Search results for 'Negative Logic' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Aristotelian Logic (forthcoming). Pairs of Negative Syllogistic Premises Yielding Conclusions. Logique Et Analyse.score: 360.0
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  2. Dolf Rami, Non‐Standard Neutral Free Logic, Empty Names and Negative Existentials.score: 192.0
    In this paper I am concerned with an analysis of negative existential sentences that contain proper names only by using negative or neutral free logic. I will compare different versions of neutral free logic with the standard system of negative free logic (Burge, Sainsbury) and aim to defend my version of neutral free logic that I have labeled non-standard neutral free logic.
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  3. Wayne Martin, Positive and Negative Logic.score: 180.0
    Acts of criticism characteristically display a negative and a positive dimension. I undertake a qualified defense of the thesis that both dimensions are essential, at least in the case of logical criticism – criticism that relies either implicitly or explicitly on the resources of logic. Such criticism presupposes at least a minimal grasp on what is involved in ‘getting it right’ in the domain that is subjected to critique. In making the case I distinguish between positive and (...) logic. Traditional logic is positive insofar as it takes as primitive a positive notion, typically truth. I consider to what extent logic might be reconstructed on an exclusively negative basis – as a tool for avoiding falsity and fallacy. Negative logic faces serious obstacles which suggest a prima facie case that logical criticism is essentially, not just accidentally, positive. (shrink)
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  4. Whalen Lai (1995). White Horse Not Horse: Making Sense of a Negative Logic. Asian Philosophy 5 (1):59 – 74.score: 180.0
    Abstract Kung?sun Lung's thesis on ?White Horse [is] not Horse? has been solved by A. C. Graham on the basis of a part/whole logic and by Chad Hansen on that and a ?mass?noun? hypothesis. We present it as a case of reducing White Horse to its two most telling marks and then, on the basis of the good Sense (instead of Reference) in a Negative Logic?the pragmatics of locating X as the remainder left over when all non?X's (...)
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  5. Norbert Gratzl (2010). A Sequent Calculus for a Negative Free Logic. Studia Logica 96 (3):331-348.score: 156.0
    This article presents a sequent calculus for a negative free logic with identity, called N . The main theorem (in part 1) is the admissibility of the Cut-rule. The second part of this essay is devoted to proofs of soundness, compactness and completeness of N relative to a standard semantics for negative free logic.
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  6. Duncan Ivison, Pluralism and the Hobbesian Logic of Negative Constitutionalism.score: 144.0
    According to an essentially Hobbesian account of political order, the claims of cultural and national minorities within a state to some form of constitutional or institutional recognition are morally suspect and politically undesirable. Underlying this Hobbesian logic is a particular understanding of the relation between law and politics. `Negative constitutionalism' is focused primarily on limiting the damage government can do. However the pursuit of constitutional minimalism runs up against the challenges presented by deeply diverse political communities. By investigating (...)
     
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  7. Duccio Luchi & Franco Montagna (1999). An Operational Logic of Proofs with Positive and Negative Information. Studia Logica 63 (1):7-25.score: 144.0
    The logic of proofs was introduced by Artemov in order to analize the formalization of the concept of proof rather than the concept of provability. In this context, some operations on proofs play a very important role. In this paper, we investigate some very natural operations, paying attention not only to positive information, but also to negative information (i.e. information saying that something cannot be a proof). We give a formalization for a fragment of such a logic (...)
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  8. Sergei P. Odintsov (2004). Negative Equivalence of Extensions of Minimal Logic. Studia Logica 78 (3):417 - 442.score: 144.0
    Two logics L1 and L2 are negatively equivalent if for any set of formulas X and any negated formula ¬, ¬ can be deduced from the set of hypotheses X in L1 if and only if it can be done in L2. This article is devoted to the investigation of negative equivalence relation in the class of extensions of minimal logic.
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  9. Jacek Malinowski (1990). The Deduction Theorem for Quantum Logic--Some Negative Results. Journal of Symbolic Logic 55 (2):615-625.score: 132.0
    We prove that no logic (i.e. consequence operation) determined by any class of orthomodular lattices admits the deduction theorem (Theorem 2.7). We extend those results to some broader class of logics determined by ortholattices (Corollary 2.6).
