Search results for 'Non-cognitive Dispositions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jennifer M. Morton (2011). The Non-Cognitive Challenge to a Liberal Egalitarian Education. Theory and Research in Education 9 (3):233-250.score: 480.0
    Political liberalism, conceived of as a response to the diversity of conceptions of the good in multicultural societies, aims to put forward a proposal for how to organize political institutions that is acceptable to a wide range of citizens. It does so by remaining neutral between reasonable conceptions of the good while giving all citizens a fair opportunity to access the offices and positions which enable them to pursue their own conception of the good. Public educational institutions are at the (...)
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  2. Gebhard Geiger (1993). Evolutionary Anthropology and the Non-Cognitive Foundation of Moral Validity. Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):133-151.score: 237.0
    This paper makes an attempt at the conceptual foundation of descriptive ethical theories in terms of evolutionary anthropology. It suggests, first, that what human social actors tend to accept to be morally valid and legitimate ultimately rests upon empirical authority relations and, second, that this acceptance follows an evolved pattern of hierarchical behaviour control in the social animal species. The analysis starts with a brief review of Thomas Hobbes'' moral philosophy, with special emphasis on Hobbes'' authoritarian view of moral (...) and of the common political origins and ultimate basis of legitimacy of moral and legal systems. Hobbes'' philosophical conceptions are then put into the context of Max Weber''s influential empirical theory of legitimacy, especially charismatic revelation and authority as the ultimate source of all moral, legal and religious obligations. Weber''s concept of charismatic authority is given a biobehavioural interpretation in terms of ritualised status signals indicating an individual''s superior physical and emotional dispositions to control the social actions of others. Various conclusions are drawn concerning the concept of moral validity and its possible evolutionary interpretations. (shrink)
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  3. [deleted]Jerome Brunelin, Jean Levasseur-Moreau & Shirley Fecteau (2013). Is It Ethical and Safe to Use Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation as a Cognitive Enhancer Device for Military Services? A Reply to Sehm and Ragert (2013). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:874.score: 192.0
    Is it ethical and safe to use non-invasive brain stimulation as a cognitive and motor enhancer device for military services? A reply to Sehm and Ragert (2013).
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  4. Miguel Ángel Sebastián (2014). Dreams: An Empirical Way to Settle the Discussion Between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Theories of Consciousness. Synthese 191 (2):263-285.score: 180.0
    Cognitive theories claim, whereas non-cognitive theories deny, that cognitive access is constitutive of phenomenology. Evidence in favor of non-cognitive theories has recently been collected by Block and is based on the high capacity of participants in partial-report experiments compared to the capacity of the working memory. In reply, defenders of cognitive theories have searched for alternative interpretations of such results that make visual awareness compatible with the capacity of the working memory; and so the conclusions of such experiments (...)
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  5. Helen E. Longino (1996). Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Values in Science: Rethinking the Dichotomy. In Lynn Hankinson Nelson & Jack Nelson (eds.), Feminism, Science, and the Philosophy of Science. 39--58.score: 168.0
    Underdetermination arguments support the conclusion that no amount of empirical data can uniquely determine theory choice. The full content of a theory outreaches those elements of it (the observational elements) that can be shown to be true (or in agreement with actual observations).2 A number of strategies have been developed to minimize the threat such arguments pose to our aspirations to scientific knowledge. I want to focus on one such strategy: the invocation of additional criteria drawn from a pool of (...)
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  6. Gregory Johnson (2008). LeDoux's Fear Circuit and the Status of Emotion as a Non-Cognitive Process. Philosophical Psychology 21 (6):739 - 757.score: 168.0
    LeDoux (1996) has identified a sub-cortical neural circuit that mediates fear responses in rats. The existence of this neural circuit has been used to support the claim that emotion is a non-cognitive process. In this paper I argue that this sub-cortical circuit cannot have a role in the explanation of emotions in humans. This worry is raised by looking at the properties of this neural pathway, which does not have the capacity to respond to the types of stimuli that (...)
