Search results for 'Non therapeutic research' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Sonja Grover (2003). On the Limits of Parental Proxy Consent: Children's Right to Non-Participation in Non-Therapeutic Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 1 (4):349-383.score: 540.0
    This paper considers what are the appropriate limits of parental or guardian proxy consent for a child's participation in medical or social science research. Such proxy consent, it is proposed, is invalid in regards “non-therapeutic research.” The latter research may add to scientific knowledge and/or benefit others, but any benefit to the child research participant is but a coincidental theoretical possibility and not a primary objective. Research involving children, without intended and acceptable prospect of (...)
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  2. Linus Broström & Mats Johansson (forthcoming). Involving Children in Non-Therapeutic Research: On the Development Argument. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy:1-8.score: 540.0
    Non-therapeutic research on children raises ethical concerns. Such research is not only conducted on individuals who are incapable of providing informed consent. It also typically involves some degree of risk or discomfort, without prospects of medically benefiting the participating children. Therefore, these children seem to be instrumentalized. Some ethicists, however, have tried to sidestep this problem by arguing that the children may indirectly benefit from participating in such research, in ways not related to the medical intervention (...)
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  3. R. B. Redmon (1986). How Children Can Be Respected as 'Ends' yet Still Be Used as Subjects in Non-Therapeutic Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 12 (2):77-82.score: 360.0
    The question of whether or not children may be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research projects has generated a great deal of debate and received answers varying from 'no, never' to 'yes, if societal interests are served'. It has been claimed that a Kantian, deontological ethics would necessarily rule out such research, since valid consent would be impossible. The present paper gives a deontological argument for allowing children to be subjects in certain types of research.
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  4. M. Spriggs (2004). Canaries in the Mines: Children, Risk, Non-Therapeutic Research, and Justice. Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (2):176-181.score: 360.0
    The Kennedy Krieger lead paint study received a lot of attention after a US Court of Appeals ruled that a parent cannot consent to the participation of a child in non-therapeutic research. The ruling has raised fears that, if it goes unchallenged, valuable research might not proceed and ultimately all children would be harmed. The author discusses significant aspects of the study that have been neglected, and argues that the study was unethical because it involved injustice and (...)
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  5. R. L. Berghmans (1998). Advance Directives for Non-Therapeutic Dementia Research: Some Ethical and Policy Considerations. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (1):32-37.score: 351.0
    This paper explores the use of advance directives in clinical dementia research. The focus is on advance consent to participation of demented patients in non-therapeutic research involving more than minimal risks and/or burdens. First, morally relevant differences between advance directives for treatment and care, and advance directives for dementia research are discussed. Then attention is paid to the philosophical issue of dementia and personal identity, and the implications for the moral authority of research advance directives. (...)
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  6. Erika Kleiderman, Denise Avard, Lee Black, Zuanel Diaz, Caroline Rousseau & Bartha Knoppers (2012). Recruiting Terminally Ill Patients Into Non-Therapeutic Oncology Studies: Views of Health Professionals. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):33-.score: 300.0
    Background Non-therapeutic trials in which terminally ill cancer patients are asked to undergo procedures such as biopsies or venipunctures for research purposes, have become increasingly important to learn more about how cancer cells work and to realize the full potential of clinical research. Considering that implementing non-therapeutic studies is not likely to result in direct benefits for the patient, some authors are concerned that involving patients in such research may be exploitive of vulnerable patients and (...)
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  7. Paul B. Miller & Charles Weijer, Evaluating Risks of Non-Therapeutic Research in Children.score: 270.0
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  8. Jacqueline A. Laing (2005). The Mental Capacity Bill 2004: Human Rights Concerns. Family Law Journal 35:137-143.score: 270.0
    The Mental Capacity Bill endangers the vulnerable by inviting human rights abuse. It is perhaps these grave deficiencies that prompted the warnings of the 23rd Report of the Joint Committee on Human Rights highlighting the failure of the legislation to supply adequate safeguards against Articles 2, 3 and 8 incompatibilities. Further, the fact that it is the mentally incapacitated as a class that are thought ripe for these and other kinds of intervention, highlights the Article 14 discrimination inherent in this (...)