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  10. Robert Stepp (1979). Learning Without Negative Examples Via Variable-Valued Logic Characterizations: The Uniclass Inductive Program AQ7UNI. Dept. Of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.score: 132.0
     
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  11. Marco Hollenberg (1998). Characterizations of Negative Definability in Modal Logic. Studia Logica 60 (3):357-386.score: 126.0
    Negative definability ([18]) is an alternative way of defining classes of Kripke frames via a modal language, one that enables us, for instance, to define the class of irreflexive frames. Besides a list of closure conditions for negatively definable classes, the paper contains two main theorems. First, a characterization is given of negatively definable classes of (rooted) finite transitive Kripke frames and of such classes defined using both traditional (positive) and negative definitions. Second, we characterize the negatively definable (...)
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  12. Bruno Scarpellini (1971). Review: C. C. Chang, Logic with Positive and Negative Truth Values. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (2):331-332.score: 126.0
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  13. Andrei Voronkov (1999). The Ground-Negative Fragment of First-Order Logic is Πp2-Complete. Journal of Symbolic Logic 64 (3):984 - 990.score: 126.0
    We prove that for a natural class of first-order formulas the validity problem is Π p 2 -complete.
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  14. Johannes Bendiek (1955). Review: A. N. Prior, The Logic of Negative Terms in Boethius; A. N. Prior, On Some Consequentiae in Walter Burleigh. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 20 (1):83-83.score: 126.0
  15. George Englebretsen (1973). The Logic of Negative Theology. New Scholasticism 47 (2):228-232.score: 120.0
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  16. Alfred Sidgwick (1878). The Negative Character of Logic. Mind 3 (11):350-357.score: 120.0
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  17. Daniel Cohnitz, The Logic of Negative Conceivability.score: 120.0
    Analytic epistemology is traditionally interested in rational reconstructions of cognitive pro- cesses. The purpose of these rational reconstructions is to make plain how a certain cognitive process might eventually result in knowledge or justi?ed beliefs, etc., if we pre-theoretically think that we have such knowledge or such justi?ed beliefs. Typically a rational reconstruction assumes some (more or less) unproblematic basis of knowledge and some justi?cation-preserving inference pattern and then goes on to show how these two su ce to generate the (...)
     
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  18. J. Ditterich & R. Kaehr (1979). Rehearsal for a Different Reading+ Response to Article by Ludwig, Kh on Gunther, Gotthard Theory of Non-Aristotelian Logic-Diagram of a Reconstruction of Gunther Theory of Negative Languages. Philosophisches Jahrbuch 86 (2):385-408.score: 120.0
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  19. James Wilkinson Miller (1932). Negative Terms in Traditional Logic. The Monist 42 (1):96-111.score: 120.0
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  20. Werner Stelzner (2000). The Impact of Negative Facts for the Imaginary Logic of NA Vasil'ev. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 76:133-144.score: 120.0
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  21. Hadi Farahani & Hiroakira Ono (2012). Glivenko Theorems and Negative Translations in Substructural Predicate Logics. Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (7-8):695-707.score: 114.0
    Along the same line as that in Ono (Ann Pure Appl Logic 161:246–250, 2009), a proof-theoretic approach to Glivenko theorems is developed here for substructural predicate logics relative not only to classical predicate logic but also to arbitrary involutive substructural predicate logics over intuitionistic linear predicate logic without exponentials QFL e . It is shown that there exists the weakest logic over QFL e among substructural predicate logics for which the Glivenko theorem holds. Negative translations (...)
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  22. J. W. Degen & J. M. Werner (2007). Towards Intuitionistic Dynamic Logic. Logic and Logical Philosophy 15 (4):305-324.score: 90.0
    We propose the beginnings of an intuitionistic propopsitional dynamic logic, and describe several serious open problems.
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  23. Giacomo Bonanno (2000). Common Belief with the Logic of Individual Belief. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 46 (1):49-52.score: 84.0
  24. Mark Textor (2013). 'Thereby We Have Broken with the Old Logical Dualism'–Reinach on Negative Judgement and Negation. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 (3):570 - 590.score: 84.0
    Does (affirmative) judgement have a logical dual, negative judgement? Whether there is such a logical dualism was hotly debated at the beginning of the twentieth century. Frege argued in ?Negation? (1918/9) that logic can dispense with negative judgement. Frege's arguments shaped the views of later generations of analytic philosophers, but they will not have convinced such opponents as Brentano or Windelband. These philosophers believed in negative judgement for psychological, not logical, reasons. Reinach's ?On the Theory of (...)
