has put forward for the recognition of a radical discontinuity between these forms of science and then examines Richard Rorty's objections to Taylor's distinction and argues that Rorty misunderstands the reasons for this distinction and thereby misses (...)
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  31. Chon Tejedor (2014). The Early Wittgenstein on Metaphysics, Natural Science, Language and Value. Routledge.score: 176.0
    In this book, Tejedor examines Wittgenstein’s early work on language, metaphysics, the natural sciences, and value, and advances an original reading of the role of solipsism, the principles of science and ethics in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus . Tejedor argues that some of the central questions in the New Wittgenstein Debate—notably, questions relating to the method of the Tractatus and to Wittgenstein’s approach to nonsense—cannot be resolved by considering Wittgenstein’s remarks on logic and language alone, but require a broader (...)
     
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  32. Peter K. Walhout (2009). The Beautiful and the Sublime in Natural Science. Zygon 44 (4):757-776.score: 174.0
    The various aesthetic phenomena found repeatedly in the scientific enterprise stem from the role of God as artist. If the Creator is an artist, how and why natural scientists study the divine art work can be understood using theological aesthetics and the philosophy of art. The aesthetic phenomena considered here are as follows. First, science reveals beauty and the sublime in natural phenomena. Second, science discovers beauty and the sublime in the theories that are developed to (...)
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  33. Jun-Young Oh (2014). Understanding Natural Science Based on Abductive Inference: Continental Drift. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 19 (2):153-174.score: 174.0
    This study aims to understand scientific inference for the evolutionary procedure of Continental Drift based on abductive inference, which is important for creative inference and scientific discovery during problem solving. We present the following two research problems: (1) we suggest a scientific inference procedure as well as various strategies and a criterion for choosing hypotheses over other competing or previous hypotheses; aspects of this procedure include puzzling observation, abduction, retroduction, updating, deduction, induction, and recycle; and (2) we analyze the “theory (...)
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  34. Joel S. Schwartz (1999). Robert Chambers and Thomas Henry Huxley, Science Correspondents: The Popularization and Dissemination of Nineteenth Century Natural Science. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (2):343 - 383.score: 174.0
    Robert Chambers and Thomas Henry Huxley helped popularize science by writing for general interest publications when science was becoming increasingly professionalized. A non-professional, Chambers used his family-owned Chambers' Edinburgh Journal to report on scientific discoveries, giving his audience access to ideas that were only available to scientists who regularly attended professional meetings or read published transactions of such forums. He had no formal training in the sciences and little interest in advancing the professional status of scientists; his course (...)
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  35. Michael Bennett McNulty (2014). Kant on Chemistry and the Application of Mathematics in Natural Science. Kantian Review 19 (3):393-418.score: 168.0
    In his Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Naturwissenschaft, Kant claims that chemistry is a science, but not a proper science (like physics), because it does not adequately allow for the application of mathematics to its objects. This paper argues that the application of mathematics to a proper science is best thought of as depending upon a coordination between mathematically constructible concepts and those of the science. In physics, the proper science that exhausts the a priori knowledge of (...)
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  36. Joseph J. Kockelmans (1997). On the Hermeneutical Nature of Modern Natural Science. Man and World 30 (3):299-313.score: 164.0
    An effort is made in this essay to show the intrinsic hermeneutic nature of the natural sciences by means of a critical reflection on data taken from the history of classical mechanics and astronomy. The events which eventually would lead to the origin of Newton's mechanics are critically analyzed, with the aim of showing that and in what sense the natural sciences are essentially interpretive enterprises.
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  37. Alberto Cordero (2008). Epistemology and "the Social" in Contemporary Natural Science. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 96 (1):129-142.score: 164.0
    Philosophers of science disagree on the extent to which epistemology transcends the social sphere in mature branches of science. In this paper I suggest a way of vindicating a key aspect of the transcendence thesis without questioning the social nature of science. Such vindication requires epistemological autonomy to prevail along channels having to do with (1) selection of research goals, (2) use of human subjects and public resources in research, (3) social interventions aimed at helping science (...)
