Search results for 'Neural Pathways' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. I. Sukhotinsky, V. Zalkind, J. Lu, D. A. Hopkins, B. Saper & M. Devor (2007). Neural Pathways Associated with Loss of Consciousness Caused by Intracerebral Microinjection of GABA-Sub(A)-Active Anesthetics. European Journal of Neuroscience 25 (5):1417-1436.score: 210.0
     
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  2. Simon Hong (2013). Dopamine System: Manager of Neural Pathways. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:854.score: 180.0
    There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1) the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel (...) pathways (NPs). The DA system can be viewed as the “manager” of these parallel NPs in that it recruits and activates only the task-relevant NPs when they are needed. It is likely that the functions of those NPs that have been consistently activated by the corresponding DA groups are facilitated. I also propose that (2) there are two levels of DA roles: the How and What roles. The How role is encoded in tonic and phasic DA neuron firing patterns and gives a directive to its target NP: how vigorously its function needs to be carried out. The tonic DA firing is to maintain a certain level of DA in the target NPs to support their expected behavioral and mental functions; it is only when a sudden unexpected boost or suppression of activity is required by the relevant target NP that DA neurons in the corresponding NP act in a phasic manner. The What role is the implementational aspect of the role of DA in the target NP, such as binding to D1 receptors to boost working memory. This What aspect of DA explains why DA seems to assume different functions depending on the region of the brain in which it is involved. In terms of the role of the lateral habenula (LHb), the LHb is expected to suppress maladaptive behaviors and mental processes by controlling the DA system. The demand-based smart management by the DA system may have given animals an edge in evolution with adaptive behaviors and a better survival rate in resource-scarce situations. (shrink)
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  3. Athanassios Raftopoulos (2001). Reentrant Neural Pathways and the Theory-Ladenness of Perception. Philosophy of Science 3 (September):S187-S199.score: 156.0
    In this paper I argue for the cognitive impenetrability of perception by undermining the argument from reentrant pathways. To do that I will adduce psychological and neuropsychological evidence showing that (a) early vision processing is not affected by our knowledge about specific objects and events, and (b) that the role of the descending pathways is to enable the early-vision processing modules to participate in higher-level visual or cognitive functions. My thesis is that a part of observation, which I (...)
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  4. Richard G. Carson Kathy L. Ruddy (2013). Neural Pathways Mediating Cross Education of Motor Function. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 156.0
    Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to enhancements in the performance of the opposite, untrained limb. Despite interest in this phenomenon having been sustained for more than a century, a comprehensive explanation of the mediating neural mechanisms remains elusive. With new evidence emerging that cross education may have therapeutic utility, the need to provide a principled evidential basis upon which to design interventions becomes ever more pressing. Generally, mechanistic accounts of cross education align (...)
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  5. Tjeerd Jellema & Perrett & I. David (2009). Neural Pathways of Social Cognition. In Robin Dunbar & Louise Barrett (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology. Oup Oxford.score: 150.0
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  6. Kouider Sid (2011). Nonconscious Emotional Processing of Pictures and Videos Involve Distinct Neural Pathways. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 150.0
  7. Marc A. Sommer, Peter H. Schiller & Robert M. McPeek (1993). What Neural Pathways Mediate Express Saccades? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):589.score: 150.0
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  8. R. I. Dorsky, D. W. Raible & R. T. Moon (2000). Signaling Pathways and Neural Crest Fate Specification. Bioessays 22:708-716.score: 120.0
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  9. David J. Chalmers (2000). What is a Neural Correlate of Consciousness? In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 17--39.score: 102.0
    The search for neural correlates of consciousness (or NCCs) is arguably the cornerstone in the recent resurgence of the science of consciousness. The search poses many difficult empirical problems, but it seems to be tractable in principle, and some ingenious studies in recent years have led to considerable progress. A number of proposals have been put forward concerning the nature and location of neural correlates of consciousness. A few of these include.
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  10. Gerald M. Edelman & Giulio Srinivasan Tononi (2000). Reentry and the Dynamic Core: Neural Correlates of Conscious Experience. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.score: 96.0
  11. Thomas Metzinger (2000). Neural Correlates of Consciousness: Empirical and Conceptual Questions. MIT Press.score: 96.0
  12. Andreas K. Engel & Wolf Singer (2001). Temporal Binding and the Neural Correlates of Sensory Awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (1):16-25.score: 96.0
    Theories of binding have recently come into the focus of the consciousness debate. In this review, we discuss the potential relevance of temporal binding mechanisms for sensory awareness. Specifically, we suggest that neural synchrony with a precision in the millisecond range may be crucial for conscious processing, and may be involved in arousal, perceptual integration, attentional selection and working memory. Recent evidence from both animal and human studies demonstrates that specific changes in neuronal synchrony occur during all of these (...)
