Search results for 'Nick Forster' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ron Cacioppe, Nick Forster & Michael Fox (2008). A Survey of Managers' Perceptions of Corporate Ethics and Social Responsibility and Actions That May Affect Companies' Success. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (3):681 - 700.score: 240.0
    This exploratory study examines how managers and professionals regard the ethical and social responsibility reputations of 60 well-known Australian and International companies, and how this in turn influences their attitudes and behaviour towards these organisations. More than 350 MBA, other postgraduate business students, and participants in Australian Institute of Management (Western Australia) management education programmes were surveyed to evaluate how ethical and socially responsible they believed the 60 organisations to be. The survey sought to determine what these participants considered ‘ethical’ (...)
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  2. Greg Forster (2005). John Locke's Politics of Moral Consensus. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    The aim of this highly original book is twofold: to explain the reconciliation of religion and politics in the work of John Locke, and to explore the relevance of that reconciliation for politics in our own time. Confronted with deep social divisions over ultimate beliefs Locke sought to unite society in a single liberal community. Reason could identify divine moral laws that would be acceptable to members of all cultural groups, thereby justifying the authority of government. Greg Forster demonstrates (...)
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  3. Eckart Förster & Yitzhak Y. Melamed (eds.) (2012). Spinoza and German Idealism. Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    Machine generated contents note: 1. Rationality, idealism, monism, and beyond Michael Della Rocca; 2. Kant's idea of the unconditioned and Spinoza's the fourth antinomy and the ideal of pure reason Omri Boehm; 3. The question is whether a purely apparent person is possible Karl Ameriks; 4. Herder and Spinoza Michael Forster; 5. Goethe's Spinozism Eckart Förster; 6. Fichte on freedom: the Spinozistic background Allen Wood; 7. Fichte on the consciousness of Spinoza's God Johannes Haag; 8. Spinoza in Schelling's early (...)
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  4. MR Forster (1999). Model Selection in Science: The Problem of Language Variance. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50 (1):83-102.score: 60.0
    Recent solutions to the curve-fitting problem, described in Forster and Sober ([1995]), trade off the simplicity and fit of hypotheses by defining simplicity as the paucity of adjustable parameters. Scott De Vito ([1997]) charges that these solutions are 'conventional' because he thinks that the number of adjustable parameters may change when the hypotheses are described differently. This he believes is exactly what is illustrated in Goodman's new riddle of induction, otherwise known as the grue problem. However, the 'number of (...)
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  5. Thomas Forster (2008). The Iterative Conception of Set. Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (1):97-110.score: 30.0
    The phrase ‘The iterative conception of sets’ conjures up a picture of a particular settheoretic universe – the cumulative hierarchy – and the constant conjunction of phrasewith-picture is so reliable that people tend to think that the cumulative hierarchy is all there is to the iterative conception of sets: if you conceive sets iteratively, then the result is the cumulative hierarchy. In this paper, I shall be arguing that this is a mistake: the iterative conception of set is a good (...)
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  6. Malcolm Forster & Elliott Sober (1994). How to Tell When Simpler, More Unified, or Less Ad Hoc Theories Will Provide More Accurate Predictions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):1-35.score: 30.0
    Traditional analyses of the curve fitting problem maintain that the data do not indicate what form the fitted curve should take. Rather, this issue is said to be settled by prior probabilities, by simplicity, or by a background theory. In this paper, we describe a result due to Akaike [1973], which shows how the data can underwrite an inference concerning the curve's form based on an estimate of how predictively accurate it will be. We argue that this approach throws light (...)
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  7. Michael N. Forster (1998). On the Very Idea of Denying the Existence of Radically Different Conceptual Schemes. Inquiry 41 (2):133 – 185.score: 30.0
    It has become very popular among philosophers to attempt to discredit, or at least set severe limits to, the thesis that there exist conceptual schemes radically different from ours. This fashion is misconceived. Philosophers have attempted to justify it in two main ways: by means of arguments which are a priorist relative to the relevant linguistic and textual evidence (and either independent of or based upon positive theories of meaning, understanding, and interpretation); and by means of arguments which are a (...)
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  8. Paul D. Forster (1992). What is at Stake Between Putnam and Rorty? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 52 (3):585-603.score: 30.0
    This paper is a discussion of points of agreement and conflict between Rorty and Putnam.
