Search results for 'Newtonians' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. C. D. Broad (1981). Leibniz's Last Controversy with the Newtonians. In R. S. Woolhouse (ed.), Leibniz, Metaphysics and Philosophy of Science. Oxford University Press. 143-168.score: 9.0
  2. H. R. Bernstein (1977). The Newtonians and the English Revolution (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 15 (3):343-345.score: 9.0
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  3. Peter Heimann (1978). Essay Review: The Newtonians and the English Revolution, 1689-1720 by Margaret C. Jacob; Reason, Ridicule and Religion. The Age of Enlightenment in England, 1660-1750 by John Redwood. [REVIEW] History of Science 16:143-151.score: 9.0
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  4. Edward Kaplan (1984). The Newtonians and the English Revolution 1689-1720. International Studies in Philosophy 16 (3):87-87.score: 9.0
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  5. Andy Clark (1990). Connectionism, Competence and Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (June):195-222.score: 7.0
    A competence model describes the abstract structure of a solution to some problem. or class of problems, facing the would-be intelligent system. Competence models can be quite derailed, specifying far more than merely the function to be computed. But for all that, they are pitched at some level of abstraction from the details of any particular algorithm or processing strategy which may be said to realize the competence. Indeed, it is the point and virtue of such models to specify some (...)
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  6. Jessica Wilson (2007). Newtonian Forces. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (2):173 - 205.score: 6.0
    Newtonian forces are pushes and pulls, possessing magnitude and direction, that are exerted (in the first instance) by objects, and which cause (in particular) motions. I defend Newtonian forces against the four best reasons for denying or doubting their existence. A running theme in my defense of forces will be the suggestion that Newtonian Mechanics is a special science, and as such has certain prima facie ontological rights and privileges, that may be maintained against various challenges.
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  7. Bartolomé Coll, Joan Josep Ferrando & Juan Antonio Morales-Lladosa (2009). Four Causal Classes of Newtonian Frames. Foundations of Physics 39 (11):1280-1295.score: 6.0
    The causal characters (spacelike, lightlike, timelike) of the coordinate lines, coordinate surfaces and coordinate hypersurfaces of a coordinate system in Relativity define what is called its causal class. It is known that, in any relativistic space-time, there exist one hundred and ninety nine such causal classes. But in Newtonian physics (where only spacelike and timelike characters exist) the corresponding causal classes have not been discussed until recently. Here it is shown that, in sharp contrast with the relativistic case, in Newtonian (...)
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  8. Peter Harrison (1995). Newtonian Science, Miracles, and the Laws of Nature. Journal of the History of Ideas 56 (4):531 - 553.score: 6.0
    Newton, along with a number of other seventeenth-century scientists, is frequently charged with having held an inconsistent view of nature and its operations, believing on the one hand in immutable laws of nature, and on the other in divine interventions into the natural order. In this paper I argue that Newton, William Whiston, and Samuel Clarke, came to understand miracles, not as violations of laws of nature, but rather as beneficent coincidences which were remarkable either because they were unusual, or (...)
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  9. Gerhard Schurz (2011). Structural Correspondence, Indirect Reference, and Partial Truth: Phlogiston Theory and Newtonian Mechanics. Synthese 180 (2):103-120.score: 5.0
    This paper elaborates on the following correspondence theorem (which has been defended and formally proved elsewhere): if theory T has been empirically successful in a domain of applications A, but was superseded later on by a different theory T* which was likewise successful in A, then under natural conditions T contains theoretical expressions which were responsible for T’s success and correspond (in A) to certain theoretical expressions of T*. I illustrate this theorem at hand of the phlogiston versus oxygen theories (...)
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  10. Samuel C. Fletcher (2012). What Counts as a Newtonian System? The View From Norton's Dome. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):275-297.score: 5.0
    If the force on a particle fails to satisfy a Lipschitz condition at a point, it relaxes one of the conditions necessary for a locally unique solution to the particle’s equation of motion. I examine the most discussed example of this failure of determinism in classical mechanics—that of Norton’s dome—and the range of current objections against it. Finding there are many different conceptions of classical mechanics appropriate and useful for different purposes, I argue that no single conception is preferred. Instead (...)