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  13. Vittorio Gallese (2000). The Acting Subject: Toward the Neural Basis of Social Cognition. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 325--333.score: 96.0
  14. Melvyn A. Goodale & K. Murphy (2000). Space in the Brain: Different Neural Substrates for Allocentric and Egocentric Frames of Reference. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.score: 96.0
     
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  15. R. C. O'Reilly, R. Busby & R. Soto (2003). Three Forms of Binding and Their Neural Substrates: Alternatives to Temporal Synchrony. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press. 168--192.score: 90.0
  16. Olga Pollatos, Klaus Gramann & Rainer Schandry (2007). Neural Systems Connecting Interoceptive Awareness and Feelings. Human Brain Mapping 28 (1):9-18.score: 90.0
  17. Jaak Panksepp (2000). Affective Consciousness and the Instinctual Motor System: The Neural Sources of Sadness and Joy. In Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (eds.), The Caldron of Consciousness: Motivation, Affect and Self-Organization - an Anthology. Advances in Consciousness Research. John Benjamins. 27-54.score: 90.0
  18. D. Schiller & M. R. Delgado (2010). Overlapping Neural Systems Mediating Extinction, Reversal and Regulation of Fear. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (6):268-276.score: 90.0
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  19. Andreas K. Engel (2003). Temporal Binding and the Neural Correlates of Consciousness. In Axel Cleeremans (ed.), The Unity of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.score: 90.0
  20. George I. Viamontes, Bernard D. Beitman, Claudia T. Viamontes & Jorge A. Viamontes (2004). Neural Circuits for Self-Awareness: Evolutionary Origins and Implementation in the Human Brain. In Bernard D. Beitman & Jyotsna Nair (eds.), Self-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric Patients: Neurobiology, Assessment, and Treatment. W.W. Norton & Co. 24-111.score: 90.0
  21. Douglas F. Watt & David I. Pincus (2004). Neural Substrates of Consciousness: Implications for Clinical Psychiatry. In Jaak Panksepp (ed.), Textbook of Biological Psychiatry. Wiley-Liss. 75-110.score: 90.0
  22. Sven O. E. Ebbesson (1984). Evolution and Ontogeny of Neural Circuits. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (3):321.score: 78.0
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  23. James R. Hurford (2003). The Neural Basis of Predicate-Argument Structure. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (3):261-283.score: 72.0
    Neural correlates exist for a basic component of logical formulae, PREDICATE(x). Vision and audition research in primates and humans shows two independent neural pathways; one locates objects in body-centered space, the other attributes properties, such as colour, to objects. In vision these are the dorsal and ventral pathways. In audition, similarly separable “where” and “what” pathways exist. PREDICATE(x) is a schematic representation of the brain's integration of the two processes of delivery by the senses of (...)
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  24. Michel T. de Schotten, Marika Urbanski, Hugues Duffau, Emmanuelle Volle, Richard Lévy, Bruno Dubois & Paolo Bartolomeo (2005). Direct Evidence for a Parietal-Frontal Pathway Subserving Spatial Awareness in Humans. Science 309 (5744):2226-2228.score: 70.0
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  25. Ansgar Beckermann (2000). The Perennial Problem of the Reductive Explainability of Phenomenal Consciousness: C. D. Broad on the Explanatory Gap. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.score: 66.0
    At the start of the 20th century the question of whether life could be explained in purely me- chanical terms was as hotly debated as the mind-body problem is today. Two factions opposed each other: Biological mechanists claimed that the properties characteristic of living organisms (metabolism, perception, goal-directed behavior, procreation, morphogenesis) could be ex- plained mechanistically, in the way the behavior of a clock can be explained by the properties and the arrangement of its cogs, springs, and weights. Substantial vitalists, (...)
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  26. Thomas Metzinger (2000). The Subjectivity of Subjective Experience: A Representationist Analysis of the First-Person Perspective. In , Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 285--306.score: 66.0
    This is a brief and accessible English summary of the "Self-model Theory of Subjectivity" (SMT), which is only available as German book in this archive. It introduces two new theoretical entities, the "phenomenal self-model" (PSM) and the "phenomenal model of the intentionality-relation" PMIR. A representationalist analysis of the phenomenal first-person persepctive is offered. This is a revised version, including two pictures.
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  27. Wolf Singer (2000). Phenomenal Awareness and Consciousness From a Neurobiological Perspective. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 121--137.score: 66.0
  28. Joelle Proust (2000). Awareness of Agency: Three Levels of Analysis. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 307--24.score: 66.0
    This paper discusses the content of agency awareness. It contrast three elements in content: what the goal is, how it is to be reached, and who is having the goal/performing the action ? Marc Jeannerod's claim that goal representations are self-other neutral is discussed. If goal representations are essentially sharable, then we do not understand other people by projecting a piece of internal knowledge on to them, as often assumed. The problem which our brain has to solve is the converse (...)