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  25. Jaime Gaspar (2013). Negative Translations Not Intuitionistically Equivalent to the Usual Ones. Studia Logica 101 (1):45-63.score: 84.0
    We refute the conjecture that all negative translations are intuitionistically equivalent by giving two counterexamples. Then we characterise the negative translations intuitionistically equivalent to the usual ones.
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  26. Thomas Studer (2013). Decidability for Some Justification Logics with Negative Introspection. Journal of Symbolic Logic 78 (2):388-402.score: 78.0
    Justification logics are modal logics that include justifications for the agent's knowledge. So far, there are no decidability results available for justification logics with negative introspection. In this paper, we develop a novel model construction for such logics and show that justification logics with negative introspection are decidable for finite constant specifications.
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  27. Karel Lambert (2001). From Predication to Programming. Minds and Machines 11 (2):257-265.score: 72.0
    A free logic is one in which a singular term can fail to refer to an existent object, for example, `Vulcan' or `5/0'. This essay demonstrates the fruitfulness of a version of this non-classical logic of terms (negative free logic) by showing (1) how it can be used not only to repair a looming inconsistency in Quine's theory of predication, the most influential semantical theory in contemporary philosophical logic, but also (2) how Beeson, Farmer and (...)
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  28. D. C. McCarty (2002). Intuitionistic Completeness and Classical Logic. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 43 (4):243-248.score: 72.0
    We show that, if a suitable intuitionistic metatheory proves that consistency implies satisfiability for subfinite sets of propositional formulas relative either to standard structures or to Kripke models, then that metatheory also proves every negative instance of every classical propositional tautology. Since reasonable intuitionistic set theories such as HAS or IZF do not demonstrate all such negative instances, these theories cannot prove completeness for intuitionistic propositional logic in the present sense.
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  29. Renata P. de Freitas, Jorge P. Viana, Mario R. F. Benevides, Sheila R. M. Veloso & Paulo A. S. Veloso (2003). Squares in Fork Arrow Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (4):343-355.score: 72.0
    In this paper we show that the class of fork squares has a complete orthodox axiomatization in fork arrow logic (FAL). This result may be seen as an orthodox counterpart of Venema's non-orthodox axiomatization for the class of squares in arrow logic. FAL is the modal logic of fork algebras (FAs) just as arrow logic is the modal logic of relation algebras (RAs). FAs extend RAs by a binary fork operator and are axiomatized by adding (...)
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  30. Yde Venema (1993). Derivation Rules as Anti-Axioms in Modal Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (3):1003-1034.score: 72.0
    We discuss a `negative' way of defining frame classes in (multi)modal logic, and address the question of whether these classes can be axiomatized by derivation rules, the `non-ξ rules', styled after Gabbay's Irreflexivity Rule. The main result of this paper is a metatheorem on completeness, of the following kind: If Λ is a derivation system having a set of axioms that are special Sahlqvist formulas and Λ+ is the extension of Λ with a set of non-ξ rules, then (...)
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  31. Barry Smith (1982). Introduction to Adolf Reinach, ‘On the Theory of the Negative Judgment’”. In , Parts and Moments. Studies in Logic and Formal Ontology. Philosophia Verlag. 289313.score: 72.0
    Reinach’s essay of 1911 establishes an ontological theory of logic, based on the notion of Sachverhalt or state of affairs. He draws on the theory of meaning and reference advanced in Husserl’s Logical Investigations and at the same time anticipates both Wittgenstein’s Tractatus and later speech act theorists’ ideas on performative utterances. The theory is used by Reinach to draw a distinction between two kinds of negative judgment: the simple negative judgment, which is made true by a (...)
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  32. Christopher W. Tindale (2006). Perelman, Informal Logic and the Historicity of Reason. Informal Logic 26 (3):341-357.score: 72.0
    In a posthumous paper, Perelman discusses his decision to bring his theory of argumentation together with rhetoric rather than calling it an informal logic. This is due in part because of the centrality he gives to audience, and in part because of the negative attitude that informal logicians have to rhetoric. In this paper, I explore both of these concerns by way of considering what benefits Perelman’s work can have for informal logic, and what insights the work (...)
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  33. Dolf Rami, Existence and Free Logic.score: 66.0
    In this paper I aim to defend a first‐order non‐discriminating property view concerning existence. The version of this view that I prefer is based on negative (or a specific neutral) free logic that treats the existence predicate as first‐order logical predicate. I will provide reasons why such a view is more plausible than a second‐order discriminating property view concerning existence and I will also discuss four challenges for the proposed view and provide solutions to them.