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  11. Diego González, Sergio Davis & Gonzalo Gutiérrez (forthcoming). Newtonian Dynamics From the Principle of Maximum Caliber. Foundations of Physics:1-9.score: 5.0
    The foundations of Statistical Mechanics can be recovered almost in their entirety from the principle of maximum entropy. In this work we show that its non-equilibrium generalization, the principle of maximum caliber (Jaynes, Phys Rev 106:620–630, 1957), when applied to the unknown trajectory followed by a particle, leads to Newton’s second law under two quite intuitive assumptions (both the expected square displacement in one step and the spatial probability distribution of the particle are known at all times). Our derivation explicitly (...)
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  12. David B. Malament (1995). Is Newtonian Cosmology Really Inconsistent? Philosophy of Science 62 (4):489-510.score: 4.0
    John Norton has recently argued that Newtonian gravitation theory (at least as applied to cosmological contexts where one envisions the possibility of a homogeneous mass distribution throughout all of space) is inconsistent. I am not convinced. Traditional formulations of the theory may seem to break down in cases of the sort Norton considers. But the difficulties they face are only apparent. They are artifacts of the formulations themselves, and disappear if one passes to the so-called "geometrized" formulation of the theory.
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  13. Eric Schliesser (2013). Newtonian Emanation, Spinozism, Measurement and the Baconian Origins of the Laws of Nature. Foundations of Science 18 (3):449-466.score: 4.0
    The first two sections of this paper investigate what Newton could have meant in a now famous passage from “De Graviatione” (hereafter “DeGrav”) that “space is as it were an emanative effect of God.” First it offers a careful examination of the four key passages within DeGrav that bear on this. The paper shows that the internal logic of Newton’s argument permits several interpretations. In doing so, the paper calls attention to a Spinozistic strain in Newton’s thought. Second it sketches (...)
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  14. Jonathan Bain (2004). Theories of Newtonian Gravity and Empirical Indistinguishability. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (3):345--76.score: 4.0
    In this essay, I examine the curved spacetime formulation of Newtonian gravity known as Newton–Cartan gravity and compare it with flat spacetime formulations. Two versions of Newton–Cartan gravity can be identified in the physics literature—a ‘‘weak’’ version and a ‘‘strong’’ version. The strong version has a constrained Hamiltonian formulation and consequently a well-defined gauge structure, whereas the weak version does not (with some qualifications). Moreover, the strong version is best compared with the structure of what Earman (World enough and spacetime. (...)
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  15. Joseph S. Alper & Mark Bridger (1998). Newtonian Supertasks: A Critical Analysis. Synthese 114 (2):355-369.score: 4.0
    In two recent papers Perez Laraudogoitia has described a variety of supertasks involving elastic collisions in Newtonian systems containing a denumerably infinite set of particles. He maintains that these various supertasks give examples of systems in which energy is not conserved, particles at rest begin to move spontaneously, particles disappear from a system, and particles are created ex nihilo. An analysis of these supertasks suggests that they involve systems that do not satisfy the mathematical conditions required of Newtonian systems at (...)
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  16. Dennis Dieks (2001). Space-Time Relationism in Newtonian and Relativistic Physics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 15 (1):5 – 17.score: 4.0
    I argue that there is natural relationist interpretation of Newtonian and relativistic non-quantum physics. Although relationist, this interpretation does not fall prey to the traditional objections based on the existence of inertial effects.
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  17. Ardnés Rivadulla (2004). The Newtonian Limit of Relativity Theory and the Rationality of Theory Change. Synthese 141 (3):417 - 429.score: 4.0
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the question of whether Newtonian mechanics can be derived from relativity theory. Physicists agree that classical mechanics constitutes a limiting case of relativity theory. By contrast, philosophers of science like Kuhn and Feyerabend affirm that classical mechanics cannot be deduced from relativity theory because of the incommensurability between both theories; thus what we obtain when we take the limit c in relativistic mechanics cannot be Newtonian mechanics sensu stricto. In this paper I (...)
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  18. James W. Mcallister (1999). Universal Regularities and Initial Conditions in Newtonian Physics. Synthese 120 (3):325-343.score: 4.0
    The Newtonian universe is usually understood to contain two classes of causal factors: universal regularitiesand initial conditions. I demonstrate that,in fact, the Newtonian universe contains no causal factors other thanuniversal regularities: the initial conditions ofany physical system are merely theconsequence of universal regularities acting on previoussystems. It follows that aNewtonian universe lacks the degree of contingency that is usually attributed to it. This is a necessary precondition for maintaining that the Newtonian universe is a block universe that exhibits no temporal (...)
