Search results for 'Natural science' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Lydia Patton (2013). Review: Watkins (Ed), Immanuel Kant, Natural Science. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.score: 90.0
    Natural Science is a new volume of the Cambridge translations of Kant's works. It makes available some of the most significant texts of Kant's pre-Critical period, some appearing for the first time in English translation. The translations are largely clear and accurate. Eric Watkins is a sure and knowledgeable editor, and provides concise and informative introductions to each text.
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  2. Kenneth R. Westphal (1998). ‘On Hegel’s Early Critique of Kant’s Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science’. In S. Houlgate (ed.), Hegel and the Philosophy of Nature. SUNY.score: 76.0
    In 1801 Hegel charged that, on Kant’s analysis, forces are ‘either purely ideal, in which case they are not forces, or else they are transcendent’. I argue that this objection, which Hegel did not spell out, reveals an important and fundamental line of internal criticism of Kant’s Critical philosophy. I show that Kant’s basic forces of attraction and repulsion, which constitute matter, are merely ideal because Kant’s arguments for them are circular and beg the question, and they have no determinate (...)
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  3. Ian Hacking (1983). Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.score: 66.0
    This is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to debates (...)
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  4. E. J. Lowe (2006). The Four-Category Ontology: A Metaphysical Foundation for Natural Science. Oxford University Press.score: 66.0
    E. J. Lowe, a prominent figure in contemporary metaphysics, sets out and defends his theory of what there is. His four-category ontology is a metaphysical system which recognizes four fundamental categories of beings: substantial and non-substantial particulars and substantial and non-substantial universals. Lowe argues that this system has an explanatory power which is unrivaled by more parsimonious theories and that this counts decisively in its favor. He shows that it provides a powerful explanatory framework for a unified account of causation, (...)
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  5. Jennifer McRobert, Concept Construction in Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.score: 66.0
    Kant's reasoning in his special metaphysics of nature is often opaque, and the character of his a priori foundation for Newtonian science is the subject of some controversy. Recent literature on the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science has fallen well short of consensus on the aims and reasoning in the work. Various of the doctrines and even the character of the reasoning in the Metaphysical Foundations have been taken to present insuperable obstacles to accepting Kant's claim to (...)
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  6. Heinrich Rickert (1986). The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science: A Logical Introduction to the Historical Sciences. Cambridge University Press.score: 66.0
    Heinrich Rickert (1863-1936) was One of the leading neo-Kantian philosophers in Germany and a crucial figure in the discussions of the foundations of the social sciences in the first quarter of the twentieth century. His views were extremely influential, most significantly on Max Weber. The Limits of Concept Formation in Natural Science is Rickert's most important work, and it is here translated into English for the first time. It presents his systematic theory of knowledge and philosophy of (...), and deals particularly with historical knowledge and the problem of demarcating the natural from the human sciences. The theory Rickert develops is carefully argued and of great intrinsic interest. It departs from both positivism and neo-Hegelian idealism and is worked out by contrast to the views of others, particularly Dilthey and the early phenomenologists. (shrink)
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  7. Diana M. Judd (2008). Questioning Authority: Political Resistance and the Ethic of Natural Science. Transaction Publishers.score: 66.0
    Francis Bacon : a new interpretation of nature -- Thomas Hobbes' scientific approach to politics -- John Locke and the origins of political resistance -- The ethic and practice of modern natural science -- Critical theory and the critique of modernity -- Michel Foucault and the postmodern reaction.
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  8. David Atkinson (2003). Experiments and Thought Experiments in Natural Science. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 232:209-226.score: 63.0
    My theme is thought experiment in natural science, and its relation to real experiment. I shall defend the thesis that thought experiments that do not lead to theorizing and to a real experiment are generally of much less value that those that do so. To illustrate this thesis I refer to three examples, from three very different periods, and with three very different kinds of status. The first is the classic thought experiment in which Galileo imagined that he (...)
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  9. C. E. Cleland (2011). Prediction and Explanation in Historical Natural Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):551-582.score: 63.0
    In earlier work ( Cleland [2001] , [2002]), I sketched an account of the structure and justification of ‘prototypical’ historical natural science that distinguishes it from ‘classical’ experimental science. This article expands upon this work, focusing upon the close connection between explanation and justification in the historical natural sciences. I argue that confirmation and disconfirmation in these fields depends primarily upon the explanatory (versus predictive or retrodictive) success or failure of hypotheses vis-à-vis empirical evidence. The account (...)