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  38. Kenneth W. Kemp (1998). The Virtue of Faith in Theology, Natural Science, and Philosophy. Faith and Philosophy 15 (4):462-477.score: 164.0
    In this paper, I attempt to develop the account of intellectual virtues offered by Aristotle and St. Thomas in a way which recognizes faith as a good intellectual habit. I go on to argue that, as a practical matter, this virtue is needed not only in theology, where it provides the basis of further intellectual work, but also in the natural sciences, where it is required given the complexity of the subject matter and the cooperative nature of the enterprise.
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  39. Frederick Gregory (1995). Gotthilf Heinrich Schubert and the Dark Side of Natural Science. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 3 (1):255-269.score: 164.0
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  40. Sean A. Weaver & Michael C. Morris (2005). Risks Associated with Genetic Modification: – An Annotated Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Natural Science Publications. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2):157-189.score: 162.0
    We present an annotated bibliography of peer reviewed scientific research highlighting the human health, animal welfare, and environmental risks associated with genetic modification. Risks associated with the expression of the transgenic material include concerns over resistance and non-target effects of crops expressing Bt toxins, consequences of herbicide use associated with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant plants, and transfer of gene expression from genetically modified crops through vertical and horizontal gene transfer. These risks are not connected to the technique of genetic modification as (...)
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  41. Hermann Weyl (1949). Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science. Princeton University Press.score: 162.0
    This is a book that no one but Weyl could have written--and, indeed, no one has written anything quite like it since.
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  42. Patrick A. Heelan (1987). Husserl's Later Philosophy of Natural Science. Philosophy of Science 54 (3):368-390.score: 162.0
    Husserl argues in the Crisis that the prevalent tradition of positive science in his time had a philosophical core, called by him "Galilean science", that mistook the quest for objective theory with the quest for truth. Husserl is here referring to Gottingen science of the Golden Years. For Husserl, theory "grows" out of the "soil" of the prescientific, that is, pretheoretical, life-world. Scientific truth finally is to be sought not in theory but rather in the pragmatic-perceptual praxes (...)
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  43. Michael Heidelberger & Gregor Schiemann (eds.) (2009). The Significance of the Hypothetical in Natural Science. Walter De Gruyter.score: 162.0
    The essays cover periods from the middle ages to the 19th and 20th centuries.
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  44. Marius Stan (2014). Kant's Natural-Scientific Output. Essay Review of I. Kant, 'Natural Science'. Metascience 23 (1):65-70.score: 162.0
  45. J. O. Wisdom (ed.) (1952). Foundations of Inference in Natural Science. London, Methuen.score: 162.0
    Originally published in 1952. This book is a critical survey of the views of scientific inference that have been developed since the end of World War I. It contains some detailed exposition of ideas – notably of Keynes – that were cryptically put forward, often quoted, but nowhere explained. Part I discusses and illustrates the method of hypothesis. Part II concerns induction. Part III considers aspects of the theory of probability that seem to bear on the problem of induction and (...)
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  46. Ervin Laszlo & James Benjamin Wilbur (eds.) (1970). Human Values and Natural Science. New York,Gordon and Beach.score: 162.0
  47. Jack Martin & Jeff Sugarman (2009). Does Interpretation in Psychology Differ From Interpretation in Natural Science? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 39 (1):19-37.score: 162.0
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  48. Carl G. Hempel (1966). Philosophy of Natural Science. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.,Prentice-Hall.score: 162.0
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  49. Dudley Shapere (1974). Natural Science and the Future of Metaphysics. In R. S. Cohen & Marx W. Wartofsky (eds.), Methodological and Historical Essays in the Natural and Social Sciences. Boston,Reidel. 161--171.score: 162.0
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  50. Hongyu Jiang (2004). Ren Wen Jing Yan Yu Ke Xue Jing Yan: Dui Ren Wen Ke Xue Yu Zi Ran Ke Xue Guan Nian de Sheng Cun Lun Tou Shi = Human Experience and Science Experience: The Re-Interpretation on the Idea of the Human Science and the Natural Science From the Prespective of Existential. She Hui Ke Xue Wen Xian Chu Ban She.score: 162.0
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