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  7. Raoul Gervais (2013). Non-Cognitive Values and Objectivity in Scientific Explanation: Egalitarianism and the Case of the Movius Line. Perspectives on Science 21 (4):429-452.score: 168.0
    In the debate about values in science, it is a time-honored tradition to distinguish between the normative question of whether non-cognitive values should play a role in science and the descriptive question of whether they in fact do so or not.1 Among philosophers of science, it is now an accepted view that the descriptive question has been settled. That is, it is no longer disputed that non-cognitive values play a role in science. Hence, all that is left to (...)
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  8. T. Allan Hillman (2013). Leibniz and Luther on the Non-Cognitive Component of Faith. Sophia 52 (2):219-234.score: 168.0
    Leibniz was a Lutheran. Yet, upon consideration of certain aspects of his philosophical theology, one might suspect that he was a Lutheran more in name than in intellectual practice. Clearly Leibniz was influenced by the Catholic tradition; this is beyond doubt. However, the extent to which Leibniz was influenced by his own Lutheran tradition—indeed, by Martin Luther himself—has yet to be satisfactorily explored. In this essay, the views of Luther and Leibniz on the non-cognitive component of faith are considered (...)
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  9. Jim Doherty & Michael Conolly (1985). How Accurately Can Primary School Teachers Predict the Scores of Their Pupils in Standardised Tests of Attainment? A Study of Some Non‐Cognitive Factors That Influence Specific Judgements. Educational Studies 11 (1):41-60.score: 168.0
    (1985). How Accurately can Primary School Teachers Predict the Scores of their Pupils in Standardised Tests of Attainment? A Study of some non‐Cognitive Factors that Influence Specific Judgements. Educational Studies: Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 41-60.
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  10. A. Quale (2014). Author's Response: Ethics: A Non-Cognitive Dimension in Radical-Constructivist Epistemology. Constructivist Foundations 9 (2):277-282.score: 168.0
    Upshot: All my commentators have focused, with varying emphasis, on issues related to: (a) cognitive vs. non-cognitive knowledge, (b) the role of the social environment, and (c) ethical responsibility. These issues are addressed in this response.
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  11. Raoul Gervais (2015). Mechanistic and Non-Mechanistic Varieties of Dynamical Models in Cognitive Science: Explanatory Power, Understanding, and the ‘Mere Description’ Worry. Synthese 192 (1):43-66.score: 156.0
    In the literature on dynamical models in cognitive science, two issues have recently caused controversy. First, what is the relation between dynamical and mechanistic models? I will argue that dynamical models can be upgraded to be mechanistic as well, and that there are mechanistic and non-mechanistic dynamical models. Second, there is the issue of explanatory power. Since it is uncontested the mechanistic models can explain, I will focus on the non-mechanistic variety of dynamical models. It is often claimed by proponents (...)
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  12. Karim Zahidi (2014). Non-Representationalist Cognitive Science and Realism. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (3):461-475.score: 154.0
    Embodied and extended cognition is a relatively new paradigm within cognitive science that challenges the basic tenet of classical cognitive science, viz. cognition consists in building and manipulating internal representations. Some of the pioneers of embodied cognitive science have claimed that this new way of conceptualizing cognition puts pressure on epistemological and ontological realism. In this paper I will argue that such anti-realist conclusions do not follow from the basic assumptions of radical embodied cognitive science. Furthermore I will show that (...)
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  13. Teed Rockwell (2001). Experience and Sensation: Sellars and Dewey on the Non-Cognitive Aspects of Mental Life. Education and Culture (Winter) 17 (1):3.score: 146.0
    Sellars and Dewey each isolated and critiqued different aspects of the atomistic epistemology of the logical positivists: Dewey labeled his target "Sensationalistic Empiricism", and Sellars labeled his "the Myth of the Given." The main theme of this paper will be the similarity and differences in their responses to this kind of philosophy, and how both responses can be clarified and strengthened by considering recent discoveries in Cognitive Neuroscience. What we have recently learned about neural architecture accounts for a distinction between (...)
