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  1. Ray Greek & Niall Shanks (2011). Complex Systems, Evolution, and Animal Models. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 42 (4):542-544.
  2. Niall Shanks & Keith Green (2011). Intelligent Design in Theological Perspective. Synthese 178 (2):307 - 330.
    While "scientism" is typically regarded as a position about the exclusive epistemic authority of science held by a certain class of "cultured despisers" of "religion", we show that only on the assumption of this sort of view do purportedly "scientific" claims made by proponents of "intelligent design" appear to lend epistemic or apologetic support to claims affirmed about God and God's action in "creation" by Christians in confessing their "faith". On the other hand, the hermeneutical strategy that better describes the (...)
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  3. Niall Shanks (2010). Matter Over Mind. Metascience 19 (1):113-115.
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  4. Niall Shanks (2009). Demonstrating the Sciences. Metascience 18 (3):447-450.
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  5. Niall Shanks, Ray Greek & Jean Greek (2009). Are Animal Models Predictive for Humans? Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4 (1):2.
    It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically (...)
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  6. Niall Shanks, Ray Greek & Jean Greek (2009). Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4 (2).
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  7. Niall Shanks & Rebecca A. Pyles (2007). Evolution and Medicine: The Long Reach of "Dr. Darwin". Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2 (1):4-.
    In this review we consider the new science of Darwinian medicine. While it has often been said that evolutionary theory is the glue that holds the disparate branches of biological inquiry together and gives them direction and purpose, the links to biomedical inquiry have only recently been articulated in a coherent manner. Our aim in this review is to make clear first of all, how evolutionary theory is relevant to medicine; and secondly, how the biomedical sciences have enriched our understanding (...)
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  8. Niall Shanks & Rebecca A. Pyles (2007). Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2:4.
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  9. Niall Shanks (2004). Review of “Demons of the Modern World”. [REVIEW] Essays in Philosophy 5 (1):38.
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  10. Niall Shanks (2004). Review of Neil Manson (Ed.), God and Design: The Teleological Argument and Modern Science. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (1).
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  11. Niall Shanks & Keith Green (2004). Evolution and the Ethics of Animal Research. Essays in Philosophy 5 (2):30.
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  12. Niall Shanks (2003). Robert T. Pennock, Ed., Intelligent Design Creationism and its Critics: Philosophical, Theological and Scientific Perspectives Reviewed By. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 23 (4):270-272.
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  13. Niall Shanks (2003). Tim Maudlin, Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity: Metaphysical Intimations of Modern Physics (2nd Edn.). [REVIEW] Metascience 12 (1):97-100.
  14. Niall Shanks (2001). Modeling Biological Systems: The Belousov–Zhabotinsky Reaction. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 3 (1):33-53.
    In this essay I examine the ways in which the Belousov–Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is being used by biologists to model a variety of biological systems and processes. The BZ reaction is characterized as a functional model of biological phenomena. It is able to play this role because, though based on very different substrates, the model and system modeled are examples of the same type of excitable medium. Lessons are drawn from this case about the relationships between the sciences of chemistry (...)
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  15. Niall Shanks (2001). The Adaptive Radiation of Biological Explanation. Idealistic Studies 31 (2/3):155-168.
    In this essay I will consider some epistemological issues raised by the following two questions:(l) Does molecular biology provide the best explanations of biological phenomena?(2) What are the best ways (i.e., fruitful strategies) to cast molecular explanations of molecular phenomena?I will argue that notwithstanding the manifest scientific successes of the molecular revolution, the assessment of the philosophical debate between reductionists and antireductionists requires an examination of the ways in which the second question is currently being answered by molecular biologists.
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  16. Niall Shanks & Cassandra L. Pinnick (2000). Creationism, Evolution and Baloney. Metascience 9 (1):86-101.
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  17. Niall Shanks (1999). Toward a Darwinian Theory of Cultural Evolution. Communication and Cognition. Monographies 32 (3-4):223-242.
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  18. Niall Shanks & Karl H. Joplin (1999). Redundant Complexity: A Critical Analysis of Intelligent Design in Biochemistry. Philosophy of Science 66 (2):268-282.