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  9. O. D. Wolthers (2006). A Questionnaire on Factors Influencing Children's Assent and Dissent to Non-Therapeutic Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (5):292-297.score: 270.0
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  10. C. Lenk (2004). Non-Therapeutic Research with Minors: How Do Chairpersons of German Research Ethics Committees Decide? Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (1):85-87.score: 270.0
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  11. Matthias Dahl & Claudia Wiesemann (2001). Forschung an Minderjährigen Im Internationalen Vergleich: Bilanz Und Zukunftsperspektiven. [REVIEW] Ethik in der Medizin 13 (1-2):87-110.score: 270.0
    Definition of the problem: Medical research with children, especially non-therapeutic research, requires particular consideration. In the current situation this kind of research is not clearly regulated by law in Germany. This entails practical problems in evaluating clinical studies from an ethical point of view. Arguments and conclusion: To develop a new policy framework the international ethical discussion is reviewed. The article analyzes the historical development of research with minors from an ethical perspective, the notion of (...)
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  12. R. Gillon (1992). No-Fault Compensation for Victims of Non-Therapeutic Research--Should Government Continue to Be Exempt? Journal of Medical Ethics 18 (2):59-60.score: 270.0
  13. Jacqueline A. Laing (2004). Disabled Need Our Protection. Law Society Gazette 101:12.score: 270.0
    The Mental Incapacity Bill not only paves the way for euthanasia, but invites wholesale abuse and homicide, writes Jacqueline Laing. On 19 October 2004, when the Mental Capacity Bill was at its crucial committee stage, the Law Society issued a statement of ‘strong support’, claiming that it empowers patients and in no way introduces euthanasia. Laing argues that the Bill threatens the incapacitated by granting a raft of new third parties power to require that health professionals withhold ‘treatment’, which, after (...)
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  14. J. C. Garnham (1975). Some Observations on Informed Consent in Non-Therapeutic Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 1 (3):138-145.score: 270.0
    The quality of the consent obtained from 41 volunteer subjects in eight experiments is evaluated. Five subjects (all physicians) gave informed consent; 22 subjects gave partially informed consent; and 14 subjects merely gave consent. It is argued that 'informed' consent is obtainable only from medically trained people, and that lip service to this concept in laymen should cease. The concept of medical competence should instead be introduced and a personal medical referee appointed to adjudicate on behalf of the volunteer.
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  15. S. N. Verdun-Jones & D. N. Weisstub (1998). Drawing the Distinction Between Therapeutic Research and Non-Therapeutic Experimentation: Clearing a Way Through the Definitional Thicket. In David N. Weisstub (ed.), Research on Human Subjects: Ethics, Law, and Social Policy. Pergamon. 111--36.score: 270.0
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  16. Jochen Vollmann (2000). Therapeutic" Versus" Non-Therapeutic" Research: A Plausible Differentiation in Medical Ethics? Ethik in der Medizin 12 (2):65-74.score: 270.0
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  17. Edmund D. Pellegrino (forthcoming). III. Non-Therapeutic Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects (Non-Clinical Biomedical Research). Contemporary Issues in Bioethics.score: 261.0
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  18. Gideon Koren (2003). Healthy Children as Subjects in Pharmaceutical Research. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (2):149-159.score: 216.0
    Recruitment of healthy children for drugresearch has emerged due in part to several newAmerican laws and policies that have led to asurge in pharmaceutical research involvingchildren-subjects. In this paper, I review theethical and scientific issues and the argumentsin favor and against this new practice.
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  19. Jochen Vollmann (2000). „Therapeutische” Versus „Nicht-Therapeutische” Forschung – Eine Medizinethisch Plausible Differenzierung? Ethik in der Medizin 12 (2):65-74.score: 174.0
    Definition of the problem: The differentiation between ”therapeutic” and ”non-therapeuticresearch has found broad acceptance within clinical research, law and medical ethics and is part of national law and international declarations. However, this terminology is problematic on the medical (descriptive) as well as on the ethical (normative) level. Arguments: On theoretical grounds and with an example from clinical practice it is argued that e.g. the terms ”therapeutic research” and ”experimental treatment” are rather manipulative to (...)
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  20. Hossam E. Fadel (2012). Developments in Stem Cell Research and Therapeutic Cloning: Islamic Ethical Positions, a Review. Bioethics 26 (3):128-135.score: 144.0
    Stem cell research is very promising. The use of human embryos has been confronted with objections based on ethical and religious positions. The recent production of reprogrammed adult (induced pluripotent) cells does not – in the opinion of scientists – reduce the need to continue human embryonic stem cell research. So the debate continues.Islam always encouraged scientific research, particularly research directed toward finding cures for human disease. Based on the expectation of potential benefits, Islamic teachings permit (...)