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  14. Morten Overgaard & Thor Grünbaum (2012). Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Conceptions of Consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (3):137.score: 146.0
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  15. Rodrick Wallace (2002). Adaptation, Punctuation and Information: A Rate-Distortion Approach to Non-Cognitive 'Learning Plateaus' in Evolutionary Process. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (2).score: 146.0
    We extend recent information-theoretic phase transition approaches to evolutionary and cognitive process via the Rate Distortion and Joint Asymptotic Equipartition Theorems, in the circumstance of interaction with a highly structured environment. This suggests that learning plateaus in cognitive systems and punctuated equilibria in evolutionary process are formally analogous, even though evolution is not cognitive. Extending arguments by Adami et al. (2000), we argue that 'adaptation' is the process by which a distorted genetic image of a coherently structured environment is imposed (...)
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  16. Y. Rossetti & G. Rode (2002). Reducing Spatial Neglect by Visual and Other Sensory Manipulations: Non-Cognitive (Physiological) Routes to the Rehabilitation of a Cognitive Disorder. In Hans-Otto Karnath, David Milner & Giuseppe Vallar (eds.), The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Spatial Neglect. Oxford University Press. 375--396.score: 146.0
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  17. Stephen J. Barker (2010). Cognitive Expressivism, Faultless Disagreement, and Absolute but Non-Objective Truth. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (2pt2):183-199.score: 144.0
    I offer a new theory of faultless disagreement, according to which truth is absolute (non-relative) but can still be non-objective. What's relative is truth-aptness: a sentence like ‘Vegemite is tasty’ (V) can be truth-accessible and bivalent in one context but not in another. Within a context in which V fails to be bivalent, we can affirm that there is no issue of truth or falsity about V, still disputants, affirming and denying V, were not at fault, since, in their context (...)
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  18. Robin Attfield (2010). Darwin's Doubt, Non-Deterministic Darwinism and the Cognitive Science of Religion. Philosophy 85 (4):465-483.score: 144.0
    Alvin Plantinga, echoing a worry of Charles Darwin which he calls 'Darwin's doubt', argues that given Darwinian evolutionary theory our beliefs are unreliable, since they are determined to be what they are by evolutionary pressures and could have had no other content. This papers surveys in turn deterministic and non-deterministic interpretations of Darwinism, and concludes that Plantinga's argument poses a problem for the former alone and not for the latter. Some parallel problems arise for the Cognitive Science of Religion, and (...)
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  19. Elizabeth Irvine (forthcoming). Models, Robustness, and Non-Causal Explanation: A Foray Into Cognitive Science and Biology. Synthese:1-17.score: 144.0
    This paper is aimed at identifying how a model’s explanatory power is constructed and identified, particularly in the practice of template-based modeling (Humphreys, Philos Sci 69:1–11, 2002; Extending ourselves: computational science, empiricism, and scientific method, 2004), and what kinds of explanations models constructed in this way can provide. In particular, this paper offers an account of non-causal structural explanation that forms an alternative to causal–mechanical accounts of model explanation that are currently popular in philosophy of biology and cognitive science. Clearly, (...)
