Search results for 'Nir Lipsman' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Nir Lipsman, Rebecca Zener & Mark Bernstein (2009). Personal Identity, Enhancement and Neurosurgery: A Qualitative Study in Applied Neuroethics. Bioethics 23 (6):375-383.score: 120.0
    Recent developments in the field of neurosurgery, specifically those dealing with the modification of mood and affect as part of psychiatric disease, have led some researchers to discuss the ethical implications of surgery to alter personality and personal identity. As knowledge and technology advance, discussions of surgery to alter undesirable traits, or possibly the enhancement of normal traits, will play an increasingly larger role in the ethical literature. So far, identity and enhancement have yet to be explored in a neurosurgical (...)
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  2. Nir Lipsman & Walter Glannon (2013). Brain, Mind and Machine: What Are the Implications of Deep Brain Stimulation for Perceptions of Personal Identity, Agency and Free Will? Bioethics 27 (9):465-470.score: 120.0
    Brain implants, such as Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS), which are designed to improve motor, mood and behavioural pathology, present unique challenges to our understanding of identity, agency and free will. This is because these devices can have visible effects on persons' physical and psychological properties yet are essentially undetectable when operating correctly. They can supplement and compensate for one's inherent abilities and faculties when they are compromised by neuropsychiatric disorders. Further, unlike talk therapy or pharmacological treatments, patients need not ‘do’ (...)
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  3. N. Lipsman, P. Giacobbe, M. Bernstein & A. M. Lozano (2012). Informed Consent for Clinical Trials of Deep Brain Stimulation in Psychiatric Disease: Challenges and Implications for Trial Design. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (2):107-111.score: 30.0
    Advances in neuromodulation and an improved understanding of the anatomy and circuitry of psychopathology have led to a resurgence of interest in surgery for psychiatric disease. Clinical trials exploring deep brain stimulation (DBS), a focally targeted, adjustable and reversible form of neurosurgery, are being developed to address the use of this technology in highly selected patient populations. Psychiatric patients deemed eligible for surgical intervention, such as DBS, typically meet stringent inclusion criteria, including demonstrated severity, chronicity and a failure of conventional (...)
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  4. Gérard Bonnet, Mary Canning, Kai-Ming Cheng, Terry J. Crooks, Luis Crouch, Ori Eyal, Eva Forsberg, Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, Ratna Ghosh, Martin Gustafsson, Batia P. Horsky, Dan Inbar, Barbara M. Kehm, Stephen T. Kerr, Allan Luke, Ulf P. Lundgren, Robert W. McMeekin, Adam Nir, Peter Schrag, Hasan Simsek, Ryo Watanabe, Alison Wolf & Ali Yildirim (2010). Balancing Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform. R&L Education.score: 30.0
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  5. Yuval Nir & Giulio Tononi (2010). Dreaming and the Brain: From Phenomenology to Neurophysiology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):88-100.score: 30.0
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  6. Eyal Nir (2012). Grounding Public Reasons in Rationality: The Conditionally-Compassionate Medical Student and Other Challenges. Law and Ethics of Human Rights 6 (1):47-68.score: 30.0
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  7. Alice MacLachlan (2010). Seeing Sympathy: Remarks on Sympathizing with the Enemy. Review of International Affairs 61 (1138-39):178-189.score: 9.0
    This article responds to Nir Eisikovits’ recent book Sympathizing with the Enemy: Reconciliation, Transitional Justice, Negotiation (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2010).
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  8. Glen Pettigrove (2012). Nir Eisikovits Sympathizing with the Enemy: Reconciliation, Transitional Justice, Negotiation. Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (3):470-472.score: 9.0
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  9. Kirsten Wolf (1999). Helgi Gudmundsson, Um Haf Innan: Vestrœnir Menn Og Íslenzk Menning Á Miðöldum. Reykjavík: Háskólaútgáfan, 1997. Pp. Vii, 413; Tables and 2 Maps. [REVIEW] Speculum 74 (1):178-179.score: 9.0
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  10. Yusuke Moriguchi & Kazuo Hiraki (2013). Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Function in Young Children: A Review of NIRS Studies. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:867.score: 6.0
    Executive function refers to the higher-order cognitive control process for the attainment of a specific goal. There are several subcomponents of executive function, such as inhibition, cognitive shifting, and working memory. Extensive neuroimaging research in adults has revealed that the lateral prefrontal cortex plays an important role in executive function. Developmental studies have reported behavioral evidence showing that executive function changes significantly during preschool years. However, the neural mechanism of executive function in young children is still unclear. This article reviews (...)