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  10. Gary Hatfield (1995). Remaking the Science of Mind: Psychology as a Natural Science. In C. Fox, R. Porter & R. Wokler (eds.), Inventing Human Science. University of California Press.score: 63.0
    In Inventing Human Science, ed. by Christopher Fox, Roy Porter, and Robert Wokler (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 184–231. Key words: Wolff, Bonnet, Godart, Krüger, Hartley, Priestley, history of psychology in the 17th and 18th centuries, history of experiment in psychology, psychology as a natural science, idea of a natural science.
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  11. A. P. (1998). The Scope of Hermeneutics in Natural Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (2):273-298.score: 63.0
    Hermeneutics, or interpretation, is concerned with the generation, transmission, and acceptance of meaning within the lifeworld, and was the original method of the human sciences stemming, from F. Schleiermacher and W. Dilthey. The `hermeneutic philosophy' refers mostly to Heidegger. This paper addresses natural science from the perspective of Heidegger's analysis of meaning and interpretation. Its purpose is to incorporate into the philosophy of science those aspects of historicality, culture, and tradition that are absent from the traditional analysis (...)
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  12. Donald L. McCabe (1997). Classroom Cheating Among Natural Science and Engineering Majors. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (4):433-445.score: 63.0
    The topic of cheating among college students has received considerable attention in the education and psychology literatures. But most of this research has been conducted with relatively small samples and individual projects have generally focused on students from a single campus. These studies have improved our understanding of cheating in college, but it is difficult to generalize their findings and it is also difficult to develop a good understanding of the differences that exist among different academic majors. Understanding such differences (...)
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  13. Patrick Heelan (1983). Natural Science as a Hermeneutic of Instrumentation. Philosophy of Science 50 (2):181-204.score: 63.0
    The author proposes the thesis that all perception, including observation in natural science, is hermeneutical as well as causal; that is, the perceiver (or observer) learns to 'read' instrumental or other perceptual stimuli as one learns to read a text. This hermeneutical aspect at the heart of natural science is located where it might be least expected, within acts of scientific observation. In relation to the history of science, the question is addressed to what extent (...)
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  14. Devin Henry, Optimality and Teleology in Aristotle's Natural Science.score: 62.0
    In this paper I examine the role of optimality reasoning in Aristotle’s natural science. By “optimality reasoning” I mean reasoning that appeals to some conception of “what is best” in order to explain why things are the way they are. We are first introduced to this pattern of reasoning in the famous passage at Phaedo 97b8-98a2, where (Plato’s) Socrates invokes “what is best” as a cause (aitia) of things in nature. This passage can be seen as the intellectual (...)
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  15. Immanuel Kant (2004). Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.score: 62.0
    Kant was centrally concerned with issues in the philosophy of natural science throughout his career. The Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science presents his most mature reflections on these themes in the context of both his 'critical' philosophy, presented in the Critique of Pure Reason, and the natural science of his time. This volume presents a new translation, by Michael Friedman, which is especially clear and accurate. There are explanatory notes indicating some of the main (...)
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  16. Aspasia S. Moue, Kyriakos A. Masavetas & Haido Karayianni (2006). Tracing the Development of Thought Experiments in the Philosophy of Natural Sciences. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 37 (1):61 - 75.score: 61.0
    An overview is provided of how the concept of the thought experiment has developed and changed for the natural sciences in the course of the 20th century. First, we discuss the existing definitions of the term 'thought experiment' and the origin of the thought experimentation method, identifying it in Greek Presocratics epoch. Second, only in the end of the 19th century showed up the first systematic enquiry on thought experiments by Ernst Mach's work. After the Mach's work, a negative (...)
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  17. Michael Friedman (2012). Newton and Kant: Quantity of Matter in the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):482-503.score: 60.0
    Immanuel Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (1786) provides metaphysical foundations for the application of mathematics to empirically given nature. The application that Kant primarily has in mind is that achieved in Isaac Newton's Principia (1687). Thus, Kant's first chapter, the Phoronomy, concerns the mathematization of speed or velocity, and his fourth chapter, the Phenomenology, concerns the empirical application of the Newtonian notions of true or absolute space, time, and motion. This paper concentrates on Kant's second and third (...)