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  34. Steffen Lewitzka (2011). Єk: A Non-Fregean Logic of Explicit Knowledge. Studia Logica 97 (2):233-264.score: 66.0
    We present a new logic-based approach to the reasoning about knowledge which is independent of possible worlds semantics. Є k (Epsilon-K) is a non-Fregean logic whose models consist of propositional universes with subsets for true, false and known propositions. Knowledge is, in general, not closed under rules of inference; the only valid epistemic principles are the knowledge axiom K iφ → φ and some minimal conditions concerning common knowledge in a group. Knowledge is explicit and all forms of (...)
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  35. Zhongyi Zhang & Jialong Zhang (2009). The Three-Form Reasoning of New Hetu-Vidya in Indian Logic From the Perspective of Modern Logic. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (4):631-645.score: 66.0
    Comparing the three-form reasoning of new Hetu-vidya with Western logic, scholars have put forward four perspectives. Combining their strengths and shortcomings, and the examples of Hetu-vidya reasoning, we can conclude that the three-form reasoning should have four forms: (1) the affirmative expression of formal implication; (2) the modus ponens of hypothetical reasoning concerning sufficient conditions after universal instantiation; (3) the negative expression of a formal implication; and (4) the modus tollens of hypothetical reasoning concerning sufficient conditions after universal (...)
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  36. Janusz Kaczmarek (2003). Positive and Negative Properties. A Logical Interpretation. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 32 (4):179-189.score: 66.0
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  37. Joseph E. Brenner (2010). A Logic of Ethical Information. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 23 (1-2):109-133.score: 66.0
    The work of Luciano Floridi lies at the interface of philosophy, information science and technology, and ethics, an intersection whose existence and significance he was one of the first to establish. His closely related concepts of a philosophy of information (PI), informational structural realism, information logic (IL), and information ethics (IE) provide a new ontological perspective from which moral concerns can be addressed, especially but not limited to those arising in connection with the new information and communication technologies. In (...)
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  38. Karin de Boer (2010). On Hegel: The Sway of the Negative. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 66.0
    Hegel is most famous for his view that conflicts between contrary positions are necessarily resolved. Whereas this optimism, inherent in modernity as such, has been challenged from Kierkegaard onward, many critics have misconstrued Hegel's own intentions. Focusing on the Science of Logic, this transformative reading of Hegel on the one hand exposes the immense force of Hegel's conception of tragedy, logic, nature, history, time, language, spirit, politics, and philosophy itself. Drawing out the implications of Hegel's insight into tragic (...)
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  39. Piotr Łukowski (2009). Either Epistemicism or Logic. Logic and Logical Philosophy 17 (4):329-351.score: 64.0
    Epistemicism seems to be the most dominating approach to vagueness in the recent twenty years. In the logical and philosophical tradition, e.g. Peirce, vagueness does not depend on human knowledge. Epistemicists deny this fact and contend that vagueness is merely the result of our imperfect mind, our dearth of knowledge, sort of phantom, finally, that it simply does not exist. In my opinion, such a stance not only excludes vagueness comprehended in terms of human knowledge, but which is worse, stems (...)
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  40. Massimo Mugnai (2011). Logic and Mathematics in the Seventeenth Century. History and Philosophy of Logic 31 (4):297-314.score: 60.0
    According to the received view (Boche?ski, Kneale), from the end of the fourteenth to the second half of nineteenth century, logic enters a period of decadence. If one looks at this period, the richness of the topics and the complexity of the discussions that characterized medieval logic seem to belong to a completely different world: a simplified theory of the syllogism is the only surviving relic of a glorious past. Even though this negative appraisal is grounded on (...)
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  41. Ross T. Brady (1996). Relevant Implication and the Case for a Weaker Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (2):151 - 183.score: 60.0
    We collect together some misgivings about the logic R of relevant inplication, and then give support to a weak entailment logic $DJ^{d}$ . The misgivings centre on some recent negative results concerning R, the conceptual vacuousness of relevant implication, and the treatment of classical logic. We then rectify this situation by introducing an entailment logic based on meaning containment, rather than meaning connection, which has a better relationship with classical logic. Soundness and completeness results (...)