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  9. Eckart Förster (2000). Kant's Final Synthesis: An Essay on the Opus Postumum. Harvard University Press.score: 30.0
  10. Paul Forster (2011). Peirce and the Threat of Nominalism. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    Machine generated contents note: List of abbreviations; Preface; 1. Nominalism as demonic doctrine; 2. Logic, philosophy and the special sciences; 3. Continuity and the problem of universals; 4. Continuity and meaning: Peirce's pragmatic maxim; 5. Logical foundations of Peirce's pragmatic maxim; 6. Experience and its role in inquiry; 7. Scientific method as self-corrective - Peirce's view of the problem of knowledge; 8. The unity of Peirce's theories of truth; 9. Order from chaos: Peirce's evolutionary cosmology; 10. A universe of chance: (...)
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  11. Michael Forster (2007). Hermeneutics. In Brian Leiter & Michael Rosen (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Continental Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    For the purpose of this article, "hermeneutics" means the theory of interpretation, i.e. the theory of achieving an understanding of texts, utterances, and so on (it does not mean a certain twentieth-century philosophical movement). Hermeneutics in this sense has a long history, reaching back at least as far as ancient Greece. However, new focus was brought to bear on it in the modern period, in the wake of the Reformation with its displacement of responsibility for interpreting the Bible from the (...)
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  12. Malcolm R. Forster (1986). Unification and Scientific Realism Revisited. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1986:394 - 405.score: 30.0
    Van Fraassen has argued that quantum mechanics does not conform to the pattern of common cause explanation used by Salmon as a precise formulation of Smart's 'cosmic coincidence' argument for scientific realism. This paper adds to this list some common examples from classical physics that also do not conform to Salmon's explanatory schema. This is bad news and good news for the realist. The bad news is that Salmon's argument for realism does not work; the good news is that realism (...)
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  13. Michael Forster (2009). Kant and Skepticism. Princeton University Press.score: 30.0
    This book puts forward a much-needed reappraisal of Immanuel Kant's conception of and response to skepticism, as set forth principally in the Critique of Pure Reason.
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  14. Malcolm R. Forster & Alexey Kryukov (2003). The Emergence of the Macroworld: A Study of Intertheory Relations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1039-1051.score: 30.0
    Classical mechanics is empirically successful because the probabilistic mean values of quantum mechanical observables follow the classical equations of motion to a good approximation (Messiah 1970, 215). We examine this claim for the one‐dimensional motion of a particle in a box, and extend the idea by deriving a special case of the ideal gas law in terms of the mean value of a generalized force used to define “pressure.” The examples illustrate the importance of probabilistic averaging as a method of (...)
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  15. Kenneth Forster (1998). The Pros and Cons of Masked Priming. Journal Of Psycholinguistic Research 27 (2):203-233.score: 30.0
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  16. Michael N. Forster, Herder and Spinoza.score: 30.0
    What was the source of this great flowering? Much of the credit for it has tended to go to Jacobi and Mendelssohn, who in 1785 began a famous public dispute concerning the question whether or not Lessing had been a Spinozist, as Jacobi alleged Lessing had admitted to him shortly before his death in 1781. But Jacobi and Mendelssohn were both negatively disposed towards Spinoza. In On the Doctrine of Spinoza in Letters to Mr.
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  17. Michael Forster, The Liberal Temper in Classical German Philosophy: Freedom of Thought and Expression.score: 30.0
    Consideration of the German philosophy and political history of the past century might well give the impression, and often does give foreign observers the impression, that liberalism, including in particular commitment to the ideal of free thought and expression, is only skin-deep in Germany. Were not Heidegger's disgust at Gerede (which of course really meant the free speech of the Weimar Republic) and Gadamer's defense of "prejudice" and "tradition" more reflective of the true instincts of German philosophy than, say, the (...)
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  18. M. Forster & Eric Saidel (1994). Connectionism and the Fate of Folk Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 7 (4):437-52.score: 30.0
    Abstract Ramsey, Stick and Garon (1991) argue that if the correct theory of mind is some parallel distributed processing theory, then folk psychology must be false. Their idea is that if the nodes and connections that encode one representation are causally active then all representations encoded by the same set of nodes and connections are also causally active. We present a clear, and concrete, counterexample to RSG's argument. In conclusion, we suggest that folk psychology and connectionism are best understood as (...)