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  21. Simon Woods, Lynn E. Hagger & Pauline McCormack (2012). Therapeutic Misconception: Hope, Trust and Misconception in Paediatric Research. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis (1):1-19.score: 144.0
    Although the therapeutic misconception (TM) has been well described over a period of approximately 20 years, there has been disagreement about its implications for informed consent to research. In this paper we review some of the history and debate over the ethical implications of TM but also bring a new perspective to those debates. Drawing upon our experience of working in the context of translational research for rare childhood diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, we consider the (...)
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  22. Scott Y. H. Kim, Robert G. Holloway, Samuel Frank, Renee Wilson & Karl Kieburtz (2008). Trust in Early Phase Research: Therapeutic Optimism and Protective Pessimism. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (4):393-401.score: 144.0
    Bioethicists have long been concerned that seriously ill patients entering early phase (‘phase I’) treatment trials are motivated by therapeutic benefit even though the likelihood of benefit is low. In spite of these concerns, consent forms for phase I studies involving seriously ill patients generally employ indeterminate benefit statements rather than unambiguous statements of unlikely benefit. This seeming mismatch between attitudes and actions suggests a need to better understand research ethics committee members’ attitudes toward communication of potential benefits (...)
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  23. S. Camporesi & G. Boniolo (2008). Fearing a Non-Existing Minotaur? The Ethical Challenges of Research on Cytoplasmic Hybrid Embryos. Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (11):821-825.score: 144.0
    In this paper we address the ethical challenges of research on cytoplasmic hybrid embryos, or “cybrids”. The controversial pronouncement of the UK’s Human Embryology and Fertilisation Authority of September 2007 on the permissibility of this area of research is the starting point of our discussion, and we argue in its favour. By a rigorous definition of the entities at issue, we show how the terms “chimera” and “hybrid” are improper in the case of cybrids, and how their use (...)
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  24. Sarah J. L. Edwards & James Wilson (2012). Hard Paternalism, Fairness and Clinical Research: Why Not? Bioethics 26 (2):68-75.score: 135.0
    Jansen and Wall suggest a new way of defending hard paternalism in clinical research. They argue that non-therapeutic research exposing people to more than minimal risk should be banned on egalitarian grounds: in preventing poor decision-makers from making bad decisions, we will promote equality of welfare. We argue that their proposal is flawed for four reasons.First, the idea of poor decision-makers is much more problematic than Jansen and Wall allow. Second, pace Jansen and Wall, it may be (...)
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  25. John Appiah-Poku, Sam Newton & Nancy Kass (2011). Participants' Perceptions of Research Benefits in an African Genetic Epidemiology Study. Developing World Bioethics 11 (3):128-135.score: 135.0
    Background: Both the Council for International Organization of Medical Sciences and the Helsinki Declaration emphasize that the potential benefits of research should outweigh potential harms; consequently, some work has been conducted on participants' perception of benefits in therapeutic research. However, there appears to be very little work conducted with participants who have joined non-therapeutic research. This work was done to evaluate participants' perception of benefits in a genetic epidemiological study by examining their perception of the (...)
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  26. Linus Johnsson, Gert Helgesson, Mats G. Hansson & Stefan Eriksson (2013). Adequate Trust Avails, Mistaken Trust Matters: On the Moral Responsibility of Doctors as Proxies for Patients' Trust in Biobank Research. Bioethics 27 (9):485-492.score: 135.0
    In Sweden, most patients are recruited into biobank research by non-researcher doctors. Patients' trust in doctors may therefore be important to their willingness to participate. We suggest a model of trust that makes sense of such transitions of trust between domains and distinguishes adequate trust from mistaken trust. The unique position of doctors implies, we argue, a Kantian imperfect duty to compensate for patients' mistaken trust. There are at least three kinds of mistaken trust, each of which requires a (...)
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  27. Joanna Różyńska & Marek Czarkowski (2007). Emergency Research Without Consent Under Polish Law. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (3):337-350.score: 132.0
    Although Directive 2001/20/EC of the European Parliament and of Council of 4 April 2001 on the approximation of the laws regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the implementation of good clinical practice in the conduct of clinical trials on medicinal products for human use does not contain an exception for emergency situations, and requires the informed consent of a legal representative in all cases where research is conducted on legally competent individuals who are unable to (...)