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  11. Hirokazu Doi, Shota Nishitani & Kazuyuki Shinohara (2013). NIRS as a Tool for Assaying Emotional Function in the Prefrontal Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 5.0
  12. Takashi Nakao, Tomoya Matsumoto, Machiko Morita, Daisuke Shimizu, Shinpei Yoshimura, Georg Northoff, Shigeru Morinobu, Yasumasa Okamoto & Shigeto Yamawaki (2013). The Degree of Early Life Stress Predicts Decreased Medial Prefrontal Activations and the Shift From Internally to Externally Guided Decision Making: An Exploratory NIRS Study During Resting State and Self-Oriented Task. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 4.0
    Early life stress (ELS), an important risk factor for psychopathology in mental disorders, is associated neuronally with decreased functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in the resting state. Moreover, it is linked with greater deactivation in DMN during a working memory task. Although DMN shows large amplitudes of very-low-frequency oscillations (VLFO) and strong involvement during self-oriented tasks, these features’ relation to ELS remains unclear. Therefore, our preliminary study investigated the relationship between ELS and the degree of frontal activations (...)
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  13. Yasuyo Minagawa-Kawai, Alejandrina Cristia, Bria Long, Inga Vendelin, Yoko Hakuno, Michel Dutat, Luca Filippin, Dominique Cabrol & Emmanuel Dupoux (2013). Inights on NIRS Sensitivity From a Cross-Linguistic Study on the Emergence of Phonological Grammar. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 4.0
    Each language has a unique set of phonemic categories and phonotactic rules which determine permissible sound sequences in that language. Behavioral research demonstrates that one’s native language shapes the perception of both sound categories and sound sequences in adults, and neuroimaging results further indicate that the processing of native phonemes and phonotactics involves a left-dominant perisylvian brain network. Recent work using a novel technique, functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS), has suggested that a left-dominant network becomes evident towards the end of (...)
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  14. Nir Eyal (2005). ‘Perhaps the Most Important Primary Good’: Self-Respect and Rawls’s Principles of Justice. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 4 (2):195-219.score: 3.0
    The article begins by reconstructing the just distribution of the social bases of self-respect, a principle of justice that is covert in Rawls’s writing. I argue that, for Rawls, justice mandates that each social basis for self-respect be equalized (and, as a second priority, maximized). Curiously, for Rawls, that principle ranks higher than Rawls’s two more famous principles of justice - equal liberty and the difference principle. I then recall Rawls’s well-known confusion between self-respect and another form of self-appraisal, namely, (...)
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  15. Nir Eyal (2009). Is the Body Special? Review of Cécile Fabre, Whose Body is It Anyway? Justice and the Integrity of the Person. Utilitas 21 (2):233-245.score: 3.0
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  16. Nir Eyal (2006). Egalitarian Justice and Innocent Choice. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 2 (1).score: 3.0
    This article argues that, in its standard formulation, luck-egalitarianism is false. In particular, I show that disadvantages that result from perfectly free choice can constitute egalitarian injustice. I also propose a modified formulation of luck-egalitarianism that would withstand my criticism. One merit of the modification is that it helps us to reconcile widespread intuitions about distributive justice with equally widespread intuitions about punitive justice.
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  17. Nir Fresco (2010). Explaining Computation Without Semantics: Keeping It Simple. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (2):165-181.score: 3.0
    This paper deals with the question: how is computation best individuated? -/- 1. The semantic view of computation: computation is best individuated by its semantic properties. 2. The causal view of computation: computation is best individuated by its causal properties. 3. The functional view of computation: computation is best individuated by its functional properties. -/- Some scientific theories explain the capacities of brains by appealing to computations that they supposedly perform. The reason for that is usually that computation is individuated (...)
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  18. Nir Fresco (2012). The Explanatory Role of Computation in Cognitive Science. Minds and Machines 22 (4):353-380.score: 3.0
    Which notion of computation (if any) is essential for explaining cognition? Five answers to this question are discussed in the paper. (1) The classicist answer: symbolic (digital) computation is required for explaining cognition; (2) The broad digital computationalist answer: digital computation broadly construed is required for explaining cognition; (3) The connectionist answer: sub-symbolic computation is required for explaining cognition; (4) The computational neuroscientist answer: neural computation (that, strictly, is neither digital nor analogue) is required for explaining cognition; (5) The extreme (...)
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  19. Nir Eyal & Samia A. Hurst (2008). Physician Brain Drain: Can Nothing Be Done? Public Health Ethics 1 (2):180-192.score: 3.0
    Next SectionAccess to medicines, vaccination and care in resource-poor settings is threatened by the emigration of physicians and other health workers. In entire regions of the developing world, low physician density exacerbates child and maternal mortality and hinders treatment of HIV/AIDS. This article invites philosophers to help identify ethical and effective responses to medical brain drain. It reviews existing proposals and their limitations. It makes a case that, in resource-poor countries, ’locally relevant medical training’—teaching primarily locally endemic diseases and practice (...)
