Search results for 'Nicholas Goodman' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nicholas Goodman, Harold T. Hodes, Carl G. Jockusch Jr & Kenneth McAloon (1988). Annual Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, New York City, December 1987. Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (4):1287 - 1299.score: 240.0
  2. Nelson Goodman, Goodman.score: 120.0
    The visual system is persistent, inventive, and sometimes rather perverse in building a world according to its own lights; the supplementation is deft, flexible, and often elaborate. [JL: Our eyes/consciousness could “fill in” things that are not there; they can also delete things that are there].
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  3. Kenneth Goodman (1990). Book Review: Communication Ethics and Global Change: A Book Review by Kenneth Goodman. [REVIEW] Journal of Mass Media Ethics 5 (1):66 – 69.score: 120.0
  4. Russell B. Goodman (1976). An Analysis of Two Perceptual Predicates. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 7 (3):35-53.score: 90.0
  5. Julian Dodd (2009). Teaching & Learning Guide For: Musical Works: Ontology and Meta-Ontology. Philosophy Compass 4 (6):1044-1048.score: 24.0
    A work of music is repeatable in the following sense: it can be multiply performed or played in different places at the same time, and each such datable, locatable performance or playing is an occurrence of it: an item in which the work itself is somehow present, and which thereby makes the work manifest to an audience. As I see it, the central challenge in the ontology of musical works is to come up with an ontological proposal (i.e. an account (...)
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  6. Sven Ove Hansson (2009). A History of Theoria. Theoria 75 (1):2-27.score: 24.0
    Theoria , the international Swedish philosophy journal, was founded in 1935. Its contributors in the first 75 years include the major Swedish philosophers from this period and in addition a long list of international philosophers, including A. J. Ayer, C. D. Broad, Ernst Cassirer, Hector Neri Castañeda, Arthur C. Danto, Donald Davidson, Nelson Goodman, R. M. Hare, Carl G. Hempel, Jaakko Hintikka, Saul Kripke, Henry E. Kyburg, Keith Lehrer, Isaac Levi, David Lewis, Gerald MacCallum, Richard Montague, Otto Neurath, Arthur (...)
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  7. Nicholas White (1997). From the Idea of the Good to Some Ideas of Goodman. Philosophia Scientiae 2 (2):313-330.score: 24.0
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  8. Branden Fitelson (2008). Goodman's "New Riddle". Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (6):613 - 643.score: 18.0
    First, a brief historical trace of the developments in confirmation theory leading up to Goodman's infamous "grue" paradox is presented. Then, Goodman's argument is analyzed from both Hempelian and Bayesian perspectives. A guiding analogy is drawn between certain arguments against classical deductive logic, and Goodman's "grue" argument against classical inductive logic. The upshot of this analogy is that the "New Riddle" is not as vexing as many commentators have claimed (especially, from a Bayesian inductive-logical point of view). (...)
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  9. Vladan Djordjevic (2012). Goodman's Only World. In Majda Trobok, Nenad Miscevic & Berislav Zarnic (eds.), Between Logic and Reality: Modeling Inference, Action and Understanding. Springer. 269.score: 18.0
    An incorrect interpretation of Goodman’s theory of counterfactuals is persistently being offered in the literature. I find that strange. Even more so since the incorrectness is rather obvious. In this paper I try to figure out why is that happening. First I try to explain what Goodman did say, which of his claims are ignored, and what he did not say but is sometimes ascribed to him. I emphasize one of the bad features of the interpretation: it gives (...)
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  10. Kevin Carnahan (2013). Religion, and Not Just Religious Reasons, in the Public Square: A Consideration of Robert Audi's and Nicholas Wolterstorff's Religion in the Public Square. Philosophia 41 (2):397-409.score: 18.0
    For the last several decades, philosophers have wrestled with the proper place of religion in liberal societies. Usually, the debates among these philosophers have started with the articulation of various conceptions of liberalism and then proceeded to locate religion in the context of these conceptions. In the process, however, too little attention has been paid to the way religion is conceived. Drawing on the work of Robert Audi and Nicholas Wolterstorff, two scholars who are often read as holding opposing (...)