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  19. Michela Massimi (2011). Kant's Dynamical Theory of Matter in 1755, and its Debt to Speculative Newtonian Experimentalism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (4):525-543.score: 4.0
    This paper explores the scientific sources behind Kant’s early dynamic theory of matter in 1755, with a focus on two main Kant’s writings: Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens and On Fire. The year 1755 has often been portrayed by Kantian scholars as a turning point in the intellectual career of the young Kant, with his much debated conversion to Newton. Via a careful analysis of some salient themes in the two aforementioned works, and a reconstruction of the (...)
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  20. Eric Schliesser (2005). ON THE ORIGIN OF MODERN NATURALISM: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BERKELEY's RESPONSE TO A NEWTONIAN INDISPENSIBILITY ARGUMENT. Philosophica 76:45-66.score: 4.0
    I call attention to Berkeley’s treatment of a Newtonian indispensability argument against his own main position. I argue that the presence of this argument marks a significant moment in the history of philosophy and science: Newton’s achievements could serve as a separate and authoritative source of justification within philosophy. This marks the presence of a new kind of naturalism. A long the way, I argue against the claim tha t there is no explicit opposition or distinction between “philosophy” and “science” (...)
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  21. W. Schröder & H.-J. Treder (2002). Post-Newtonian Corrections in the Dynamics in the Earth–Moon System and Their Importance for the Relativistic Theories of Gravitation: A Historical Case Study. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (1):177-186.score: 4.0
    As an example of a historical case study, some aspects of the post-Newtonian corrections in the Earth–Moon dynamics are described and discussed.
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  22. J. S. Alper, M. Bridger, J. Earman & J. D. Norton (2000). What is a Newtonian System? The Failure of Energy Conservation and Determinism in Supertasks. Synthese 124 (2):281-293.score: 4.0
    Supertasks recently discussed in the literature purport to display a failure ofenergy conservation and determinism in Newtonian mechanics. We debatewhether these supertasks are admissible as Newtonian systems, with Earmanand Norton defending the affirmative and Alper and Bridger the negative.
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  23. Nuel Belnap, Two Moves Take Newtonian Determinism to Branching Space-Times.score: 4.0
    “Branching space-times” (BST) is intended as a representation of objective, event-based indeterminism. As such, BST exhibits both a spatio-temporal aspect and an indeterministic “modal” aspect of alternative possible historical courses of events. An essential feature of BST is that it can also represent spatial or space-like relationships as part of its (more or less) relativistic theory of spatio-temporal relations; this ability is essential for the representation of local (in contrast with “global”) indeterminism. This essay indicates how BST might be seen (...)
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  24. Joshua Filler (2009). Newtonian Forces and Evolutionary Biology: A Problem and Solution for Extending the Force Interpretation. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):774-783.score: 4.0
    There has recently been a renewed interest in the “force” interpretation of evolutionary biology. In this article, I present the general structure of the arguments for the force interpretation and identify a problem in its overly permissive conditions for being a Newtonian force. I then attempt a solution that (1) helps to illuminate the difference between forces and other types of causes and (2) makes room for random genetic drift as a force. In particular, I argue that forces are not (...)
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  25. Waldyr A. Rodrigues Jr, Quintino A. G. De Souza & Yuri Bozhkov (1995). The Mathematical Structure of Newtonian Spacetime: Classical Dynamics and Gravitation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 25 (6):871-924.score: 4.0
    We give a precise and modern mathematical characterization of the Newtonian spacetime structure (ℕ). Our formulation clarifies the concepts of absolute space, Newton's relative spaces, and absolute time. The concept of reference frames (which are “timelike” vector fields on ℕ) plays a fundamental role in our approach, and the classification of all possible reference frames on ℕ is investigated in detail. We succeed in identifying a Lorentzian structure on ℕ and we study the classical electrodynamics of Maxwell and Lorentz relative (...)
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  26. Larry L. Smalley (1978). Parametrized Post-Newtonian Approximation and Rastall's Gravitational Field Equations. Foundations of Physics 8 (1-2):59-68.score: 4.0
    The parametrized post-Newtonian (PPN) approximation is generalized to accommodate Rastall's modification of Einstein's theory of gravity, which allows nonzero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. Rastall's theory is then shown to have consistent field equations, gauge conditions, and the correct Newtonian limit of the equations of motion. The PPN parameters are obtained and shown to agree experimentally with those for the Einstein theory. In light of the nonzero divergence condition, integral conservation laws are investigated and shown to yield conserved energy-momentum and (...)