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  20. Maria Magoula Adamos (2002). How Are the Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Aspects of Emotion Related? Consciousness and Emotion 3 (2):183-195.score: 140.0
  21. David Rynin (1960). Non-Cognitive Synonymy and the Definability of 'Good'. Synthese 12 (4):509 - 516.score: 140.0
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  22. S. Morris Eames (1961). The Cognitive and the Non-Cognitive in Dewey's Theory of Valuation. Journal of Philosophy 58 (7):179-195.score: 140.0
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  23. Irina Deretić (2009). Yuch as Biblion: Cognitive Dispositions and Pleasures at Philebus 38e12-40c. Theoria 52 (2):69-80.score: 140.0
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  24. Lewis G. Creary (1973). For the Compleat Logical Empiricist: "Non-Cognitive" Foundations for Inductive Logic. American Philosophical Quarterly 10 (2):123 - 131.score: 140.0
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  25. E. D. Klemke (1970). I. Are 'External Questions' Non‐Cognitive? Inquiry 13 (1-4):289-297.score: 140.0
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  26. Roland Fischer (1992). A Cartography of Cognitive and Non‐Cognitive States of Consciousness. Anthropology of Consciousness 3 (3‐4):3-13.score: 140.0
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  27. Jaak Vandenbulcke (1989). Een Niet-Kognitieve Omschrijving Van de Godsdienst?/A Non-Cognitive Definition of Religion? Vragen Aan Arnold Burms En Herman de Dijn: Notitie/Questions to Arnold Burms and Herman de Dijn. Bijdragen 50 (3):322-336.score: 140.0
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  28. M. S. Michael & J. P. Healy (2012). A Guru-Disciple Tradition: Can Religious Conversion Be Non-Cognitive? In Morgan Luck (ed.), Philosophical Explorations of New and Alternative Religious Movements. Ashgate.score: 140.0
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  29. Michael O'Connell & Hammad Sheikh (2009). Non‐Cognitive Abilities and Early School Dropout: Longitudinal Evidence From NELS. Educational Studies 35 (4):475-479.score: 140.0
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  30. Jaak Vandenbulcke (1989). Een Niet-Kognitieve Omschrijving van de Godsdienst? -A Non-Cognitive Definition of Religion. Bijdragen 50 (3):322-336.score: 140.0
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  31. Michael Ramscar, Peter Hendrix, Cyrus Shaoul, Petar Milin & Harald Baayen (2014). The Myth of Cognitive Decline: Non‐Linear Dynamics of Lifelong Learning. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):5-42.score: 132.0
    As adults age, their performance on many psychometric tests changes systematically, a finding that is widely taken to reveal that cognitive information-processing capacities decline across adulthood. Contrary to this, we suggest that older adults'; changing performance reflects memory search demands, which escalate as experience grows. A series of simulations show how the performance patterns observed across adulthood emerge naturally in learning models as they acquire knowledge. The simulations correctly identify greater variation in the cognitive performance of older adults, and successfully (...)
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  32. Jonathan Cohen (2002). On an Alleged Non-Equivalence Between Dispositions and Disjunctive Properties. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (1):77-81.score: 126.0
    This paper shows that grounded dispositions are necessarily coextensive with disjunctive properties. It responds to several objections against this thesis, and then shows how to construct a disjunctive property necessarily coextensive with an arbitrary grounded disposition.
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  33. Sharang Tickoo (forthcoming). Managing Pain: The Efficacy of Cognitive Pain Interventions in Athletes Vs Non-Athletes. Cognitive Science.score: 126.0
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  34. Kurt VanLehn, William Ball & Bernadette Kowalski (1989). Non‐LIFO Execution of Cognitive Procedures. Cognitive Science 13 (3):415-465.score: 126.0
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  35. Simone Kühn & Marcel Brass (2010). The Cognitive Representation of Intending Not to Act: Evidence for Specific Non-Action-Effect Binding. Cognition 117 (1):9-16.score: 122.0
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  36. Heinz Walter Krohne, Manuela Pieper, Nina Knoll & Nadine Breimer (2002). The Cognitive Regulation of Emotions: The Role of Success Versus Failure Experience and Coping Dispositions. Cognition and Emotion 16 (2):217-243.score: 122.0
  37. Julia Simner & Sarah L. Haywood (2009). Tasty Non-Words and Neighbours: The Cognitive Roots of Lexical-Gustatory Synaesthesia. Cognition 110 (2):171-181.score: 122.0
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  38. Gerhard Schurz (2005). Non-Monotonic Reasoning From an Evolution-Theoretic Perspective: Ontic, Logical and Cognitive Foundations. Synthese 146 (1-2):37 - 51.score: 120.0
    In the first part I argue that normic laws are the phenomenological laws of evolutionary systems. If this is true, then intuitive human reasoning should be fit in reasoning from normic laws. In the second part I show that system P is a tool for reasoning with normic laws which satisfies two important evolutionary standards: it is probabilistically reliable, and it has rules of low complexity. In the third part I finally report results of an experimental study which demonstrate that (...)