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  18. Hans Morten Haugen (2013). Human Rights in Natural Science and Technology Professions' Codes of Ethics? Business and Professional Ethics Journal 32 (1-2):49-76.score: 60.0
    No global professional codes for the natural science and technology professions exist. In light of how the application of new technology can affect individuals and communities, this discrepancy warrants greater scrutiny. This article analyzes the most relevant processes and seeks to explain why these processes have not resulted in global codes. Moreover, based on a human rights approach, the article gives recommendations on the future process and content of codes for science and technology professions. The relevance of (...)
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  19. Kenneth R. Westphal (1995). Does Kant's Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science Fill a Gap in the Critique of Pure Reason? Synthese 103 (1):43 - 86.score: 60.0
    In 1792 and 1798 Kant noticed two basic problems with hisMetaphysical Foundations of Natural Science (MAdN) which opened a crucial gap in the Critical system as a whole. Why is theMAdN so important? I show that the Analogies of Experience form an integrated proof of transeunt causality. This is central to Kant's answer to Hume. This proof requires explicating the empirical concept of matter as the moveable in space, it requires the specifically metaphysical principle that every physical event (...)
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  20. Martin Eger (1997). Achievements of the Hermeneutic-Phenomenological Approach to Natural Science A Comparison with Constructivist Sociology. Man and World 30 (3):343-367.score: 60.0
    The hermeneutic-phenomenological approach to the natural sciences has a special interest in the interpretive phases of these sciences and in the circumstances, cognitive and social, that lead to divergent as well as convergent interpretations. It tries to ascertain the role of the hermeneutic circle in research; and to this end it has developed, over the past three decades or so, a number of adaptations of hermeneutic and phenomenological concepts to processes of experimentation and theory-making. The purpose of the present (...)
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  21. Jacqueline Cramer & Wolfgang Daele (1985). Is Ecology an 'Alternative' Natural Science? Synthese 65 (3):347 - 375.score: 60.0
    This article discusses whether ecology represents an alternative type of natural science, that is normatively committed. Central questions are:-how man and human action are integrated into the subject matter of ecology.
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  22. Pierre Kerszberg (2005). Natural Science and the Experience of Nature. Angelaki 10 (1):187 – 199.score: 60.0
    (2005). Natural Science and the Experience of Nature. Angelaki: Vol. 10, continental philosophy and the sciences the german traditionissue editor: damian veal, pp. 187-199.
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  23. Yvon Gauthier (1985). Representing and Intervening: Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science Ian Hacking Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 287 P. [REVIEW] Dialogue 24 (01):162-.score: 60.0
    This is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to debates (...)
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  24. Thomas Baldwin (2013). Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenological Critique of Natural Science. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 72:189-219.score: 60.0
    In his Phenomenology of Perception Merleau-Ponty maintains that our own existence cannot be understood by the methods of natural science; furthermore, because fundamental aspects of the world such as space and time are dependent on our existence, these too cannot be accounted for within natural science. So there cannot be a fully scientific account of the world at all. The key thesis Merleau-Ponty advances in support of this position is that perception is not, as he puts (...)
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  25. R. John Bench (1989). Health Science, Natural Science, and Clinical Knowledge. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (2):147-164.score: 60.0
    The epistemological status of health science, natural science, and clinical knowledge is explored. It is shown that ‘health science’, a term increasingly used in association with the clinical knowledge of the therapies, nursing, and other health occupations, is not fully a science in the sense of the natural sciences. It is rather a hybrid which relates applications of natural science, behavioral science, and the humanities to problems in health. The same may (...)
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  26. Timothy E. Eastman (1998). Process Thought and Natural Science, II. Process Studies 27 (3-4):237-240.score: 60.0
    The ongoing research program of process thought meets some of its most crucial tests in efforts towards a comprehensive philosophy of nature. Contributors to the two special focus issues on natural science for the Process Studies journal provide many examples of such tests and commentary that reflect contemporary scientific thought. A core element of modern scientific methodology is the search for invariant, physical relationships that simplify our understanding of complex systems. In addition to a preference for some form (...)