    Biological systems exhibit complexity at all levels of organization. It has recently been argued by Michael Behe that at the biochemical level a type of complexity exists--irreducible complexity--that cannot possibly have arisen as the result of natural, evolutionary processes and must instead be the product of (supernatural) intelligent design. Recent work on self-organizing chemical reactions calls into question Behe's analysis of the origins of biochemical complexity. His central interpretative metaphor for biochemical complexity, that of the well-designed mousetrap that ceases to (...)
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  19. Niall Shanks (ed.) (1998). Idealization in Contemporary Physics.
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  20. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1997). Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation. Routledge.
    "This book . . . is everything a philosophical tome should be: timely, important, factually informed, responsive to the scholarly literature, analytical, scrupulously fair, and rigorously, vigorously argued. It is, if I may say so, a model specimen of practical ethics." Keith Burgess-Jackson Ethics and the Environment).
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  21. Niall Shanks (1997). Biochemical Reductionism In Biological Context. Idealistic Studies 27 (1/2):11-22.
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  22. George Gale & Niall Shanks (1996). Methodology and the Birth of Modern Cosmological Inquiry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (3):279-296.
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  23. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1996). The Origin of Speciesism. Philosophy 71 (275):41-.
    Anti-vivisectionists charge that animal experimenters are speciesists people who unjustly discriminate against members of other species. Until recently most defenders of experimentation denied the charge. After the publication of `The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research' in the New England Journal of Medicine , experimenters had a more aggressive reply: `I am a speciesist. Speciesism is not merely plausible, it is essential for right conduct...'1. Most researchers now embrace Cohen's response as part of their defense of animal (...)
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  24. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1995). Two Models of Models in Biomedical Research. Philosophical Quarterly 45 (179):141-160.
    Biomedical researchers claim there is significant biomedical information about humans which can be discovered only through experiments on intact animal systems (AMA p. 2). Although epidemiological studies, computer simulations, clinical investigation, and cell and tissue cultures have become important weapons in the biomedical scientists' arsenal, these are primarily "adjuncts to the use of animals in research" (Sigma Xi p. 76). Controlled laboratory experiments are the core of the scientific enterprise. Biomedical researchers claim these should be conducted on intact biological systems, (...)
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  25. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1995). Util-Izing Animals. Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):13-25.
    Biomedical experimentation on animals is justified, researchers say, because of its enormous benefits to human being. Sure an imals die a nd suffer , but that is m orally insignificant since the benefits of research incalculably outweigh the evils. Although this utilitarian claim appears straightforward and uncontroversial, it is neither straightforw ard n ot uncontroversial. This defense of animal experimentation is like ly to succeed only by rejecting three widely held moral presumptions. W e identify those presumptions and explain their (...)
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  26. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1994). Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (3):195 – 210.
    Claude Bernard, the father of scientific physiology, believed that if medicine was to become truly scientiifc, it would have to be based on rigorous and controlled animal experiments. Bernard instituted a paradigm which has shaped physiological practice for most of the twentieth century. ln this paper we examine how Bernards commitment to hypothetico-deductivism and determinism led to (a) his rejection of the theory of evolution; (b) his minima/ization of the role of clinical medicine and epidemiological studies; and (c) his conclusion (...)
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  27. Hugh Lafollette & Niall Shanks (1994). Chaos Theory. Idealistic Studies 24 (3):241-254.
    In this article we discuss two divergent accounts of non-human animals as analog models of human biomedical phenomena. Using a classical account of analogical reasoning, toxicologists and teratologists claim that if the model and subject modeled are substantially similar, then test results in non-human animals are likely applicable to humans . However, the same toxicologists report that different species often react very differently to the same chemical stimuli . The best way to understand their findings is to abandon the classical (...)
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  28. Niall Shanks (1994). Time, Physics and Freedom. Metaphilosophy 25 (1):45-59.
  29. Niall Shanks (1994). Chaos Theory. Idealistic Studies 24 (3).
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  30. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1993). Animal Modeling in Psychopharmacological Contexts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):653.
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  31. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1993). Animal Models in Biomedical Research: Some Epistemological Worries. Public Affairs Quarterly 7 (2):113-130.