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  27. John D. Norton (1992). A Paradox in Newtonian Gravitation Theory. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1992:412 - 420.score: 4.0
    Newtonian cosmology is logically inconsistent. I show its inconsistency in a rigorous but simple and qualitative demonstration. "Logic driven" and "content driven" methods of controlling logical anarchy are distinguished.
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  28. Nuel Belnap (2012). Newtonian Determinism to Branching Space-Times Indeterminism in Two Moves. Synthese 188 (1):5-21.score: 4.0
    “Branching space-times” (BST) is intended as a representation of objective, event-based indeterminism. As such, BST exhibits both a spatio-temporal aspect and an indeterministic “modal” aspect of alternative possible historical courses of events. An essential feature of BST is that it can also represent spatial or space-like relationships as part of its (more or less) relativistic theory of spatio-temporal relations; this ability is essential for the representation of local (in contrast with “global”) indeterminism. This essay indicates how BST might be seen (...)
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  29. J. Baird Callicott (1990). The Metaphysical Transition in Farming: From the Newtonian-Mechanical to the Eltonian Ecological. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 3 (1):36-49.score: 4.0
    Modern agriculture is subject to a metaphysical as well as an ethical critique. As a casual review of the beliefs associated with food production in the past suggests, modern agriculture is embedded in and informed by the prevailing modern world view, Newtonian Mechanics, which is bankrupt as a scientific paradigm and unsustainable as an agricultural motif. A new holistic, organic world view is emerging from ecology and the new physics marked by four general conceptual features: Each level of organization from (...)
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  30. Donald Greenspan (1974). Discrete Newtonian Gravitation and the Three-Body Problem. Foundations of Physics 4 (2):299-310.score: 4.0
    Newtonian gravitation is studied from a discrete point of view, in that the dynamical equation is an energy-conserving difference equation. Application is made to planetary-type, nondegenerate three-body problems and several computer examples of perturbed orbits are given.
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  31. Pierre Kerszberg (1987). On the Alleged Equivalence Between Newtonian and Relativistic Cosmology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (3):347-380.score: 4.0
    Among the many controversial contributions of E. A. Milne to cosmology, the only one which is taken seriously today (to the extent that it has been absorbed as a premise in most scientific approaches to the problem of the universe as a totality) is his early suggestion that a formal equivalence may be made between Newtonian and Relativistic cosmology. My own paper suggests that, over and above any logical validity in the alleged equivalence, the actual way in which it has (...)
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  32. John Aidun (1982). Aristotelian Force as Newtonian Power. Philosophy of Science 49 (2):228-235.score: 4.0
    Aristotle's rule of proportions of the factors of motion, presented in VII 5 of the Physics, characterizes Aristotelian force. Observing that the locomotion to which Aristotle applied the Rule is the motion produced by manual labor, I develop an interpretation of the factors of motion that reveals that Aristotelian force is Newtonian power. An alternate interpretation of the Rule by Toulmin and Goodfield implicitly identifies Aristotelian force with Newtonian force. In order to account for the absence of an acceleration in (...)
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  33. Steffen Ducheyne (2005). Mathematical Models in Newton's Principia: A New View of the 'Newtonian Style'. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (1):1 – 19.score: 4.0
    In this essay I argue against I. Bernard Cohen's influential account of Newton's methodology in the Principia: the 'Newtonian Style'. The crux of Cohen's account is the successive adaptation of 'mental constructs' through comparisons with nature. In Cohen's view there is a direct dynamic between the mental constructs and physical systems. I argue that his account is essentially hypothetical-deductive, which is at odds with Newton's rejection of the hypothetical-deductive method. An adequate account of Newton's methodology needs to show how Newton's (...)
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  34. Jon Pérez Laraudogoitia (2004). On a (Supposedly) Plausible Extension of Newtonian Collision Dynamics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (2):365-370.score: 4.0
    In a recent volume of this journal, L. Angel ([2002]) proposed a collision mechanics leading to such strange results as the possibility that a particle may be in several places at the same time, or the existence of unprepared spatially-separated correlations. I will here show that neither of these results follows from his theory or, if it does, the theory, contrary to what Angel claims, is not a plausible extension of Newtonian collision dynamics. No bilocation No quantum leap No unprepared (...)