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  19. Paul Forster (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common Sense: Moore's Confidence in His 'Proof of an External World'. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 16 (1):163 – 195.score: 30.0
    (2008). Neither Dogma nor Common sense: Moore's confidence in his ‘proof of an external world’1. British Journal for the History of Philosophy: Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 163-195.
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  20. M. Forster & Lawrence A. Shapiro (2000). Prediction and Accommodation in Evolutionary Psychology. Psychological Inquiry 11:31-33.score: 30.0
    Ketelaar and Ellis have provided a remarkably clear and succinct statement of Lakatosian philosophy of science and have also argued compellingly that the neo-Darwinian theory of evolution fills the Lakatosian criteria of progressivity. We find ourselves in agreement with much of what Ketelaar and Ellis say about Lakatosian philosophy of science, but have some questions about (1) the place of evolutionary psychology in a Lakatosian framework, and (2) the extent to which evolutionary psychology truly predicts new findings.
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  21. Thomas Forster & Thierry Libert (2010). An Order-Theoretic Account of Some Set-Theoretic Paradoxes. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 52 (1):1-19.score: 30.0
    We present an order-theoretic analysis of set-theoretic paradoxes. This analysis will show that a large variety of purely set-theoretic paradoxes (including the various Russell paradoxes as well as all the familiar implementations of the paradoxes of Mirimanoff and Burali-Forti) are all instances of a single limitative phenomenon.
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  22. Michael N. Forster (2003). Gods, Animals, and Artists: Some Problem Cases in Herder's Philosophy of Language. Inquiry 46 (1):65 – 96.score: 30.0
    Herder already very early in his career, in the 1760s, established two vitally important and epoch-making principles in the philosophy of language: that thought is essentially dependent on and bounded by language; and that meanings or concepts should be identified - not with such items as the referents involved, Platonic forms, or empiricist 'ideas' - but with word-usages. What did Herder do for an encore? His Treatise on the Origin of Language from 1772 might seem the natural place to look (...)
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  23. Eckart Förster (1987). Is There "a Gap" in Kant's Critical System? Journal of the History of Philosophy 25 (4):533-555.score: 30.0
  24. Michael Forster, Hegelian Vs. Kantian Interpretations of Pyrrhonism: Revolution or Reaction?score: 30.0
    This paper concerns a surprisingly sharp disagreement about the nature of ancient Pyrrhonism which first emerges clearly in Kant and Hegel, but which continues in contemporary interpretations. The paper begins by explaining the character of this disagreement, then attempts to adjudicate it in the light of the ancient texts.
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  25. Malcolm R. Forster (1985). Book Review:How the Laws of Physics Lie Nancy Cartwright. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 52 (3):478-.score: 30.0
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  26. Michael N. Forster (2011). German Philosophy of Language: From Schlegel to Hegel and Beyond. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    This book not only sets the historical record straight but also champions the Herderian tradition for its philosophical depth and breadth.
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  27. Paul D. Forster (1989). Peirce on the Progress and Authority of Science. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 25 (4):421 - 452.score: 30.0
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  28. Malcolm Forster (2007). A Philosopher's Guide to Empirical Success. Philosophy of Science 74 (5):588-600.score: 30.0
    The simple question, what is empirical success? turns out to have a surprisingly complicated answer. We need to distinguish between meritorious fit and ‘fudged fit', which is akin to the distinction between prediction and accommodation. The final proposal is that empirical success emerges in a theory dependent way from the agreement of independent measurements of theoretically postulated quantities. Implications for realism and Bayesianism are discussed. ‡This paper was written when I was a visiting fellow at the Center for Philosophy of (...)
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  29. Malcolm Forster, Percolation: An Easy Example of Renormalization.score: 30.0
    Kenneth Wilson won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1982 for applying renormalization group, which he learnt from quantum field theory (QFT), to problems in statistical physics—the induced magnetization of materials (ferromagnetism) and the evaporation and condensation of fluids (phase transitions). See Wilson (1983). The renormalization group got its name from its early applications in QFT. There, it appeared to be a rather ad hoc method of subtracting away unwanted infinities. The further allegation was that the procedure is so horrendously (...)