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  32. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1993). Belief and the Basis of Humor. American Philosophical Quarterly 30 (4):329 - 339.
    Humor is a pervasive feature of human life which crosses racial, cultural, sexual, and class divisions. Yet its nature is elusive. This elusiveness should have piqued the philosophical imagination; its pervasiveness should have demonstrated its philosophical importance. However, it has generated relatively little..
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  33. Hugh LaFollette & Niall Shanks (1993). The Intact Systems Argument: Problems with the Standard Defense of Animal Experimentation. Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):323-333.
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  34. Niall Shanks (1993). Axiomatic Quantum Mechanics and Radioactive Decay. Erkenntnis 39 (2):243 - 255.
    This paper explores the consequences of the orthodox resolution of the measurement problem for the axiomatic base of non-relativistic elementary quantum mechanics. It is argued that the standard resolution of the measurement problem generates a paradox whose dissolution may be achieved through an enrichment of the axiomatic foundations of quantum mechanics. These results are also linked to some recent creative proposals by Nancy Cartwright concerning the nature of the so-called reduction of the wave packet.
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  35. Niall Shanks (1993). Jan Faye, Niels Bohr: His Heritage and Legacy Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 13 (1):16-18.
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  36. Niall Shanks (1993). Quantum Mechanics and Determinism. Philosophical Quarterly 44 (170):20-37.
  37. Niall Shanks (1993). Time and the Propensity Interpretation of Probability. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 24 (2):293 - 302.
    The prime concern of this paper is with the nature of probability. It is argued that questions concerning the nature of probability are intimately linked to questions about the nature of time. The case study here concerns the single case propensity interpretation of probability. It is argued that while this interpretation of probability has a natural place in the quantum theory, the metaphysical picture of time to be found in relativity theory is incompatible with such a treatment of probability.
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  38. Niall Shanks (1993). The Intact Systems Argument. Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (3):323-333.
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  39. Niall Shanks & Hugh LaFollette (1993). Belief and the Basis of Humor. American Philosophical Quarterly 30 (4):329-39.
    When theorists have studied humor, they often assumed that laughter was either a necessary or a sufficient condition of humor. It is neither. Although humorous events usually evoke laughter, they do not do so invariably. Humor may evoke smiles or smirks which fall short of laughter. Thus it is not a necessary condition. Nor is it a sufficient condition. People may laugh because they are uncomfortable (nervous laughter), they may laugh at someone (derisive laughter), they may laugh because they are (...)
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  40. W. David Sharp & Niall Shanks (1993). The Rise and Fall of Time-Symmetrized Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 60 (3):488-499.
    In the context of a discussion of time symmetry in the quantum mechanical measurement process, Aharonov et al. (1964) derived an expression concerning probabilities for the outcomes of measurements conducted on systems which have been pre- and postselected on the basis of both preceding and succeeding measurements. Recent literature has claimed that a resulting "time-symmetrized" interpretation of quantum mechanics has significant implications for some basic issues, such as contextuality and determinateness, in elementary, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Bub and Brown (1986) have (...)
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  41. Niall Shanks (1992). Gonzalo Munévar, Ed., Beyond Reason: Essays on the Philosophy of Paul K. Feyerabend Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 12 (6):412-414.
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  42. Niall Shanks (1991). James T. Cushing and Ernan McMullin, Eds., Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory: Reflections on Bell's Theorem Reviewed By. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 11 (1):22-25.
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  43. Niall Shanks (1990). Elie Zahar, Einstein's Revolution Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 10 (1):42-44.
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  44. Niall Shanks (1989). Peter Galison, How Experiments End Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 9 (1):7-10.
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  45. Niall Shanks (1987). Nicholas Rescher, Ed., Scientific Inquiry in Philosophical Perspectives Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 7 (11):461-462.
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  46. Niall Shanks, Philosophical Implications of Bell's Theorem.
    Submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Philosophy.
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  47. Niall Shanks & John King-Farlow (1986). Davidson and the Refutation of Idealism. Idealistic Studies 16 (2):113-123.
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  48. Niall Shanks (1984). Review. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 3 (2):151-152.
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