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  20. Nir Fresco (2008). An Analysis of the Criteria for Evaluating Adequate Theories of Computation. Minds and Machines 18 (3):379-401.score: 3.0
  21. Nir Eyal (2005). Justice, Luck, and Knowledge, by Susan L. Hurley. Harvard University Press, 2003. VIII + 341 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 21 (1):164-171.score: 3.0
  22. Nir Eisikovits (2012). Stephen Nathanson, Terrorism and the Ethics of War. Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (4):603-606.score: 3.0
    What is a disability? What sorts of limitations do persons with disabilities or impairments experience? What is there about having a disability or impairment that makes it disadvantageous for the individuals with it? Are persons with severe cognitive impairments capable of making autonomous decisions? What role should disability play in the construction of theories of justice? Is it ever ethical for parents to seek to create a child with an impairment? This anthology addresses these and other questions and is a (...)
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  23. Nir Eisikovits (2012). Willing, Wanting, Waiting by Richard Holton. [REVIEW] Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (4):603-606.score: 3.0
    What is a disability? What sorts of limitations do persons with disabilities or impairments experience? What is there about having a disability or impairment that makes it disadvantageous for the individuals with it? Are persons with severe cognitive impairments capable of making autonomous decisions? What role should disability play in the construction of theories of justice? Is it ever ethical for parents to seek to create a child with an impairment? This anthology addresses these and other questions and is a (...)
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  24. Nir Eyal & Neema Sofaer (2010). The Diverse Ethics of Translational Research. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):19-30.score: 3.0
    Commentators on the ethics of translational research find it morally problematic. Types of translational research are said to involve questionable benefits, special risks, additional barriers to informed consent, and severe conflicts of interest. Translational research conducted on the global poor is thought to exploit them and increase international disparities. Some commentators support especially stringent ethical review. However, such concerns are grounded only in pre-approval translational research (now called T1 ). Whether or not T1 has these features, translational research beyond approval (...)
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  25. Nir Eisikovits (2004). Forget Forgiveness. Theoria 51 (105):31-63.score: 3.0
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  26. Nir Fresco (2011). Concrete Digital Computation: What Does It Take for a Physical System to Compute? [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 20 (4):513-537.score: 3.0
    This paper deals with the question: what are the key requirements for a physical system to perform digital computation? Time and again cognitive scientists are quick to employ the notion of computation simpliciter when asserting basically that cognitive activities are computational. They employ this notion as if there was or is a consensus on just what it takes for a physical system to perform computation, and in particular digital computation. Some cognitive scientists in referring to digital computation simply adhere to (...)
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  27. Nir Fresco, Concrete Digital Computation: Competing Accounts and its Role in Cognitive Science.score: 3.0
    There are currently considerable confusion and disarray about just how we should view computationalism, connectionism and dynamicism as explanatory frameworks in cognitive science. A key source of this ongoing conflict among the central paradigms in cognitive science is an equivocation on the notion of computation simpliciter. ‘Computation’ is construed differently by computationalism, connectionism, dynamicism and computational neuroscience. I claim that these central paradigms, properly understood, can contribute to an integrated cognitive science. Yet, before this claim can be defended, a better (...)
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  28. Nir Eisikovits (2006). Rethinking the Legitimacy of Truth Commissions: "I Am the Enemy You Killed, My Friend". Metaphilosophy 37 (3-4):489–514.score: 3.0
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  29. Nir Eisikovits, Transitional Justice. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 3.0
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  30. Nir Eyal & Alex Voorhoeve (2011). Inequalities in HIV Care: Chances Versus Outcomes. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (12):42-44.score: 3.0
    We analyse three moral dilemmas involving resource allocation in care for HIV-positive patients. Ole Norheim and Kjell Arne Johansson have argued that these cases reveal a tension between egalitarian concerns and concerns for better population health. We argue, by contrast, that these cases reveal a tension between, on the one hand, a concern for equal *chances*, and, on the other hand, both a concern for better health and an egalitarian concern for equal *outcomes*. We conclude that, in these cases, there (...)
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  31. Nir Fresco (2013). Information Processing as an Account of Concrete Digital Computation. Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):31-60.score: 3.0
    It is common in cognitive science to equate computation (and in particular digital computation) with information processing. Yet, it is hard to find a comprehensive explicit account of concrete digital computation in information processing terms. An information processing account seems like a natural candidate to explain digital computation. But when ‘information’ comes under scrutiny, this account becomes a less obvious candidate. Four interpretations of information are examined here as the basis for an information processing account of digital computation, namely Shannon (...)
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  32. Neema Sofaer & Nir Eyal (2010). Translational Research Beyond Approval: A Two-Stage Ethics Review. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):W1-W3.score: 3.0
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  33. Jamie Terence Kelly (2010). Transitional Justice and Equality: A Response to Eisikovits. Review of International Affairs 61 (1138-1139):190-196.score: 3.0
    This article responds to Nir Eisikovits’ recent book Sympathizing with the Enemy: Reconciliation, Transitional Justice, Negotiation (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2010).