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  35. Andrés Rivadulla (2004). The Newtonian Limit of Relativity Theory and the Rationality of Theory Change. Synthese 141 (3):417 - 429.score: 4.0
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the question of whether Newtonian mechanics can be derived from relativity theory. Physicists agree that classical mechanics constitutes a limiting case of relativity theory. By contrast, philosophers of science like Kuhn and Feyerabend affirm that classical mechanics cannot be deduced from relativity theory because of the incommensurability between both theories; thus what we obtain when we take the limit c → ∞ in relativistic mechanics cannot be Newtonian mechanics sensu stricto. In this (...)
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  36. Jon Pérez Laaraudogoitia, Mark Bridger & Joseph S. Alper (2002). Two Ways of Looking at a Newtonian Supertask. Synthese 131 (2):173 - 189.score: 4.0
    A supertask is a process in which an infinite number of individuated actions are performed in a finite time. A Newtonian supertask is one that obeys Newton''s laws of motion. Such supertasks can violate energy and momentum conservation and can exhibit indeterministic behavior. Perez Laraudogoitia, who proposed several Newtonian supertasks, uses a local, i.e., particle-by-particle, analysis to obtain these and other paradoxical properties of Newtonian supertasks. Alper and Bridger use a global analysis, embedding the system of particles in a Banach (...)
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  37. John Norton (2000). What Is a Newtonian System? The Failure of Energy Conservation and Determinism in Supertasks. Synthese 124 (2):281 - 293.score: 4.0
    Supertasks recently discussed in the literature purport to display a failure of energy conservation and determinism in Newtonian mechanics. We debate whether these supertasks are admissible as Newtonian systems, with Earman and Norton defending the affirmative and Alper and Bridger the negative.
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  38. Leonard Angel (2005). Evens and Odds in Newtonian Collision Mechanics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (1):179-188.score: 4.0
    can prevent non-contact interactions in Newtonian collision mechanics. The proposal is weakened by the apparent arbitrariness of what will be shown as the requirement of only an odd number of sets of some ex nihilo-created self-exciting particles. There is, however, an initial condition such that, without the ex nihilo self-exciting particles, either there is a contradictory outcome, or there is a non-contact configuration law, or there are odds versus evens indeterminacies. With the various odds versus evens arbitrarinesses and other such (...)
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  39. David Zaret (1980). A Limited Conventionalist Critique of Newtonian Space-Time. Philosophy of Science 47 (3):474-494.score: 4.0
    In this paper, I examine a number of alternative global structures for Newtonian space-time, and corresponding Newtonian theories of mechanics and gravitation. I argue that since these theories differ only with respect to questions concerning the relative distribution of inertial and gravitational forces, the choice between them is a matter of convention. Therefore, the global structure of Newtonian space-time is also a matter of convention. Since this result is based on a consideration of the nature of inertial and gravitational forces, (...)
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  40. Tarun Biswas (1994). Special Relativistic Newtonian Gravity. Foundations of Physics 24 (4):513-524.score: 4.0
    Newtonian gravity is modified minimally to obtain a Lorentz covariant theory of gravity in a background flat space. Gravity is assumed to appear as a potential. Constraint Hamiltonian dynamics is used to determine particle trajectories in a manifestly covariant fashion. The resulting theory is significantly different from the general theory of relativity. However, all known experimental results (precession of planetary orbits, bending of the path of light near the sun, and gravitational spectral shift) are still explained by this theory.
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  41. Fred Ablondi (2013). Newtonian Vs. Newtonian: Baxter and MacLaurin on the Inactivity of Matter. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 11 (1):15-23.score: 4.0
    In my essay I look at the specifics of the dispute between the Scottish metaphysician Andrew Baxter and the mathematician Colin MacLaurin in an attempt to identify the source or sources of their contradictory, yet in both cases Newtonian, positions regarding occasionalism. After some general introductory remarks about each thinker, I examine the metaphysical implications that Baxter sees as following from Newton's concept of vis inertiæ. Following this, I look at MacLaurin's commitment to the role of sense experience in natural (...)