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  42. Takahito Aoto (1999). Uniqueness of Normal Proofs in Implicational Intuitionistic Logic. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (2):217-242.score: 60.0
    A minimal theorem in a logic L is an L-theorem which is not a non-trivial substitution instance of another L-theorem. Komori (1987) raised the question whether every minimal implicational theorem in intuitionistic logic has a unique normal proof in the natural deduction system NJ. The answer has been known to be partially positive and generally negative. It is shown here that a minimal implicational theorem A in intuitionistic logic has a unique -normal proof in NJ whenever (...)
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  43. Hajnal Andréka, István Németi & Johan van Benthem (1998). Modal Languages and Bounded Fragments of Predicate Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 27 (3):217-274.score: 60.0
    What precisely are fragments of classical first-order logic showing “modal” behaviour? Perhaps the most influential answer is that of Gabbay 1981, which identifies them with so-called “finite-variable fragments”, using only some fixed finite number of variables (free or bound). This view-point has been endorsed by many authors (cf. van Benthem 1991). We will investigate these fragments, and find that, illuminating and interesting though they are, they lack the required nice behaviour in our sense. (Several new negative results support (...)
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  44. Raymond D. Gumb (2002). The Lazy Logic of Partial Terms. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (3):1065-1077.score: 60.0
    The Logic of Partial Terms LPT is a strict negative free logic that provides an economical framework for developing many traditional mathematical theories having partial functions. In these traditional theories, all functions and predicates are strict. For example, if a unary function (predicate) is applied to an undefined argument, the result is undefined (respectively, false). On the other hand, every practical programming language incorporates at least one nonstrict or lazy construct, such as the if-then-else, but nonstrict functions (...)
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  45. Frank Wolter (1995). The Finite Model Property in Tense Logic. Journal of Symbolic Logic 60 (3):757-774.score: 60.0
    Tense logics in the bimodal propositional language are investigated with respect to the Finite Model Property. In order to prove positive results techniques from investigations of modal logics above K4 are extended to tense logic. General negative results show the limits of the transfer.
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  46. Renata P. De Freitas, Jorge P. Viana, Mario R. F. Benevides, Sheila R. M. Veloso & Paulo A. S. Veloso (2003). Squares in Fork Arrow Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (4):343 - 355.score: 60.0
    In this paper we show that the class of fork squares has a complete orthodox axiomatization in fork arrow logic (FAL). This result may be seen as an orthodox counterpart of Venema's non-orthodox axiomatization for the class of squares in arrow logic. FAL is the modal logic of fork algebras (FAs) just as arrow logic is the modal logic of relation algebras (RAs). FAs extend RAs by a binary fork operator and are axiomatized by adding (...)
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  47. Masahiro Hamano & Ryo Takemura (2010). A Phase Semantics for Polarized Linear Logic and Second Order Conservativity. Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (1):77-102.score: 60.0
    This paper presents a polarized phase semantics, with respect to which the linear fragment of second order polarized linear logic of Laurent [15] is complete. This is done by adding a topological structure to Girard's phase semantics [9]. The topological structure results naturally from the categorical construction developed by Hamano—Scott [12]. The polarity shifting operator ↓ (resp. ↑) is interpreted as an interior (resp. closure) operator in such a manner that positive (resp. negative) formulas correspond to open (resp. (...)
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  48. Adriano Dodó & João Marcos (2014). Negative Modalities, Consistency and Determinedness. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science 300:21-45.score: 58.0
    We study a modal language for negative operators—an intuitionistic-like negation and its paraconsistent dual—added to (bounded) distributive lattices. For each non-classical negation an extra operator is hereby adjoined in order to allow for standard logical inferences to be opportunely restored. We present abstract characterizations and exhibit the main properties of each kind of negative modality, as well as of the associated connectives that express consistency and determinedness at the object-language level. Appropriate sequent-style proof systems and adequate kripke semantics (...)
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  49. Michael Davidson (1969). Positive Versus Negative Instances in Concept Identification Problems Matched for Logical Complexity of Solution Procedures. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (2p1):369.score: 56.0
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  50. Peter Gärdenfors, Sten Lindström, Michael Morreau & Wlodek Rabinowicz (1991). The Negative Ramsey Test. In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer.score: 54.0
    The so called Ramsey test is a semantic recipe for determining whether a conditional proposition is acceptable in a given state of belief. Informally, it can be formulated as follows: (RT) Accept a proposition of the form "if A, then C" in a state of belief K, if and only if the minimal change of K needed to accept A also requires accepting C. In Gärdenfors (1986) it was shown that the Ramsey test is, in the context of some other (...)
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