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  27. Garrett Barden (2006). Natural Science and Existential Intelligibility. Yearbook of the Irish Philosophical Society 2006:31 - 39.score: 60.0
    This paper deals with the contention, coming from two main sources in scientific theory (theory of evolution and string theory), that the conclusions of these theories demonstrate the nonexistence of God. In response to this, the author seeks to show that neither of these arguments is sound; he is not particularly concerned here with proving the existence of God. In the course of the paper, a certain amount of confusion concerning the requirements which these two scientific theories would make of (...)
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  28. Immanuel Kant (2012). Natural Science. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Thoughts on the true estimation of living forces and assessment of the demonstrations that Leibniz and other scholars of mechanics have made use of in this controversial subject, together with some prefatory considerations pertaining to the force of bodies in general (1746-1749) Translated by Jeffrey B. Edwards and Martin Schönfeld; 2. Examination of the question whether the rotation of the Earth on its axis by which it brings about the alternation of day and night has (...)
     
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  29. Marvin Stauch (1992). Natural Science, Social Science, and Democratic Practice: Some Political Implications of the Distinction Between the Natural and the Human Sciences. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (3):337-356.score: 58.0
    This article examines some of the contributions to the contemporary debate over the question of whether there is an important distinction to be made between the natural and the human sciences. In particular, the article looks at the arguments that Charles Taylor has put forward for the recognition of a radical discontinuity between these forms of science and then examines Richard Rorty's objections to Taylor's distinction and argues that Rorty misunderstands the reasons for this distinction and thereby misses (...)
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  30. Chon Tejedor (2014). The Early Wittgenstein on Metaphysics, Natural Science, Language and Value. Routledge.score: 58.0
    In this book, Tejedor examines Wittgenstein’s early work on language, metaphysics, the natural sciences, and value, and advances an original reading of the role of solipsism, the principles of science and ethics in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus . Tejedor argues that some of the central questions in the New Wittgenstein Debate—notably, questions relating to the method of the Tractatus and to Wittgenstein’s approach to nonsense—cannot be resolved by considering Wittgenstein’s remarks on logic and language alone, but require a broader (...)
     
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  31. Peter K. Walhout (2009). The Beautiful and the Sublime in Natural Science. Zygon 44 (4):757-776.score: 57.0
    The various aesthetic phenomena found repeatedly in the scientific enterprise stem from the role of God as artist. If the Creator is an artist, how and why natural scientists study the divine art work can be understood using theological aesthetics and the philosophy of art. The aesthetic phenomena considered here are as follows. First, science reveals beauty and the sublime in natural phenomena. Second, science discovers beauty and the sublime in the theories that are developed to (...)
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  32. Dimitri Ginev (1992). Varianten der Kritischen WissenschaftstheorieVariants of Critical Philosophy of Science. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 23 (1):45-60.score: 57.0
    It is the purpose of this paper to represent an analysis of four variants of critical philosophy of science: the constructivistic methodology, the reflexion upon science from the viewpoint of the critical theory of society, the ‘social natural science’ as a further development of the finalization conception, and the projective philosophy of science. Special attention is paid to the comparison of these variants. Some points of convergence as well as of divergence among them are revealed. (...)
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  33. Jun-Young Oh (2014). Understanding Natural Science Based on Abductive Inference: Continental Drift. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 19 (2):153-174.score: 57.0
    This study aims to understand scientific inference for the evolutionary procedure of Continental Drift based on abductive inference, which is important for creative inference and scientific discovery during problem solving. We present the following two research problems: (1) we suggest a scientific inference procedure as well as various strategies and a criterion for choosing hypotheses over other competing or previous hypotheses; aspects of this procedure include puzzling observation, abduction, retroduction, updating, deduction, induction, and recycle; and (2) we analyze the “theory (...)
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  34. Joel S. Schwartz (1999). Robert Chambers and Thomas Henry Huxley, Science Correspondents: The Popularization and Dissemination of Nineteenth Century Natural Science. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 32 (2):343 - 383.score: 57.0
    Robert Chambers and Thomas Henry Huxley helped popularize science by writing for general interest publications when science was becoming increasingly professionalized. A non-professional, Chambers used his family-owned Chambers' Edinburgh Journal to report on scientific discoveries, giving his audience access to ideas that were only available to scientists who regularly attended professional meetings or read published transactions of such forums. He had no formal training in the sciences and little interest in advancing the professional status of scientists; his course (...)
