In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. Here we show that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a non-symmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated.
Plane strain indentation of single crystals by a periodic array of flat rigid contacts is analyzed. The calculations are carried out, with the mechanical response of the crystal characterized by conventional continuum crystal plasticity or by discrete dislocation plasticity. The properties used in the conventional crystal plasticity description are chosen so that both theories give essentially the same response in uniform plane strain compression. The indentation predictions are then compared, focusing in particular on the effect of contact size and spacing. (...) The limiting cases of frictionless contacts and of perfectly sticking contacts are analyzed. Conventional continuum plasticity predicts a size-independent response. Unless the contact spacing to size ratio is very small, the predicted deformation mode under the contacts is a wedging mechanism of the type described by slip line theory, which is only weakly sensitive to friction conditions. For the micron scale contacts analyzed, discrete dislocation plasticity predicts a response that depends on the contact size as well as on the contact spacing to size ratio. When contacts are spaced sufficiently far apart, discrete dislocation plasticity predicts that the deformation is localized beneath the contacts, whereas for more closely spaced contacts, deformation occurs by shear bands extending relatively far into the crystal. Unless the contacts are sufficiently close together so that the response is essentially one of plane strain compression, the mean contact pressure predicted by discrete dislocation plasticity is substantially greater than that predicted by conventional continuum crystal plasticity and is more sensitive to the friction conditions. (shrink)
Two-dimensional discrete dislocation plasticity simulations of the evolution of thermal stress in single crystal thin films on a rigid substrate are used to study size effects. The relation between the residual stress and the dislocation structure in the films after cooling is analyzed using dislocation dynamics. A boundary layer characterized by a high stress gradient and a high dislocation density is found close to the impenetrable film-substrate interface. There is a material-dependent threshold film thickness above which the dislocation density together (...) with the boundary layer thickness and stress state are independent of film thickness. In such films the stress outside the boundary layer is on average very low, so that the film-thickness-independent boundary layer is responsible for the size effect. A larger size effect is found for films thinner than the threshold thickness. The origin of this size effect stems from nucleation activity being hindered by the geometrical constraint of the small film thickness, so that by decreasing film thickness, the dislocation density decreases while the stress in the film increases. The size dependence is only described by a Hall?Petch type relation for films thicker than the threshold value. (shrink)