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  29. Helen Barbas Basilis Zikopoulos (2013). Altered Neural Connectivity in Excitatory and Inhibitory Cortical Circuits in Autism. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 66.0
    Converging evidence from diverse studies suggests that atypical brain connectivity in autism affects in distinct ways short- and long-range cortical pathways, disrupting neural communication and the balance of excitation and inhibition. This hypothesis is based mostly on functional non-invasive studies that show atypical synchronization and connectivity patterns between cortical areas in children and adults with autism. Indirect methods to study the course and integrity of major brain pathways at low resolution show changes in fractional anisotropy or diffusivity (...)
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  30. Georg Layher, Martin A. Giese & Heiko Neumann (2014). Learning Representations of Animated Motion Sequences—A Neural Model. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):170-182.score: 66.0
    The detection and categorization of animate motions is a crucial task underlying social interaction and perceptual decision making. Neural representations of perceived animate objects are partially located in the primate cortical region STS, which is a region that receives convergent input from intermediate-level form and motion representations. Populations of STS cells exist which are selectively responsive to specific animated motion sequences, such as walkers. It is still unclear how and to what extent form and motion information contribute to the (...)
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  31. Jackie Andrade (2000). NMDa Receptor--Mediated Consciousness: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding the Effects of Anesthesia on Cognition? In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press. 271--279.score: 66.0
  32. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (2000). How to Understand the N in NCC. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.score: 66.0
  33. E. D. Lumer (2000). Binocular Rivalry and Human Visual Awareness. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Neural Correlates of Consciousness. MIT Press.score: 66.0
     
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  34. Peter Thier, Thomas Haarmeier, Subhojit Chakraborty, Axel Lindner & Alexander Tikhonov (2002). Cortical Substrates of Visuospatial Awareness Outside the Classical Dorsal Stream of Visual Processing. In Hans-Otto Karnath, David Milner & Giuseppe Vallar (eds.), The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Spatial Neglect. Oxford University Press. 71-81.score: 66.0
     
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  35. Axel Cleeremans (ed.) (2003). The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation. Oxford University Press.score: 60.0
  36. Susan A. Greenfield (2002). Mind, Brain and Consciousness. British Journal of Psychiatry 181 (2):91-93.score: 60.0
  37. Pavel Ortinski & Kimford J. Meador (2004). Neuronal Mechanisms of Conscious Awareness. Archives of Neurology 61 (7):1017-1020.score: 60.0
  38. Joseph E. Bogen (2001). An Experimental Disconnection Approach to a Function of Consciousness. International Journal of Neuroscience 111 (3):135-136.score: 60.0
  39. Seth Duncan & Lisa Feldman Barrett (2007). The Role of the Amygdala in Visual Awareness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (5):190-192.score: 60.0
  40. Danielle S. Bassett & Michael S. Gazzaniga (2011). Understanding Complexity in the Human Brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (5):200.score: 60.0
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  41. F. Xavier Castellanos & Erika Proal (2012). Large-Scale Brain Systems in ADHD: Beyond the Prefrontal–Striatal Model. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (1):17-26.score: 60.0
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  42. N. U. Dosenbach, D. A. Fair, A. L. Cohen, B. L. Schlaggar & S. E. Petersen (2008). A Dual-Networks Architecture of Top-Down Control. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (3):99-105.score: 60.0
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  43. Rita Z. Goldstein, D. A., Antoine Bechara, Hugh Garavan, Anna Rose Childress, Martin P. Paulus & Nora D. Volkow (2009). The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (9):372.score: 60.0
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  44. John P. O'Doherty Mimi Liljeholm (2012). Contributions of the Striatum to Learning, Motivation, and Performance: An Associative Account. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (9):467.score: 60.0
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  45. Alan G. Sanfey, George Loewenstein, Samuel M. McClure & Jonathan D. Cohen (2006). Neuroeconomics: Cross-Currents in Research on Decision-Making. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (3):108-116.score: 60.0
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  46. K. Friston (2009). The Free-Energy Principle: A Rough Guide to the Brain? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (7):293-301.score: 60.0
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  47. Mathieu Roy, Daphna Shohamy & Tor D. Wager (2012). Ventromedial Prefrontal-Subcortical Systems and the Generation of Affective Meaning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (3):147-156.score: 60.0
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  48. G. Northoff & F. Bermpohl (2004). Cortical Midline Structures and the Self. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (3):102-107.score: 60.0
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  49. A. F. Arnsten, C. D. Paspalas, N. J. Gamo, Y. Yang & M. Wang (2010). Dynamic Network Connectivity: A New Form of Neuroplasticity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):365-375.score: 60.0
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  50. Roberto Cabeza, Elisa Ciaramelli & Morris Moscovitch (2012). Cognitive Contributions of the Ventral Parietal Cortex: An Integrative Theoretical Account. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (6):338-352.score: 60.0
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