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  35. Shiying Zhang (2009). The Double Meanings of “Essence”: The Natural and Humane Sciences — a Tentative Linkage of Hegel, Dilthey, and Husserl. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):143-155.score: 55.0
    Early in Aristotle’s terminology, and ever since, “essence” has been conceived as having two meanings, namely “universality” and “individuality”. According to the tradition of thought that has dominated throughout the history of Western philosophy, “essence” unequivocally refers to “universality”. As a matter of fact, however, “universality” cannot cover Aristotle’s definition and formulation of “essence”: Essence is what makes a thing “happen to be this thing.” “Individuality” should be the deep meaning of “essence”. By means of an analysis of some relevant (...)
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  36. Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (2013). The Natural Vs. The Human Sciences:: Myth, Methodology and Ontology. Discusiones Filosóficas 14 (22):25-41.score: 55.0
    I argue that the human sciences (i.e. humanities, social- and behavioural sciences) should not try to imitate the methodology of the natural sciences. The human sciences study meaningful phenomena whose nature is decisively different from the merely physical phenomena studied by the natural sciences, and whose study therefore require different methods; meaningful phenomena do not obviously obey natural laws while the merely physical necessarily does. This is not to say that the human sciences do not study an (...)
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  37. Zhang Shiying & Zhang Lin (2009). The Double Meanings of "Essence": The Natural and Humane Sciences — A Tentative Linkage of Hegel, Dilthey, and Husserl. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):143 - 155.score: 55.0
    Early in Aristotle's terminology, and ever since, "essence" has been conceived as having two meanings, namely "universality" and "individuality". According to the tradition of thought that has dominated throughout the history of Western philosophy, "essence" unequivocally refers to "universality". As a matter of fact, however, "universality" cannot cover Aristotle's definition and formulation of "essence": Essence is what makes a thing "happen to be this thing." "Individuality" should be the deep meaning of "essence". By means of an analysis of some relevant (...)
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  38. Nicholas Maxwell (2004). Is Science Neurotic? Imperial College Press.score: 54.0
    Is Science Neurotic? sets out to show that science suffers from a damaging but rarely noticed methodological disease — “rationalistic neurosis.” Assumptions concerning metaphysics, human value and politics, implicit in the aims of science, are repressed, and the malaise has spread to affect the whole academic enterprise, with the potential for extraordinarily damaging long-term consequences. The book begins with a discussion of the aims and methods of natural science, and moves on to discuss social (...), philosophy, education, psychoanalytic theory and academic inquiry as a whole. It makes an original and compelling contribution to the current debate between those for and those against science, arguing that science would be of greater human value if it were more rigorous — we suffer not from too much scientific rationality, but too little. The author discusses the need for a revolution in the aims of science and academic inquiry in general and, in a lively and accessible style, spells out a thesis with profound importance for the long-term future of humanity. (shrink)
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  39. C. G. F. Simkin (1993). Popper's Views on Natural and Social Science. E.J. Brill.score: 54.0
    Explains Popper's views on natural and social science, ranging in Part I from metaphysical considerations to his interpretation of the formalism of quantum ...
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  40. Josef M. Schmidt (2009). Is Homeopathy a Science?—Continuity and Clash of Concepts of Science Within Holistic Medicine. Journal of Medical Humanities 30 (2):83-97.score: 54.0
    The question of whether homeopathy is a science is currently discussed almost exclusively against the background of the modern concept of natural science. This approach, however, fails to notice that homeopathy—in terms of history of science—rests on different roots that can essentially be traced back to two most influential traditions of science: on the one hand, principles and notions of Aristotelism which determined 2,000 years of Western history of science and, on the other hand, (...)
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  41. Peter S. Alagona (2012). A Sanctuary for Science: The Hastings Natural History Reservation and the Origins of the University of California's Natural Reserve System. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 45 (4):651 - 680.score: 54.0
    In 1937 Joseph Grinnell founded the University of California's (U.C.) first biological field station, the Hastings Natural History Reservation. Hastings became a center for field biology on the West Coast, and by 1960 it was serving as a model for the creation of additional U.C. reserves. Today, the U.C. Natural Reserve System (NRS) is the largest and most diverse network of university-based biological field stations in the world, with 36 sites covering more than 135,000 acres. This essay examines (...)