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  11. Agustin Vicente (2010). An Enlightened Revolt: On the Philosophy of Nicholas Maxwell. Philosophia 38 (4):38: 631- 648.score: 18.0
    This paper is a reaction to the book “Science and the Pursuit of Wisdom”, whose central concern is the philosophy of Nicholas Maxwell. I distinguish and discuss three concerns in Maxwell’s philosophy. The first is his critique of standard empiricism (SE) in the philosophy of science, the second his defense of aim-oriented rationality (AOR), and the third his philosophy of mind. I point at some problematic aspects of Maxwell’s rebuttal of SE and of his philosophy of mind and argue (...)
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  12. Christopher Rowe (2012). Socrates on Reason, Appetite and Passion: A Response to Thomas C. Brickhouse and Nicholas D. Smith, Socratic Moral Psychology. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 16 (3):305-324.score: 18.0
    Section 1 of this essay distinguishes between four interpretations of Socratic intellectualism, which are, very roughly: (1) a version in which on any given occasion desire, and then action, is determined by what we think will turn out best for us, that being what we all, always, really desire; (2) a version in which on any given occasion action is determined by what we think will best satisfy our permanent desire for what is really best for us; (3) a version (...)
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  13. Nathan Stemmer (2004). The Goodman Paradox: Three Different Problems and a Naturalistic Solution to Two of Them. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 35 (2):351 - 370.score: 18.0
    It is now more than 50 years that the Goodman paradox has been discussed, and many different solutions have been proposed. But so far no agreement has been reached about which is the correct solution to the paradox. In this paper, I present the naturalistic solutions to the paradox that were proposed in Quine (1969, 1974), Quine and Ullian (1970/1978), and Stemmer (1971). At the same time, I introduce a number of modifications and improvements that are needed for overcoming (...)
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  14. Scott F. Aikin & Jason Aleksander (2013). Nicholas of Cusa's De Pace Fidei and the Meta-Exclusivism of Religious Pluralism. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (2):219-235.score: 18.0
    In response to the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Nicholas of Cusa wrote De pace fidei defending a commitment to religious tolerance on the basis of the notion that all diverse rites are but manifestations of one true religion. Drawing on a discussion of why Nicholas of Cusa is unable to square the two objectives of arguing for pluralistic tolerance and explaining the contents of the one true faith, we outline why theological pluralism is compromised by its own (...)
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  15. Bredo Johnsen (2014). Hume, Goodman and Radical Inductive Skepticism. Synthese 191 (12):2791-2813.score: 18.0
    Goodman concurs in Hume’s contention that no theory has any probability relative to any set of data, and offers two accounts, compatible with that contention, of how some inductive inferences are nevertheless justified. The first, framed in terms of rules of inductive inference, is well known, significantly flawed, and enmeshed in Goodman’s unfortunate entrenchment theory and view of the mind as hypothesizing at random. The second, framed in terms of characteristics of inferred theories rather than rules of inference, (...)
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  16. João Paulo Monteiro (2010). Dutra, Hume E Goodman. Principia 1 (2):291-296.score: 18.0
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  17. Roberto Espejo (2009). Desarrollo humano y participación comunitaria: . algunas reflexiones desde el enfoque gestáltico de Paul Goodman. Polis 23.score: 18.0
    En este artículo intentamos crear un lazo entre el enfoque gestáltico de Paul Goodman y el desarrollo humano a través del concepto de la participación comunitaria. La crítica social de Paul Goodman se conecta con las ideas centrales de la terapia gestáltica como una forma de mostrar la importancia de la participación comunitaria en una definición posible de desarrollo humano. La concepción de John Dewey de las instituciones como herramientas de desarrollo se utiliza como un punto de contacto (...)
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  18. Samuel Lelièvre (2014). Langage, imagination, et référence. Ricœur lecteur de Wittgenstein et Goodman. Études Ricoeuriennes / Ricoeur Studies 5 (1):49-66.score: 18.0
    Ricoeur’s reading of analytic philosophy is part of a philosophical plan that focuses on deepening his inquiry into various thematics, some theoretical in nature, others concerned with the history of philosophy. On the theoretical plane, Ricoeur’s interest in the analytic tradition is rooted in the problem of the relationship between language and the world; as regards the history of philosophy, he is interested in the shift from a transcendental philosophy to a contemporary philosophy that is concerned with the world of (...)
