The author defends John R. Searle's Chinese Room argument against a particular objection made by William J. Rapaport called the Korean Room. Foundational issues such as the relationship of strong AI to human mentality and the adequacy of the Turing Test are discussed. Through undertaking a Gedankenexperiment similar to Searle's but which meets new specifications given by Rapaport for an AI system, the author argues that Rapaport's objection to Searle does not stand and that Rapaport's arguments seem convincing only because (...) they assume the foundations of strong AI at the outset. (shrink)
Ruth Ginzberg has proposed a model for a gynocentric science that might constitute a paradigm as described by Kuhn. The author argues that Ginzberg's model lacks certain essential features of paradigms as described by Kuhn. The differences may stem from more fundamental disagreements between them, including the possibility that some essential features of Ginzberg's gynocentric science place it outside the intended scope of Kuhn's analysis.
Rawls?s controversial idea of public reason is often criticized for being exclusionary and unfair. Yet it is possible to read the idea of public reason as being largely innocuous, especially if one attends to all the qualifications and specifications of the idea that Rawls articulated. This essay pursues such a reading, by systematically considering each element of qualification that Rawls built into the idea of public reason. Considered together and in terms of their cumulative effect, they make the innocuous reading (...) possible. My aim is not, however, to try to defend Rawls?s idea of public reason by claiming that it is innocuous, but to help clarify the ambiguous nature of the idea through this reading. (shrink)
Faculty plagiarism and fraud are widely documented occurrences but little analysis has been conducted. This article addresses the question of why faculty plagiarism and fraud occurs and suggests approaches on how to develop an environment where faculty misconduct is socially inappropriate. The authors review relevant literature, primarily in business ethics and student cheating, developing action steps that could be applied to higher education. Based upon research in these areas, the authors posit some actions that would be appropriate in higher education (...) and suggest topics for continued study. (shrink)
Lucas Swaine?s respectful manner of engaging with theocrats is at odds with the more heavy-handed arguments he gives to those who would reject his position. Furthermore, it is not clear that Swaine?s case can reach theocrats whose self-conceptions do not fit within the liberal idiom.
Palliative laser therapy for gastrointestinal tumors is now well established. Its use however may be associated with complications not directly attributable to the laser therapy. These complications potentially decrease the quality of life which opposes the aim of treatment.
Foucault on Politics, Society and War interrogates Foucault's controversial genealogy of modern biopolitics. By insisting on 'life' as the key referent of power in the modern age, Foucault argues that politics grounds society in war, specifically race war, in ways that come to threaten the very human existence it is pledged to promote. These essays situate Foucault's arguments, clarify the correlation of sovereign- and bio-power and examine the relation of bios, nomos and race in relation to modern war.
The aim of this paper is to provide a preliminary defence of the use of the concept of dignity in legal and ethical discourse. This will involve the application of three philosophical insights: (1) Ludwig Wittgenstein’s notion of language-games; (2) his related approach to understanding the meanings of words (sometimes summarised as ‘meaning is use’); and (3) Jeremy Waldron’s layered understanding of property wherein ‘property’ consists in an abstract concept fleshed out in numerous particular conceptions. These three insights will be (...) applied, in the first place, to the concept of ‘dignity’, which is chosen here as a good example of a concept which is both vague and contested in legal and ethical discourse, but which can nevertheless be rendered workable by the application of the aforementioned insights. Later, the analysis will be extended briefly to some other troublesome concepts in order to demonstrate its general application. This paper is concerned primarily with formal, rather than substantive questions about dignity. Matters of content will be touched on only insofar as is necessary to illustrate and illuminate my argument about how we ought to approach (rather than answer) questions about dignity. It should be emphasised that because there is no intention of exploring substantive questions in any depth, the discussion here will not delve into the criticisms of ‘speciesism’ often levelled against the idea of ‘human dignity’. ‘Speciesist’ theories are those that claim that the status, value, or rights of human beings can be regarded as being higher than that of other animals, purely on the basis of their membership of the human species, and without justifying the distinction by pointing to any relevant capacity or characteristic possessed by all and only human beings. For a critical description of speciesism see, e.g., Singer  Chapter Three passim; for present purposes, the term ‘dignity’ will be used synonymously with ‘human dignity’, and concerns about speciesism will not be considered. (shrink)
Diagnostik und Klassifikation der akuten myeloischen Leukämie (AML) beruhen auf zytologischen und zytogenetischen Charakteristika. Eine Individualisierung der Diagnostik und Therapie wird für AML mit normalem Karyotyp (CN-AML) durch den Nachweis spezifischer Genmutationen zunehmend ermöglicht. In einem systematischen Literaturreview und Metanalyse wurde die Mutation FLT3-ITD bei CN-AML untersucht. Eine systematische Literaturrecherche aller Veröffentlichungen der Datenbanken Embase, Pubmed, Healthstar, BIOSIS, ISI Web of Knowledge und Cochrane wurde für den Zeitraum 2000 bis März 2012 im Hinblick auf die Mutation FLT3-ITD bei Patienten mit (...) CN-AML und einem Alter von 15–65 Jahren durchgeführt. Der Literaturrecherche folgte eine Literaturselektion, eine Datenextraktion und eine qualitative sowie quantitative Informationssynthese in Form einer Metaanalyse. Achtzehn Veröffentlichungen konnten in die qualitative Analyse zur CN-AML eingeschlossen werden. Daten von 3 Publikationen zum Gesamtüberleben mit insgesamt 1.203 Patienten gingen mit Bezug auf den Marker FLT3-ITD in die Metaanalyse ein. Für FLT3-ITD zeigte sich eine statistisch signifikante schlechtere Prognose mit einer hazard ratio von 2,19 für das Gesamtüberleben bei CN-AML. FLT3-ITD ist im Vergleich zum Wildtyp mit einer schlechteren Prognose in Bezug auf den Krankheitsverlauf bei AML assoziiert. Die Analyse von FLT3 sollte bei der AML berücksichtigt werden. (shrink)
At the beginning of the 20s, Russia was devastated by famine and plagues. This paper deals with the life and work of the Leipzig physician Paul Carly Seyfarth (1890â1950), who participated in the Red Cross relief expedition to Russia. In 1922/23, Seyfarth was appointed director of the German Alexander-Hospital in Petersburg, which he reorganized and modernized for the treatment of infectious diseases.