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  42. Yury Viktor Kissin (2013). Natural Sciences: Definitions and Attempt at Classification. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (2):116-137.score: 53.0
    The article discusses the formal classification of natural sciences, which is based on several propositions: (a) natural sciences can be separated onto independent and dependent sciences based on the gnosiologic criterion and irreducibility criteria (principal and technical); (b) there are four independent sciences which form a hierarchy: physics ← chemistry ← terrestrial biology ← human psychology; (c) every independent science except for physics has already developed or will develop in the future a set of final paradigms formulated (...)
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  43. Joseph J. Kockelmans (1997). On the Hermeneutical Nature of Modern Natural Science. Man and World 30 (3):299-313.score: 52.0
    An effort is made in this essay to show the intrinsic hermeneutic nature of the natural sciences by means of a critical reflection on data taken from the history of classical mechanics and astronomy. The events which eventually would lead to the origin of Newton's mechanics are critically analyzed, with the aim of showing that and in what sense the natural sciences are essentially interpretive enterprises.
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  44. Alberto Cordero (2008). Epistemology and "the Social" in Contemporary Natural Science. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 96 (1):129-142.score: 52.0
    Philosophers of science disagree on the extent to which epistemology transcends the social sphere in mature branches of science. In this paper I suggest a way of vindicating a key aspect of the transcendence thesis without questioning the social nature of science. Such vindication requires epistemological autonomy to prevail along channels having to do with (1) selection of research goals, (2) use of human subjects and public resources in research, (3) social interventions aimed at helping science (...)
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  45. Kenneth W. Kemp (1998). The Virtue of Faith in Theology, Natural Science, and Philosophy. Faith and Philosophy 15 (4):462-477.score: 52.0
    In this paper, I attempt to develop the account of intellectual virtues offered by Aristotle and St. Thomas in a way which recognizes faith as a good intellectual habit. I go on to argue that, as a practical matter, this virtue is needed not only in theology, where it provides the basis of further intellectual work, but also in the natural sciences, where it is required given the complexity of the subject matter and the cooperative nature of the enterprise.
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  46. Frederick Gregory (1995). Gotthilf Heinrich Schubert and the Dark Side of Natural Science. Ntm International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology & Medicine 3 (1):255-269.score: 52.0
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  47. Sean A. Weaver & Michael C. Morris (2005). Risks Associated with Genetic Modification: – An Annotated Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Natural Science Publications. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2):157-189.score: 51.0
    We present an annotated bibliography of peer reviewed scientific research highlighting the human health, animal welfare, and environmental risks associated with genetic modification. Risks associated with the expression of the transgenic material include concerns over resistance and non-target effects of crops expressing Bt toxins, consequences of herbicide use associated with genetically modified herbicide-tolerant plants, and transfer of gene expression from genetically modified crops through vertical and horizontal gene transfer. These risks are not connected to the technique of genetic modification as (...)
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  48. H. L. Dreyfus (2011). Medicine as Combining Natural and Human Science. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 36 (4):335-341.score: 51.0
    Medicine is unique in being a combination of natural science and human science in which both are essential. Therefore, in order to make sense of medical practice, we need to begin by drawing a clear distinction between the natural and the human sciences. In this paper, I try to bring the old distinction between the Geistes and Naturwissenschaften up to date by defending the essential difference between a realist explanatory theoretical study of nature including the body (...)
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  49. James Franklin (1984). Natural Sciences as Textual Interpretation: The Hermeneutics of the Natural Sign. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (4):509-520.score: 51.0
    There are close parallels between perception (the interpretation of sensory experience as representing physical objects) and hermeneutics (the interpretation of signs as having meaning). Perceptual illusions corresponds to ambiguities in texts; naive realism corresponds to fundamentalism; the scientist's reinterpretation of the "manifest image" to the global/local interplay of the "hermeneutic circle" in the interpretation of large texts.
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  50. Hermann Weyl (1949). Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Science. Princeton University Press.score: 51.0
    This is a book that no one but Weyl could have written--and, indeed, no one has written anything quite like it since.
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