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  19. Oswaldo Chateaubriand Filho (2012). Goodman and Parry on Counterfactuals. Principia 15 (3):383-397.score: 18.0
    O artigo de Goodman “The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals” teve um papel central no debate relativo a análise adequada dos condicionais contrafactuais. A seguir examinarei o artigo de Goodman em detalhe e discutirei algumas objeções e sugestões de Parry em seu artigo “A Reexamination of the Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals”. Restringirei minha discussão ao “problema das condições relevantes”, assim denominado por Goodman, que é o tema principal das críticas de Parry e que considero ser o problema principal (...)
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  20. Ian Hacking (1993). On Kripke's and Goodman's Uses of 'Grue'. Philosophy 68 (265):269-295.score: 15.0
  21. Daniel Cohnitz (2009). The Unity of Goodman's Thought. In G. Ernst, J. Steinbrenner & O. Scholz (eds.), From Logic to Art: Themes from Nelson Goodman. Ontos. 7--33.score: 15.0
    I argue that Goodman’s philosophy should not be characterised in opposition to the philosophy of the logical empiricists, but is more fruitfully interpreted as a continuation of their philosophical programme. In particular, understanding Goodman’s philosophy as a continuation of the ideal language tradition makes explicable how a radical ontological relativist could be such a staunch nominalist at the same time.
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  22. Marcus Rossberg (2009). Leonard, Goodman, and the Development of the Calculus of Individuals. In G. Ernst, O. Scholz & J. Steinbrenner (eds.), Nelson Goodman: From Logic to Art. Ontos.score: 15.0
    This paper investigates the relation of the Calculus of Individuals presented by Henry S. Leonard and Nelson Goodman in their joint paper, and an earlier version of it, the so-called Calculus of Singular Terms, introduced by Leonard in his Ph.D. dissertation thesis Singular Terms. The latter calculus is shown to be a proper subsystem of the former. Further, Leonard’s projected extension of his system is described, and the definition of an intensional part-relation in his system is proposed. The final (...)
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  23. Mehmet Karabela (2011). Philosophical Inquiries: An Introduction to Problems of Philosophy Nicholas Rescher Pittsburgh University Press, 2010 (Review). [REVIEW] Dialogue 50 (1):217-220.score: 15.0
  24. Roger Wertheimer (1972). Review of Nelson Goodman, Problems and Projects. [REVIEW] Commentary 54 (1):96-7.score: 15.0
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  25. Eugen Zeleňák (2013). Using Goodman to Explore Historical Representation. Journal of the Philosophy of History 7 (3):371-395.score: 15.0
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  26. Rosemarie Rheinwald (1993). An Epistemic Solution to Goodman's New Riddle of Induction. Synthese 95 (1):55 - 76.score: 12.0
    Goodman'snew riddle of induction can be characterized by the following questions: What is the difference between grue and green?; Why is the hypothesis that all emeralds are grue not lawlike?; Why is this hypothesis not confirmed by its positive instances?; and, Why is the predicate grue not projectible? I argue in favor of epistemological answers to Goodman's questions. The notions of lawlikeness, confirmation, and projectibility have to be relativized to (actual and counterfactual) epistemic situations that are determined by (...)
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  27. Lieven Decock & Igor Douven (2011). Similarity After Goodman. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (1):61-75.score: 12.0
    In a famous critique, Goodman dismissed similarity as a slippery and both philosophically and scientifically useless notion. We revisit his critique in the light of important recent work on similarity in psychology and cognitive science. Specifically, we use Tversky’s influential set-theoretic account of similarity as well as Gärdenfors’s more recent resuscitation of the geometrical account to show that, while Goodman’s critique contained valuable insights, it does not warrant a dismissal of similarity.
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  28. Günter Abel (1991). Logic, Art, and Understanding in the Philosophy of Nelson Goodman. Inquiry 34 (3 & 4):311 – 321.score: 12.0
    This paper contains a reconstruction and discussion of some central subjects in Nelson Goodman's philosophical work. Goodman's creative symbol-constructional philosophy concerns fundamental aspects of human cognition and practice. It is argued that this provides us with the intellectual tools for constructing a genuine relationship between logic, knowledge, art, and understanding. This is shown by focusing on subjects ranging from the projectibility of predicates and nominalistic mereology to constructive relativity, ways of worldmaking and a general theory of symbols.
