Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is an emotive subject, particularly in southern Africa. Among those who have been directly affected by the disease, or who perceive themselves to be personally at risk, talking about AIDS inevitably arouses strong emotions - amongst them fear, distress, loss and anger. Conventionally, human geography research has avoided engagement with such emotions. Although the ideal of the detached observer has been roundly critiqued, the emphasis in methodological literature on 'doing no harm' has led even qualitative (...) researchers to avoid difficult emotional encounters. Nonetheless, research is inevitably shaped by emotions, not least those of the researchers themselves. In this paper, we examine the role of emotions in the research process through our experiences of researching the lives of young AIDS migrants in Malawi and Lesotho. We explore how the context of the research gave rise to the production of particular emotions, and how, in response, we shaped the research, presenting a research agenda focused more on migration than AIDS. This example reveals a tension between universalised ethics expressed through ethical research guidelines that demand informed consent, and ethics of care, sensitive to emotional context. It also demonstrates how dualistic distinctions between reason and emotion, justice and care, global and local are unhelpful in interpreting the ethics of research practice. (shrink)
Fieldwork is a project in which, according to Rose (1997, p. 316), researcher, researched and research make each other, yet far more attention has been given to the making of the research and researcher than to the researched. Focusing on three aspects of the research process (the researcher's presence in the field, the research topic and the choice of methods), this paper uses examples from the author's own fieldwork to debate whether it is possible to shape fieldwork such that the (...) knowledges created and consumed in the field by the researched serve to destabilise dominant discourses of race, gender and age. (shrink)
Barack Obama is often lauded as a 'pragmatist,' yet when most people employ the term, they mean it in the vaguest sense: that he's practical and willing to compromise to get things done. However, the public philosophy of pragmatism, which has been the subject of a rich revival in the past couple of decades, is far more than this. First developed in the late nineteenth century, pragmatism is primarily a way of thinking--an anti-dualist philosophy that attempts to overcome the dichotomies (...) between self and object, nature and culture, mind and body, theory and practice, and fact and value. When applied to governance, pragmatists advocate the use of tactics like third party mediation and problem-solving to achieve anti-dualist principles: cosmopolitan localism, analytical holism, progressive conservatism, and processual structuralism. -/- In Pragmatist Governance, Chris Ansell begins with a theory of the concept and then explains why the approach is ideal for addressing today's governance problems. For instance, while many think that bureaucracy's unchecked growth is the fundamental problem facing democracy today, pragmatism suggests the opposite: that public agencies can effectively manage the relationship between governance and democracy if they focus on building consent for public problem-solving. Ansell argues that wishing away bureaucracy will not do given what we know about the indispensible role of institutions in contemporary governance. Utilizing pragmatist concepts, Ansell rethinks the design of institutions, arguing that they are neither the simple products of rational design that can be endlessly tinkered with nor 'congealed taste'--where institutions represent the timeless customs and values of a people. Along with overcoming this dualism, Ansell also challenges us to rethink our approach to governance. Instead of moving from one extreme to the other--from bureaucracy to 'post-bureaucracy' or 'public entrepreneurialism'--pragmatism would not merely seek to replace one (hierarchical bureaucracy) with the other (a 'flat,' entrepreneurial organization), but rather to hitch the two approaches together in an innovative amalgam where organizational leaders constantly interact with and learn from street-level bureaucrats. -/- Pragmatist Governance concludes that if government is to regain public trust, the technical knowledge of experts must be brought together with sensitivity to local problems, situations, and knowledge. The answer lies not, however, in a diminished bureaucracy. That may only deepen distrust. Rather, the emphasis should be on taking the best of both sides to find innovative and effective ways to solve enduring public problems. (shrink)
In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. Here we show that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a non-symmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated.
Plane strain indentation of single crystals by a periodic array of flat rigid contacts is analyzed. The calculations are carried out, with the mechanical response of the crystal characterized by conventional continuum crystal plasticity or by discrete dislocation plasticity. The properties used in the conventional crystal plasticity description are chosen so that both theories give essentially the same response in uniform plane strain compression. The indentation predictions are then compared, focusing in particular on the effect of contact size and spacing. (...) The limiting cases of frictionless contacts and of perfectly sticking contacts are analyzed. Conventional continuum plasticity predicts a size-independent response. Unless the contact spacing to size ratio is very small, the predicted deformation mode under the contacts is a wedging mechanism of the type described by slip line theory, which is only weakly sensitive to friction conditions. For the micron scale contacts analyzed, discrete dislocation plasticity predicts a response that depends on the contact size as well as on the contact spacing to size ratio. When contacts are spaced sufficiently far apart, discrete dislocation plasticity predicts that the deformation is localized beneath the contacts, whereas for more closely spaced contacts, deformation occurs by shear bands extending relatively far into the crystal. Unless the contacts are sufficiently close together so that the response is essentially one of plane strain compression, the mean contact pressure predicted by discrete dislocation plasticity is substantially greater than that predicted by conventional continuum crystal plasticity and is more sensitive to the friction conditions. (shrink)
Two-dimensional discrete dislocation plasticity simulations of the evolution of thermal stress in single crystal thin films on a rigid substrate are used to study size effects. The relation between the residual stress and the dislocation structure in the films after cooling is analyzed using dislocation dynamics. A boundary layer characterized by a high stress gradient and a high dislocation density is found close to the impenetrable film-substrate interface. There is a material-dependent threshold film thickness above which the dislocation density together (...) with the boundary layer thickness and stress state are independent of film thickness. In such films the stress outside the boundary layer is on average very low, so that the film-thickness-independent boundary layer is responsible for the size effect. A larger size effect is found for films thinner than the threshold thickness. The origin of this size effect stems from nucleation activity being hindered by the geometrical constraint of the small film thickness, so that by decreasing film thickness, the dislocation density decreases while the stress in the film increases. The size dependence is only described by a Hall?Petch type relation for films thicker than the threshold value. (shrink)