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  39. Georges Dreyfus (2011). Is Mindfulness Present-Centred and Non-Judgmental? A Discussion of the Cognitive Dimensions of Mindfulness. Contemporary Buddhism 12 (1):41--54.score: 120.0
  40. [deleted]Johanna Derix, Olga Iljina, Johanna Weiske, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ad Aertsen & Tonio Ball (2014). From Speech to Thought: The Neuronal Basis of Cognitive Units in Non-Experimental, Real-Life Communication Investigated Using ECoG. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8.score: 120.0
  41. Hartmut Haberland (1996). Cognitive Technology and Pragmatics: Analogies and (Non-)Alignments. [REVIEW] AI and Society 10 (3-4):303-308.score: 120.0
    This paper presents some considerations about the relationship between languages and computer systems from a pragmatic, user-centered point of view.
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  42. Michael Ranta (2011). Stories in Pictures (and Non-Pictorial Objects): A Narratological and Cognitive Psychological Approach. Contemporary Aesthetics 9.score: 120.0
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  43. F. Robert Treichler (2012). Serial List Retention by Non-Human Primates: Complexity and Cognitive Continuity. In David McFarland, Keith Stenning & Maggie McGonigle (eds.), The Complex Mind. Palgrave Macmillan. 25.score: 120.0
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  44. Jennifer E. Drake & Ellen Winner (2010). Precocious Realists: Perceptual and Cognitive Characteristics Associated with Drawing Talent in Non-Autistic Children. In Francesca Happé & Uta Frith (eds.), Autism and Talent. Oup/the Royal Society.score: 120.0
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  45. Martin Dresler, Anders Sandberg, Kathrin Ohla, Chris Bublitz, Carlos Trenado, Aleksandra Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Simone Kühn & Dimitris Repantis (2013). Non-Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement. Neuropharmacology 64:529-543.score: 120.0
     
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  46. Francis Heylighen (1992). Non-Rational Cognitive Processes as Changes of Distinctions. In G. van der Vijve (ed.), New Perspectives on Cybernetics. 220--77.score: 120.0
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  47. Harry T. Hunt (forthcoming). The Relevance of Ordinary and Non-Ordinary States of Consciousness for the Cognitive Psychology of Meaning. Journal of Mind and Behavior.score: 120.0
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  48. Costas Pagondiotis (forthcoming). COGNITIVE (IM)PENETRABILITY OF VISION: RESTRICTING VISION Vs. RESTRICTING COGNITION. In J. Zeimbekis & A. Raftopoulos (eds.), Cognitive Penetrability. OUP.score: 108.0
    Pylyshyn restricts cognitively penetrable vision to late vision, whereas he does not make any distinction between different kinds of penetrating cognition. I argue that this approach disconnects early vision content from late vision content and blurs the distinction between the latter and the content of thought. To overcome this problem I suggest that we should not distinguish between different kinds of visual content but instead introduce a restriction on the kind of cognition that can directly penetrate visual experience. In particular, (...)
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  49. Veljko Dubljević (forthcoming). Neurostimulation Devices for Cognitive Enhancement: Toward a Comprehensive Regulatory Framework. Neuroethics:1-12.score: 102.0
    There is mounting evidence that non-invasive brain stimulation devices - transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation could be used for cognitive enhancement. However, the regulatory environment surrounding such uses of stimulation devices is less clear than for stimulant drugs—a fact that has already been commercially exploited by several companies. In this paper, the mechanism of action, uses and adverse effects of non-invasive neurostimulation devices are reviewed, along with social and ethical challenges pertaining to their use as cognitive enhancements. (...)
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  50. [deleted]Torkel Klingberg Stina Söderqvist, Sissela B. Nutley, Jon Ottersen, Katja M. Grill (2012). Computerized Training of Non-Verbal Reasoning and Working Memory in Children with Intellectual Disability. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 102.0
    Children with intellectual disabilities show deficits in both reasoning ability and working memory (WM) that impact everyday functioning and academic achievement. In this study we investigated the feasibility of cognitive training for improving WM and non-verbal reasoning (NVR) ability in children with intellectual disability. Participants were randomized to a 5-week adaptive training program (intervention group) or non-adaptive version of the program (active control group). Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to and directly after training, and one year later to examine effects (...)
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