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  29. Igor Douven (2011). Similarity After Goodman. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (1):61-75.score: 12.0
    In a famous critique, Goodman dismissed similarity as a slippery and both philosophically and scientifically useless notion. We revisit his critique in the light of important recent work on similarity in psychology and cognitive science. Specifically, we use Tversky’s influential set-theoretic account of similarity as well as Gärdenfors’s more recent resuscitation of the geometrical account to show that, while Goodman’s critique contained valuable insights, it does not warrant a dismissal of similarity.
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  30. Andrew Dole & Andrew Chignell (eds.) (2005). God and the Ethics of Belief: New Essays in Philosophy of Religion (Festschrift for Nicholas Wolterstorff). Cambridge University Press.score: 12.0
    Philosophy of religion in the Anglo-American tradition experienced a 'rebirth' following the 1955 publication of New Essays in Philosophical Theology (eds. Antony Flew and Alisdair MacIntyre). Fifty years later, this volume of New Essays offers a sampling of the best work in what is now a very active field, written by some of its most prominent members. A substantial introduction sketches the developments of the last half-century, while also describing the 'ethics of belief' debate in epistemology and showing how it (...)
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  31. Damian Cox (2003). Goodman and Putnam on the Making of Worlds. Erkenntnis 58 (1):33 - 46.score: 12.0
    Hilary Putnam and Nelson Goodman are two of the twentieth century's most persuasive critics of metaphysical realism, however they disagree about the consequences of rejecting metaphysical realism. Goodman defended a view he called irrealism in which minds literally make worlds, and Putnam has sought to find a middle path between metaphysical realism and irrealism. I argue that Putnam's middle path turns out to be very elusive and defend a dichotomy between metaphysical realism and irrealism.
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  32. Catherine Z. Elgin (ed.) (1997). Nelson Goodman's Theory of Symbols and its Applications. Garland Pub..score: 12.0
    A challenger of traditions and boundaries A pivotal figure in 20th-century philosophy, Nelson Goodman has made seminal contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, aesthetics, and the philosophy of language, with surprising connections that cut across traditional boundaries. In the early 1950s, Goodman, Quine, and White published a series of papers that threatened to torpedo fundamental assumptions of traditional philosophy. They advocated repudiating analyticity, necessity, and prior assumptions. Some philosophers, realizing the seismic effects repudiation would cause, argued that philosophy should (...)
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  33. Paul Weithman (2009). Nicholas Wolterstorff's Justice: Rights and Wrongs: An Introduction. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (2):179-192.score: 12.0
    This introduction sets the stage for four papers on Nicholas Wolterstorff's Justice: Rights and Wrongs , written by Harold Attridge, Oliver O'Donovan, Richard Bernstein, and myself. In his book, Wolterstorff defends an account of human rights. The first section of this introduction distinguishes Wolterstorff's account of rights from the alternative account of rights against which he contends. The alternative account draws much of its power from a historical narrative according to which theory and politics supplanted earlier ways of thinking (...)
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  34. Edward S. Shirley (1981). An Unnoticed Flaw in Barker and Achinstein's Solution to Goodman's New Riddle of Induction. Philosophy of Science 48 (4):611-617.score: 12.0
    Barker and Achinstein misread Goodman's definitions of 'grue' and 'bleen'. If we stick to Goodman's definition of 'grue' as applying "to all things examined before t just in case they are green but to other things just in case they are blue" (my italics), and his parallel definition of 'bleen', then Barker and Achinstein's arguments are seen to be irrelevant. The result is to by-pass the question whether Mr. Grue sees things as grue rather than as green while (...)
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  35. Nathan Stemmer (2007). Hume's Solution of the Goodman Paradox and the Reliability Riddle (Mill's Problem). Philosophical Studies 132 (2):137 - 159.score: 12.0
    Many solutions of the Goodman paradox have been proposed but so far no agreement has been reached about which is the correct solution. However, I will not contribute here to the discussion with a new solution. Rather, I will argue that a solution has been in front of us for more than two hundred years because a careful reading of Hume’s account of inductive inferences shows that, contrary to Goodman’s opinion, it embodies a correct solution of the paradox. (...)
