1. Ning Chen (2000). The Etymology of Sheng (Sage) and its Confucian Conception in Early China. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 27 (4):409–427.
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  2. Ning Chen (1997). The Concept of Fate in Mencius. Philosophy East and West 47 (4):495-520.
    Mencius, who often spoke of ming in different senses among which only one can be taken as fate, upheld two doctrines of fate--moral determinism and blind, unalterable fate--but he was prone to apply the former to collective entities, and the latter to individual persons. This bi-level distinction, which is at variance with the non-distinction in both Moism and Taoism, exercised a profound influence upon the minds of later Confucians.
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  3. Ning Chen (1997). Confucius' View of Fate (Ming). Journal of Chinese Philosophy 24 (3):323-359.
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