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  28. Giovanni Maio (2003). Research Ethics and the Principle of Justice as Fairness – a Restatement. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (5):395-406.score: 132.0
    In my recent article, I addressed the question of whether a potential categorical exclusion of decisionally impaired patients from non-therapeutic medical research would be inaccordance with the Principle of Justice as Fairness. I came to the conclusion that a categorical exclusion of decisionally impaired persons from relevant research projects may collide with Rawls’s understanding of Justice as Fairness. Derek Bell has criticized my paper by denying that it is legitimate to apply Rawls to this bioethical problem. In (...)
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  29. N. Ondrusek, R. Abramovitch, P. Pencharz & G. Koren (1998). Empirical Examination of the Ability of Children to Consent to Clinical Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (3):158-165.score: 132.0
    This study examined the quality of children's assent to a clinical trial. In subjects younger than 9 years of age, understanding of most aspects of the study was found to be poor to non-existent. Understanding of procedures was poor in almost all subjects. In addition, voluntariness may have been compromised in many subjects by their belief that failure to complete the study would displease others. If the fact that a child's assent has been obtained is used to justify the exposure (...)
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  30. Stefan Eriksson (2012). On the Need for Improved Protections of Incapacitated and Non-Benefiting Research Subjects. Bioethics 26 (1):15-21.score: 120.0
    In this article, it is claimed that the protective provisions for adults with impaired decision-making capacity are misguided, insofar as they do not conclusively state whether research on this group should be permitted only as an exception, and as they arbitrarily allow for some groups to benefit from such research while others will not. Moreover, the presumed or former will of the subject is given insufficient weight, and the minimal risk standard does not make sense in this context. (...)
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  31. Douglas E. Schlichting (2010). Destabilizing the 'Equipoise' Framework in Clinical Trials: Prioritizing Non-Exploitation as an Ethical Framework in Clinical Research. Nursing Philosophy 11 (4):271-279.score: 120.0
  32. Rebecca Kukla (2007). Resituating the Principle of Equipoise: Justice and Access to Care in Non-Ideal Conditions. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 17 (3):171-202.score: 117.0
    : The principle of equipoise traditionally is grounded in the special obligations of physician-investigators to provide research participants with optimal care. This grounding makes the principle hard to apply in contexts with limited health resources, to research that is not directed by physicians, or to non-therapeutic research. I propose a different version of the principle of equipoise that does not depend upon an appeal to the Hippocratic duties of physicians and that is designed to be applicable (...)
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  33. Derek R. Bell (2003). Rawls and Research on Cognitively Impaired Patients: A Reply to Maio. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (5):381-393.score: 117.0
    In his paper, “The Relevance of Rawls’ Principle of Justice for Research on Cognitively Impaired Patients” (Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (2002):45–53), Giovanni Maio has developed a thought-provoking argument for the permissibility of non-therapeutic research on cognitively impaired patients. Maio argues that his conclusion follows from the acceptance of John Rawls’s principles of justice, specifically, Rawls’s “liberty principle” Maio has misinterpreted Rawls’s “libertyprinciple” – correctly interpreted it does notsupport non-therapeutic research on cognitivelyimpaired patients. Three other (...)
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  34. N. Hallowell, S. Cooke, G. Crawford, A. Lucassen, M. Parker & C. Snowdon (2009). An Investigation of Patients' Motivations for Their Participation in Genetics-Related Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (1):37-45.score: 114.0
    Design: Qualitative interview study. Participants: Fifty-nine patients with a family history of cancer who attend a regional cancer genetics clinic in the UK were interviewed about their current and previous research experiences. Findings: Interviewees gave a range of explanations for research participation. These were categorised as (a) social—research participation benefits the wider society by progressing science and improving treatment for everyone; (b) familial—research participation may improve healthcare and benefit current or future generations of the participant’s family; (...)
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  35. V. Lambert & M. Glacken (2011). Engaging with Children in Research: Theoretical and Practical Implications of Negotiating Informed Consent/Assent. Nursing Ethics 18 (6):781-801.score: 114.0
    At the outset of an ethnographic inquiry, we navigated national and international resources to search for theoretical and practical guidance on obtaining parents and children’s informed consent/assent. While much theoretical guidance debating ethical issues to children’s participation in research was found, a paucity of published papers offering practical guidance on assent processes and/or visual representations of child assent forms and information sheets was discovered. The purpose of this article is to describe our experiences, both theoretically and practically, of negotiating (...)