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  34. Nir Eyal & Neema Sofaer (2010). Translational Research Beyond Approval: A Two-Stage Ethics Review. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (8):W1-W3.score: 3.0
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  35. Nir Fresco & Giuseppe Primiero (2013). Miscomputation. Philosophy and Technology 26 (3):253-272.score: 3.0
    The phenomenon of digital computation is explained (often differently) in computer science, computer engineering and more broadly in cognitive science. Although the semantics and implications of malfunctions have received attention in the philosophy of biology and philosophy of technology, errors in computational systems remain of interest only to computer science. Miscomputation has not gotten the philosophical attention it deserves. Our paper fills this gap by offering a taxonomy of miscomputations. This taxonomy is underpinned by a conceptual analysis of the design (...)
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  36. Nir Friedman & Joseph Y. Halpern (1999). Belief Revision: A Critique. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (4):401-420.score: 3.0
    We examine carefully the rationale underlying the approaches to belief change taken in the literature, and highlight what we view as methodological problems. We argue that to study belief change carefully, we must be quite explicit about the ontology or scenario underlying the belief change process. This is something that has been missing in previous work, with its focus on postulates. Our analysis shows that we must pay particular attention to two issues that have often been taken for granted: the (...)
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  37. Daniel Wikler & Nir Eyal (2013). Nudges and Noodges: The Ethics of Health Promotion—New York Style. Public Health Ethics 6 (3):pht033.score: 3.0
    Michael Bloomberg's three terms in New York City's mayoral office are coming to a close. His model of governance for public health influenced cities and governments around the world. What should we make of that model? This essay introduces a symposium in which ethicists Sarah Conly, Roger Brownsword and Alex Rajczi discuss that legacy.
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  38. Nir Eyal (forthcoming). Informed Consent, the Value of Trust, and Hedons. Journal of Medical Ethics:2012-101208.score: 3.0
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  39. Evan Feinauer & Nir Eisikovits (2012). Noncombatant Immunity in Asymmetrical Warfare. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (2):165-180.score: 3.0
    The principle of noncombatant immunity (NCI) lies at the heart of jus in bello or the moral rules governing the conduct of war. This paper takes up the status of NCI in asymmetrical wars (AW). The argument proceeds in six parts. In the first we present a skeptical or realist position about the feasibility of NCI in AW. Part two surveys the development of the idea of NCI. Part three provides an account of the logic and dynamics of AW. Part (...)
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  40. Nir Fresco & Marty J. Wolf (2014). The Instructional Information Processing Account of Digital Computation. Synthese 191 (7):1469-1492.score: 3.0
    What is nontrivial digital computation? It is the processing of discrete data through discrete state transitions in accordance with finite instructional information. The motivation for our account is that many previous attempts to answer this question are inadequate, and also that this account accords with the common intuition that digital computation is a type of information processing. We use the notion of reachability in a graph to defend this characterization in memory-based systems and underscore the importance of instructional information for (...)
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  41. Nir Kedem (2011). Introduction: Prophetism and the Problem of Betrayal. Deleuze Studies 5 (supplement):1-6.score: 3.0
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  42. Ole Norheim, Trygve Ottersen, Frehowot Berhane, Bonah Chitah, Richard Cookson, Norman Daniels, Nir Eyal, W. Flores, Axel Gosseries, Daniel Hausman, Samia Hurst, L. Kapiriri, Toby Ord, A. Reis, R. Sadana, Carla Saenz, Shlomi Segall, Gita Sen, Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer, Alex Voorhoeve, Dan Wikler & Alicia Yamin, Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage: Final Report of the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage.score: 3.0
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  43. Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi Nozomi Naoi, Yutaka Fuchino, Minoru Shibata, Fusako Niwa, Masahiko Kawai, Yukuo Konishi, Kazuo Okanoya (2013). Decreased Right Temporal Activation and Increased Interhemispheric Connectivity in Response to Speech in Preterm Infants at Term-Equivalent Age. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 3.0
    Preterm infants are at increased risk of language-related problems later in life; however, few studies have examined the effects of preterm birth on cerebral responses to speech at very early developmental stages. This study examined cerebral activation and functional connectivity in response to infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) in full-term neonates and preterm infants at term-equivalent age using 94-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The results showed that compared with ADS, IDS increased activity in larger brain areas such as the (...)
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  44. Sejin Yoo & Kyoung-Min Lee (2013). Articulation-Based Sound Perception in Verbal Repetition: A Functional NIRS Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 3.0
  45. Nir Eyal & Axel Gosseries (2013). Obamacare and Conscientious Objection. Ethical Perspectives 20 (1):109-117.score: 3.0
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