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  36. Dirk Koppelberg (1993). Should We Replace Knowledge by Understanding? — A Comment on Elgin and Goodman's Reconception of Epistemology. Synthese 95 (1):119 - 128.score: 12.0
    Goodman and Elgin have recommended a reconception of philosophy. A central part of their recommendation is to replace knowledge by understanding. According to Elgin, some important internalist and externalist theories of knowledge favor a sort of undesirable cognitive minimalism. Against Elgin I try to show how the challenge of cognitive minimalism can be met. Goodman and Elgin claim that defeat and confusion are built into the concept of knowledge. They demand either its revision or its replacement or its (...)
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  37. John Dilworth (2003). A Refutation of Goodman's Type-Token Theory of Notation. Dialectica 57 (3):330–336.score: 12.0
    In Languages of Art, Nelson Goodman presents a general theory of symbolic notation. However, I show that his theory could not adequately explain possible cases of natural language notational uses, and argue that this outcome undermines, not only Goodman’s own theory, but any broadly type versus token based account of notational structure. Given this failure, an alternative representational theory is proposed, in which different visual or perceptual aspects of a given physical inscription each represent a different letter, word, (...)
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  38. Scott Davison (2011). Nicholas Wolterstorff: Practices of Belief: Selected Essays, Volume 2 (Terence Cuneo, Ed.). [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 70 (3):255-258.score: 12.0
    Nicholas Wolterstorff: Practices of belief: selected essays, volume 2 (Terence Cuneo, ed.) Content Type Journal Article Category Book Review Pages 255-258 DOI 10.1007/s11153-011-9287-4 Authors Scott A. Davison, Philosophy Program, Morehead State University, 150 University Blvd., 354A Rader Hall, Morehead, KY 40351, USA Journal International Journal for Philosophy of Religion Online ISSN 1572-8684 Print ISSN 0020-7047 Journal Volume Volume 70 Journal Issue Volume 70, Number 3.
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  39. Robert Kowalenko (2003). The Goodman-Kripke Paradox. Dissertation, King's College Londonscore: 12.0
    The Kripke/Wittgenstein paradox and Goodman’s riddle of induction can be construed as problems of multiple redescription, where the relevant sceptical challenge is to provide factual grounds justifying the description we favour. A choice of description or predicate, in turn, is tantamount to the choice of a curve over a set of data, a choice apparently governed by implicitly operating constraints on the relevant space of possibilities. Armed with this analysis of the two paradoxes, several realist solutions of Kripke’s paradox (...)
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  40. Jasper Hopkins (2002). Nicholas of Cusa (1401–1464): First Modern Philosopher? Midwest Studies in Philosophy 26 (1):13–29.score: 12.0
    Ever since Ernst Cassirer in his epochal book Individuum und Kosmos in der Philosophie der Renaissance1 labeled Nicholas of Cusa “the first modern thinker,” interest in Cusa’s thought has burgeoned. At various times, both before and after Cassirer, Nicholas has been viewed as a forerunner of Leibniz,2 a harbinger of Kant,3 a prefigurer of Hegel,4 indeed, as an anticipator of the whole of..
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  41. Anthony Savile (1971). Nelson Goodman's ‘Languages of Art’: A Study. British Journal of Aesthetics 11 (1):3-27.score: 12.0
    Reviews goodman's claims about representation, Expression and identity of works of art. Claims that the underlying nominalist logic effectively prohibits our understanding of these notions (pace goodman) and leaves everything which is of specific artistic and aesthetic interest out of account.
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  42. Timothy Williamson (2013). Response to Cohen, Comesaña, Goodman, Nagel, and Weatherson on Gettier Cases in Epistemic Logic. Inquiry 56 (1):77-96.score: 12.0
    The five commentators on my paper ‘Gettier Cases in Epistemic Logic’ (GCEL) demonstrate how fruitful the topic can be. Especially in Brian Weatherson's contribution, and to some extent in those of Jennifer Nagel and Jeremy Goodman, much of the material constitutes valuable development and refinement of ideas in GCEL, rather than criticism. In response, I draw some threads together, and answer objections, mainly those in the papers by Stewart Cohen and Juan Comesaña and by Goodman.