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  30. Malcolm R. Forster (1995). Bayes and Bust: Simplicity as a Problem for a Probabilist's Approach to Confirmation. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (3):399-424.score: 30.0
    The central problem with Bayesian philosophy of science is that it cannot take account of the relevance of simplicity and unification to confirmation, induction, and scientific inference. The standard Bayesian folklore about factoring simplicity into the priors, and convergence theorems as a way of grounding their objectivity are some of the myths that Earman's book does not address adequately. 1Review of John Earman: Bayes or Bust?, Cambridge, MA. MIT Press, 1992, £33.75cloth.
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  31. Eckart Förster (1995). To Lend Wings to Physics Once Again': Hölderlin and the 'Oldest System‐Programme of German Idealism. European Journal of Philosophy 3 (2):174-198.score: 30.0
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  32. Michael N. Forster (2010). After Herder: Philosophy of Language in the German Tradition. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
    In the course of developing these historical points, this book also shows that Herder and his tradition are in many ways superior to dominant trends in more ...
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  33. Michael N. Forster, Herder's Importance As a Philosopher.score: 30.0
    Herder has been sufficiently neglected in recent times, especially among philosophers, to need a few words of introduction. He lived 1744-1803; he was a favorite student of Kant's, and a student and friend of Hamann's; he became a mentor to the young Goethe, on whose development he exercised a profound influence; and he worked, among other things, as a philosopher, literary critic, Bible scholar, and translator. As I mentioned, Herder has been especially neglected by philosophers (with two notable (...)
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  34. Malcolm R. Forster (2010). Miraculous Consilience of Quantum Mechanics. In. In Ellery Eells & James Fetzer (eds.), The Place of Probability in Science. Springer. 201--228.score: 30.0
  35. Michael N. Forster (2002). Herder's Philosophy of Language, Interpretation, and Translation: Three Fundamental Principles. Review of Metaphysics 56 (2):323 - 356.score: 30.0
  36. Malcolm R. Forster & Alexei Krioukov, How to ‘See Through’ the Ideal Gas Law in Terms of the Concepts of Quantum Mechanics.score: 30.0
    Textbooks in quantum mechanics frequently claim that quantum mechanics explains the success of classical mechanics because “the mean values [of quantum mechanical observables] follow the classical equations of motion to a good approximation,” while “the dimensions of the wave packet be small with respect to the characteristic dimensions of the problem.” The equations in question are Ehrenfest’s famous equations. We examine this case for the one-dimensional motion of a particle in a box, and extend the idea deriving a special case (...)
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  37. Malcolm Forster (1991). Preconditions of Predication: From Qualia to Quantum Mechanics. Topoi 10 (1):13-26.score: 30.0
    Although in every inductive inference, an act of invention is requisite, the act soon slips out of notice. Although we bind together facts by superinducing upon them a new Conception, this Conception, once introduced and applied, is looked upon as inseparably connected with the facts, and necessarily implied in them. Having once had the phenomena bound together in their minds in virtue of the Conception men can no longer easily restore them back to the detached and incoherent condition in which (...)
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  38. Malcolm Forster, Chapter 1: An Introduction to Philosophy of Science.score: 30.0
    Deductive logic is about the validity of arguments. An argument is valid when its conclusion follows deductively from its premises. Here’s an example: If Alice is guilty then Bob is guilty, and Alice is guilty. Therefore, Bob is guilty. The validity of the argument has nothing to do with what the argument is about. It has nothing to do with the meaning, or content, of the argument beyond the meaning of logical phrases such as if…then. Thus, any argument of the (...)
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  39. Malcolm Forster, Chapter 3: Simplicity and Unification in Model Selection.score: 30.0
    This chapter examines four solutions to the problem of many models, and finds some fault or limitation with all of them except the last. The first is the naïve empiricist view that best model is the one that best fits the data. The second is based on Popper’s falsificationism. The third approach is to compare models on the basis of some kind of trade off between fit and simplicity. The fourth is the most powerful: Cross validation testing.