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  36. Maurie Markman (2004). The Research Misconception. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 18 (2):241-252.score: 114.0
    Recently, several researchers and philosophers argued that clinical research trials are not therapy. Their position is based on foundational research ethics documents, such as the Belmont Report, on conceptual analysis, and on the general way clinical trials are conducted. After examining and rejecting these arguments, we claim that good research is consistent with good therapy; that often trials are good therapy; and that a blanket attack on clinical trials as non-therapeutic creates a research misconception. This (...)
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  37. S. D. Edwards (2012). Safeguarding Children in Clinical Research. Nursing Ethics 19 (4):530-537.score: 114.0
    Current UK guidelines regarding clinical research on children permit research that is non-therapeutic from the perspective of that particular child. The guidelines permit research interventions that cause temporary pain, bruises or scars. It is argued here that such research conflicts with the Declaration of Helsinki according to which the interests of the research subject outweigh all other interests. Given this, in the context of clinical research, who is best placed to protect the child (...)
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  38. J. Pearn (1987). A Classification of Clinical Paediatric Research with Analysis of Related Ethical Themes. Journal of Medical Ethics 13 (1):26-30.score: 114.0
    Different types of clinical research are associated with different degrees of risk and with varying utility. Usually classified as therapeutic or non-therapeutic, clinical research involving children necessitates a balance between the conflicts of intrusion into a group of vulnerable subjects, and the obvious advantages which such intrusion engenders. To understand better the potential ethical dilemmas of paediatric research the author has expanded the classification of such clinical research involving children. Five types of such (...)--preventive research, curative research, research to alleviate symptoms, studies to establish norms and baselines, and curiosity research--are discussed in the context of their ethical constraints, and the different ethical questions which confront workers operating in each of these different themes. (shrink)
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  39. David Shaw (2009). Cutting Through Red Tape: Non-Therapeutic Circumcision and Unethical Guidelines. Clinical Ethics 4 (4):181-186.score: 112.0
    Current General Medical Council guidelines state that any doctor who does not wish to carry out a non-therapeutic circumcision (NTC) on a boy must invoke conscientious objection. This paper argues that this is illogical, as it is clear that an ethical doctor will object to conducting a clinically unnecessary operation on a child who cannot consent simply because of the parents’ religious beliefs. Comparison of the GMC guidelines with the more sensible British Medical Association guidance reveals that both are (...)
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  40. Benjamin L. Curtis (2008). Non-Therapeutic Modification and Self-Interest: Reply to Schramme. Bioethics 22 (8):455-456.score: 112.0
    In this article I reply to Thomas Schramme's argument that there are no good reasons for the prohibition of severe forms of voluntary non-therapeutic body modification. I argue that on paternalistic assumptions there is, in fact, a perfectly good reason.
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  41. A. van Der Vorm, M. J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen, P. G. Kehoe, M. G. M. O. Rikkert, E. van Leeuwen & W. J. M. Dekkers (2009). Ethical Aspects of Research Into Alzheimer Disease. A European Delphi Study Focused on Genetic and Non-Genetic Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (2):140-144.score: 112.0
    Background: Although genetic research into Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing, the ethical aspects of this kind of research and the differences between ethical issues related to genetic and non-genetic research into AD have not yet received much attention. Objectives: (1) To identify and compare the five ethical issues considered most important by surveyed expert panellists in non-genetic and genetic AD research and (2) to compare our empirical findings with ethical issues in genetic research in general (...)
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  42. A. Baumann, G. Audibert, C. G. Lafaye, L. Puybasset, P. -M. Mertes & F. Claudot (2013). Elective Non-Therapeutic Intensive Care and the Four Principles of Medical Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (3):139-142.score: 112.0
    The chronic worldwide lack of organs for transplantation and the continuing improvement of strategies for in situ organ preservation have led to renewed interest in elective non-therapeutic ventilation of potential organ donors. Two types of situation may be eligible for elective intensive care: patients definitely evolving towards brain death and patients suitable as controlled non-heart beating organ donors after life-supporting therapies have been assessed as futile and withdrawn. Assessment of the ethical acceptability and the risks of these strategies is (...)