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  42. Pierre Kerszberg, On Kant's Transcendental Account of Newtonian Mechanics.score: 4.0
    Kant's account of Newtonian science in terms of a priori structures of the mind has been generally interpreted as too restrictive. If Newtonian science is an instantiation of the system of categories, then, in order to retain any value, they need to be dynamized in accordance with the development of science beyond Newton. This paper suggests that the restriction in best understood as Kant attempt to provide a primary matrix of sense for any possible natural science, inasmuch as it reflects (...)
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  43. John J. Furedy (2004). Aping Newtonian Physics but Ignoring Brute Facts Will Not Transform Skinnerian Psychology Into Genuine Science or Useful Technology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (5):693-694.score: 4.0
    The proposal to add the behavioral momentum metaphor to Skinnerian psychology and the use of other borrowed physical explanatory concepts such as velocity and inertial mass has only superficial value. The basic problem is that, in contrast to Newtonian physics, the “laws” do not apply to a significant proportion of the phenomena to be explained, and these evidential discrepancies are ignored, rather than being used to modify the scientific explanations and improve technological applications that are based on those explanations.
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  44. Luis Carlos Medina (2009). Evolution Nodes in Newtonian Supertasks. Theoria 24 (2):229-247.score: 4.0
    The present article provides an analysis of the instants of a system that performs a Newtonian supertask. For each instant it studied the possibility of the system having, from the instant in question, more than one possible course of evolution; i.e. the possibility of it being an evolution node. This analysis shows that some supertasks presented as deterministic in Perez Laraudogoitia (2007) are in fact indeterministic and specifies the difficulties ahead in showing the radical indeterminism suggested by Atkinson & Johnson (...)
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  45. Thomas S. Hall (1968). On Biological Analogs of Newtonian Paradigms. Philosophy of Science 35 (1):6-27.score: 4.0
    To what extent is the scientist's endeavor qua scientist influenced by his philosophic image of himself? A preliminary and partial answer to this question is suggested by a study of eight physiological thinkers of the second half of the eighteenth century, a period during which biology was much influenced by the scientific and philosophical ideas of Isaac Newton. At this time, physiologists invoked certain "principles," "properties," and "powers" which were deemed useful as explanatory devices, even though they could not themselves (...)
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  46. E. T. Grier (1990). Moder N Ethical Theory and Newtonian Science. Comments on Errol Harris. In Phillip Bricker & R. I. G. Hughes (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science. Mit Press. 232--234.score: 4.0
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  47. J. M. Guido (1988). Reconciliation of the Newtonian Framework with Thermodynamics by the Reproducibility of a Collective Physical Quantity. In International Archives of the History of Ideas Archives internationales d'histoire des idées. 183-191.score: 4.0
    -/- Attempts to reduce irreversible processes to the scope of Newton’s mechanics are particularly challenging topics for both physical and philosophical research. Hollinger and Zenzen,1 for instance, claim that macroscopic irreversibility has a mechanical origin, and they explain this within the Newtonian framework. Newton’s Scientific and Philosophical Legacy Newton’s Scientific and Philosophical Legacy Look -/- .
     
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  48. Alan Musgrave (1992). Realism About What? Philosophy of Science 59 (4):691-697.score: 3.0
    Roger Jones asks what Newtonian realists should be realists about, given that there are four empirically equivalent formulations of Newtonian mechanics which have different ontological commitments and explanatory mechanisms. A realist answer is sketched: Newtonians should be realists about what the best metaphysical considerations dictate, where the best metaphysical considerations are those which have yielded the best physics. Metaphysical considerations are required within physics, just as they are required to eliminate idealist and surrealist theories which are empirically equivalent to (...)
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  49. Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (2013). Theory Change as Dimensional Change: Conceptual Spaces Applied to the Dynamics of Empirical Theories. Synthese 190 (6):1039-1058.score: 3.0
    This paper offers a novel way of reconstructing conceptual change in empirical theories. Changes occur in terms of the structure of the dimensions—that is to say, the conceptual spaces—underlying the conceptual framework within which a given theory is formulated. Five types of changes are identified: (1) addition or deletion of special laws, (2) change in scale or metric, (3) change in the importance of dimensions, (4) change in the separability of dimensions, and (5) addition or deletion of dimensions. Given this (...)
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  50. Michel Janssen, The Transition From Newtonian Particle Mechanics to Relativistic Field Mechanics.score: 3.0
    Einstein’s 1905 paper on special relativity suggests that relativistic mechanics is simply a matter of adjusting Newton’s to make it Lorentz invariant. Einstein, for instance.
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