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  40. Malcolm Forster, The Whewell-Mill Debate in a Nutshell.score: 30.0
    What is induction? John Stuart Mill (1874, p. 208) defined induction as the operation of discovering and proving general propositions. William Whewell (in Butts, 1989, p. 266) agrees with Mill’s definition as far as it goes. Is Whewell therefore assenting to the standard concept of induction, which talks of inferring a generalization of the form “All As are Bs” from the premise that “All observed As are Bs”? Does Whewell agree, to use Mill’s example, that inferring “All humans are mortal” (...)
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  41. Malcolm R. Forster (1994). Non-Bayesian Foundations for Statistical Estimation, Prediction, and the Ravens Example. Erkenntnis 40 (3):357 - 376.score: 30.0
    The paper provides a formal proof that efficient estimates of parameters, which vary as as little as possible when measurements are repeated, may be expected to provide more accurate predictions. The definition of predictive accuracy is motivated by the work of Akaike (1973). Surprisingly, the same explanation provides a novel solution for a well known problem for standard theories of scientific confirmation — the Ravens Paradox. This is significant in light of the fact that standard Bayesian analyses of the paradox (...)
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  42. Malcolm Forster, The Evolution of Inference.score: 30.0
    A and B in signaling games (Lewis 1969). Members of the population, such as our prehistoric pair, are occasionally faced with the following ‘game’. Let one of the players be the receiver and the other the sender. The receiver needs to know whether B is true or not, but only possesses information about whether A is true or not. In some environmental contexts, A is sufficient for B, in others it is not. The sender knows nothing about A or B, (...)
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  43. Eckart Förster (2002). Die Bedeutung von §§ 76, 77 der "Kritik der Urteilskraft" für die Entwicklung der nachkantischen Philosophie [Teil 1]. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 56 (2):169 - 190.score: 30.0
  44. Eckart Förster (1992). "Was darf ich hoffen?" Zum Problem der Vereinbarkeit von theoretischer und praktischer Vernunft bei Immanuel Kant. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 46 (2):168 - 185.score: 30.0
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  45. Malcolm R. Forster (2006). Counterexamples to a Likelihood Theory of Evidence. Minds and Machines 16 (3):319-338.score: 30.0
    The likelihood theory of evidence (LTE) says, roughly, that all the information relevant to the bearing of data on hypotheses (or models) is contained in the likelihoods. There exist counterexamples in which one can tell which of two hypotheses is true from the full data, but not from the likelihoods alone. These examples suggest that some forms of scientific reasoning, such as the consilience of inductions (Whewell, 1858. In Novum organon renovatum (Part II of the 3rd ed.). The philosophy of (...)
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  46. Malcolm R. Forster (1999). How Do Simple Rules `Fit to Reality' in a Complex World? Minds and Machines 9 (4):543-564.score: 30.0
    The theory of fast and frugal heuristics, developed in a new book called Simple Heuristics that make Us Smart (Gigerenzer, Todd, and the ABC Research Group, in press), includes two requirements for rational decision making. One is that decision rules are bounded in their rationality –- that rules are frugal in what they take into account, and therefore fast in their operation. The second is that the rules are ecologically adapted to the environment, which means that they `fit to reality.' (...)
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  47. Michael Forster, Johann Gottfried Von Herder. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 30.0
  48. Eckart Förster (2002). Die Bedeutung von §§ 76, 77 der "Kritik der Urteilskraft" für die Entwicklung der nachkantischen Philosophie [Teil II]. Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 56 (3):321 - 345.score: 30.0
  49. Malcolm R. Forster (1988). Sober's Principle of Common Cause and the Problem of Comparing Incomplete Hypotheses. Philosophy of Science 55 (4):538-559.score: 30.0
    Sober (1984) has considered the problem of determining the evidential support, in terms of likelihood, for a hypothesis that is incomplete in the sense of not providing a unique probability function over the event space in its domain. Causal hypotheses are typically like this because they do not specify the probability of their initial conditions. Sober's (1984) solution to this problem does not work, as will be shown by examining his own biological examples of common cause explanation. The proposed solution (...)
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  50. Eckart Förster (2009). The Significance of §§76 and 77 Of the Critique of Judgment for the Development of Post-Kantian Philosophy (Part 1). Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 30 (2):197-217.score: 30.0
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