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  43. A. B. Shaw (1996). Non-Therapeutic (Elective) Ventilation of Potential Organ Donors: The Ethical Basis for Changing the Law. Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (2):72-77.score: 112.0
    Non-therapeutic ventilation of potential organ donors would increase the supply of kidneys for transplantation. There are no major ethical objections to it. The means of permitting it are forbidden by laws with an ethical basis. A law permitting it would need an ethical basis. Introducing a third legal method of diagnosing death would be unethical. Expanding the power of the advance directive to permit procedures involving minimal harm would be ethical but not helpful. Extending the power of proxies to (...)
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  44. Robert J. L. Darby (2013). The Child's Right to an Open Future: Is the Principle Applicable to Non-Therapeutic Circumcision? Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (7):463-468.score: 112.0
    The principle of the child's right to an open future was first proposed by the legal philosopher Joel Feinberg and developed further by bioethicist Dena Davis. The principle holds that children possess a unique class of rights called rights in trust—rights that they cannot yet exercise, but which they will be able to exercise when they reach maturity. Parents should not, therefore, take actions that permanently foreclose on or pre-empt the future options of their children, but leave them the greatest (...)
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  45. Maulik Sumantbhai Doshi, Shaunak P. Kulkarni, Canna J. Ghia, Nithya J. Gogtay & Urmila Mukund Thatte (2013). Evaluation of Factors That Motivate Participants to Consent for Non-Therapeutic Trials in India. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):391-396.score: 112.0
    Background and rationale Several factors that motivate individuals to participate in non-therapeutic studies have been identified. This study was conducted as limited data is available regarding these motivations from developing countries. Methods This was a single-centre study conducted over 4 months in which a questionnaire was administered to 102 healthy participants and 16 patient participants who had earlier taken part in non-therapeutic studies at our centre. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were used to analyse data. Results The most (...)
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  46. Franklin G. Miller & Howard Brody (2007). Clinical Equipoise and the Incoherence of Research Ethics. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 32 (2):151 – 165.score: 108.0
    The doctrine of clinical equipoise is appealing because it appears to permit physicians to maintain their therapeutic obligation to offer optimal medical care to patients while conducting randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The appearance, however, is deceptive. In this article we argue that clinical equipoise is defective and incoherent in multiple ways. First, it conflates the sound methodological principle that RCTs should begin with an honest null hypothesis with the questionable ethical norm that participants in these trials should never be (...)
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  47. Hollis Ashbaugh (2004). Ethical Issues Related to the Provision of Audit and Non-Audit Services: Evidence From Academic Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 52 (2):143-148.score: 108.0
    Audit standards require auditors to conduct audits being independent in mental attitude from their clients. Regulators and financial statement users are concerned that auditors compromise their independence by allowing clients that contract for consulting services, i.e., non-audit services, more financial statement discretion relative to clients that demand relatively little non-audit services from their auditor. This paper begins by discussing the role of auditing in the capital markets and the various stakeholders that rely on audited financial information in making their capital (...)
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  48. Gerd Grübler, Abdul Al-Khodairy, Robert Leeb, Iolanda Pisotta, Angela Riccio, Martin Rohm & Elisabeth Hildt (2014). Psychosocial and Ethical Aspects in Non-Invasive EEG-Based BCI Research—A Survey Among BCI Users and BCI Professionals. Neuroethics 7 (1):29-41.score: 108.0
    In this paper, the results of a pilot interview study with 19 subjects participating in an EEG-based non-invasive brain–computer interface (BCI) research study on stroke rehabilitation and assistive technology and of a survey among 17 BCI professionals are presented and discussed in the light of ethical, legal, and social issues in research with human subjects. Most of the users were content with study participation and felt well informed. Negative aspects reported include the long and cumbersome preparation procedure, discomfort (...)
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  49. E. Gefenas, V. Dranseika, J. Serepkaite, A. Cekanauskaite, L. Caenazzo, B. Gordijn, R. Pegoraro & E. Yuko (2012). Turning Residual Human Biological Materials Into Research Collections: Playing with Consent. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (6):351-355.score: 108.0
    This article focuses on three scenarios in which residual biological materials are turned into research collections during the procedure of procuring these materials for diagnostic, therapeutic or other non-research purposes. These three scenarios differ from each other primarily because they employ different models of consent: (a) precautionary consent, which may be secured during the collecting procedure; (b) the presumed consent model, which may be applied during the collection of materials; and (c) consent for research use of (...)
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