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  43. Nicholas Maxwell, Nicholas Maxwell.score: 12.0
    We are in a state of impending crisis. And the fault lies in part with academia. For two centuries or so, academia has been devoted to the pursuit of knowledge and technological know-how. This has enormously increased our power to act which has, in turn, brought us both all the great benefits of the modern world and the crises we now face. Modern science and technology have made possible modern industry and agriculture, the explosive growth of the world’s population, global (...)
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  44. C. A. Hooker (1968). Goodman, 'Grue' and Hempel. Philosophy of Science 35 (3):232-247.score: 12.0
    It is now commonly accepted that N. Goodman's predicate "grue" presents the theory of confirmation of C. G. Hempel (and other such theories) with grave difficulties. The precise nature and status of these "difficulties" has, however, never been made clear. In this paper it is argued that it is very unlikely that "grue" raises any formal difficulties for Hempel and appearances to the contrary are examined, rejected and an explanation of their intuitive appeal offered. However "grue" is shown to (...)
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  45. M. Andrew Holowchak (2010). Paul Goodman Redux: Education as Apprenticed Anarchism. Ethics and Education 5 (3):217 - 232.score: 12.0
    When talk of philosophy of pedagogy comes up today, it is common to hear the names of Aristotle, Thomas Jefferson, John Dewey, or Paulo Freire, but the name of Paul Goodman, who campaigned vigorously for pedagogical reform much of his life, is seldom mentioned. In spite of neglect of his work, Goodman had much to say on pedagogical practice that is rich, poignant, and relevant today. In consequence, it is unfortunate that he is seldom read and discussed today. (...)
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  46. Ingemar Nordin (2009). Technology and Goodman's Paradox. Philosophy of Science 76 (3):345-354.score: 12.0
    Goodman’s paradox gives rise to a cluster of problems, problems that are in need of different answers. I will discuss some variants of the grue hypothesis applied to the technological context. One conclusion in this paper is that there is room for rational decisions, and that solutions to the paradoxes in technology can be found in the practical choice situation. *Received April 2008. †To contact the author, please write to: Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE‐581 83 (...)
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  47. Paul Franceschi (2001). A Solution to Goodman's Paradox. [Journal (on-Line/Unpaginated)].score: 12.0
    English translation of a paper intially publisdhed in French in Dialogue under the title 'Une solution pour le paradoxe de Goodman'. In the classical version of Goodman's paradox, the universe where the problem takes place is ambiguous. The conditions of induction being accurately described, I define then a framework of n-universes, allowing the distinction, among the criteria of a given n-universe, between constants and variables. Within this framework, I distinguish between two versions of the problem, respectively taking place: (...)
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  48. Natika Newton (2003). A Critical Review of Nicholas Maxwell's the Human World in the Physical Universe: Consciousness, Free Will, and Evolution. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 16 (1):149 – 156.score: 12.0
    Nicholas Maxwell takes on the ambitious project of explaining, both epistemologically and metaphysically, the physical universe and human existence within it. His vision is appealing; he unites the physical and the personal by means of the concepts of aim and value, which he sees as the keys to explaining traditional physical puzzles. Given the current popularity of theories of goal-oriented dynamical systems in biology and cognitive science, this approach is timely. But a large vision requires firm and nuanced arguments (...)
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  49. Gottfried gabriel (2000). Kontinentales Erbe Und Analytische Methode. Nelson Goodman Und Die Tradition. Erkenntnis 52 (2):185-198.score: 12.0
    Goodman's most important contribution to philosophy seems to be his analysis of the relation between facts of science and fictions of art. His view can be seen as a kind of complementary pluralism. That is to say, science and art are two complementary forms of achieving cognition. This position overcame the positivistic view (of his teacher Carnap) according to which the value of art is restricted to the non-cognitive function of expressing emotions. In this paper I compare some of (...)
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  50. D. Jacquette (2000). Goodman on the Concept of Style. British Journal of Aesthetics 40 (4):452-466.score: 12.0
    Goodman criticizes the how-what definition of style as how something is said by contrast with the content or substance of what is said. He rejects a literal version of the definition as applying too specifically only to literature and other artworks in which linguistic expression is possible. He also complains that in many artworks what is said and how it is said are so intertwined that it is impossible to distinguish the two for purposes of identifying an artistic style. (...)
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