Search results for 'Non-functional requirements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Aaron Sloman & David Vernon, A First Draft Analysis of Some Meta-Requirements for Cognitive Systems in Robots (An Exercise in Logical Topography Analysis. ).score: 72.0
    This is a contribution to construction of a research roadmap for future cognitive systems, including intelligent robots, in the context of the euCognition network, and UKCRC Grand Challenge 5: Architecture of Brain and Mind. -/- A meeting on the euCognition roadmap project was held at Munich Airport on 11th Jan 2007. This document was in part a response to discussions at that meeting. An explanation of why specifying requirements is a hard problem, and why it needs to be done, (...)
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  2. C. Caleiro, W. A. Carnielli, M. E. Coniglio, A. Sernadas & C. Sernadas (2003). Fibring Non-Truth-Functional Logics: Completeness Preservation. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12 (2):183-211.score: 72.0
    Fibring has been shown to be useful for combining logics endowed withtruth-functional semantics. However, the techniques used so far are unableto cope with fibring of logics endowed with non-truth-functional semanticsas, for example, paraconsistent logics. The first main contribution of thepaper is the development of a suitable abstract notion of logic, that mayalso encompass systems with non-truth-functional connectives, and wherefibring can still be dealt with. Furthermore, it is shown that thisextended notion of fibring preserves completeness under certain reasonableconditions. This completeness transfer (...)
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  3. Nicholas Maxwell, Non-Empirical Requirements Scientific Theories Must Satisfy: Simplicity, Unification, Explanation, Beauty. PhilSci Archive.score: 56.0
    A scientific theory, in order to be accepted as a part of theoretical scientific knowledge, must satisfy both empirical and non-empirical requirements, the latter having to do with simplicity, unity, explanatory character, symmetry, beauty. No satisfactory, generally accepted account of such non-empirical requirements has so far been given. Here, a proposal is put forward which, it is claimed, makes a contribution towards solving the problem. This proposal concerns unity of physical theory. In order to satisfy the non-empirical requirement (...)
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  4. Maria G. Knyazeva Elham Barzegaran, Amir Joudaki, Mahdi Jalili, Andrea O. Rossetti, Richard S. Frackowiak (2012). Properties of Functional Brain Networks Correlate with Frequency of Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 54.0
    Abnormalities in the topology of brain networks may be an important feature and etiological factor for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). To explore this possibility, we applied a graph theoretical approach to functional networks based on resting state EEGs from 13 PNES patients and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. The networks were extracted from Laplacian-transformed time-series by a cross-correlation method. PNES patients showed close to normal local and global connectivity and small-world structure, estimated with clustering coefficient, modularity, global efficiency, and small-worldness (...)
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  5. Ariadna Chernavska (1981). The Impossibility of a Bivalent Truth-Functional Semantics for the Non-Boolean Propositional Structures of Quantum Mechanics. Philosophia 10 (1-2):1-18.score: 53.0
    The general fact of the impossibility of a bivalent, truth-functional semantics for the propositional structures determined by quantum mechanics should be more subtly demarcated according to whether the structures are taken to be orthomodular latticesP L or partial-Boolean algebrasP A; according to whether the semantic mappings are required to be truth-functional or truth-functional ; and according to whether two-or-higher dimensional Hilbert spaceP structures or three-or-higher dimensional Hilbert spaceP structures are being considered. If the quantumP structures are taken to be orthomodular (...)
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  6. João Marcos (2009). What is a Non-Truth-Functional Logic? Studia Logica 92 (2):215 - 240.score: 50.0
    What is the fundamental insight behind truth-functionality ? When is a logic interpretable by way of a truth-functional semantics? To address such questions in a satisfactory way, a formal definition of truth-functionality from the point of view of abstract logics is clearly called for. As a matter of fact, such a definition has been available at least since the 70s, though to this day it still remains not very widely well-known. A clear distinction can be drawn between logics characterizable through: (...)
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  7. Jean-Yves Beziau, Non Truth-Functional Many-Valuedness.score: 48.0
    Many-valued logics are standardly defined by logical matrices. They are truth-functional. In this paper non truth-functional many-valued semantics are presented, in a philosophical and mathematical perspective.
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  8. Adam Morton (1969). Extensional and Non-Truth-Functional Contexts. Journal of Philosophy 66 (6):159-164.score: 42.0
    I discuss Frege's argument - later called the slingshot - that if a construction is extensional and preserves logical equivalence then it is truth-functional. I consider some simple apparent counterexamples and conclude that they are not sentence-embedding in the required way.
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  9. Wilfried Allaerts (1999). The Biological Function Paradigm Applied to the Immunological Self-Non-Self Discrimination: Critique of Tauber's Phenomenological Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 30 (1):155-171.score: 42.0
    Biological self reference idioms in brain-centered or nervous-system-centered self determination of the consious Self reveal an interesting contrast with biological self-determination by immunological self/non-self discrimination. This contrast is both biological and epistemological. In contrast to the consciousness conscious of itself, the immunological self-determination imposes a protective mechanism against self-recognition (Coutinho et al. 1984), which adds to a largely unconscious achievement of the biological Self (Popper 1977; Medawar 1959). The latter viewpoint is in contrast with the immunological Self-determination as an essentially (...)
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  10. Sara Scharf (2008). Multiple Independent Inventions of a Non-Functional Technology: Combinatorial Descriptive Names in Botany, 1640-1830. Spontaneous Generations: A Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science 2 (1):145.score: 42.0
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  11. Michel Bitbol, Physical Relations or Functional Relations ? A Non-Metaphysical Construal of Rovelli's Relational Quantum Mechanics.score: 39.0
    Rovelli’s RQM is first characterized by contrast with both Everett’s and Bohr’s interpretations of quantum mechanics. Then, it is shown that a basic difficulty arises from the choice of formulating RQM in a naturalistic framework. Even though, according to Rovelli’s interpretation, statements about the world only make sense relative to certain naturalized observers described by means of quantum mechanics, this very meta-statement seems to make sense relative to a sort of super-observer which does not partake of the naturalized status of (...)
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  12. Moriah E. Thomason (2009). Children in Non-Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) Studies Give the Scan Experience a “Thumbs Up”. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):25 – 27.score: 36.0
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  13. Nuno R. B. Martins, Wolfram Erlhagen & Robert A. Freitas (2012). Non-Destructive Whole-Brain Monitoring Using Nanorobots: Neural Electrical Data Rate Requirements. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (01):109-140.score: 36.0
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  14. Todor D. Todorov & Hans Vernaeve (2008). Full Algebra of Generalized Functions and Non-Standard Asymptotic Analysis. Logic and Analysis 1 (3-4):205-234.score: 36.0
    We construct an algebra of generalized functions endowed with a canonical embedding of the space of Schwartz distributions.We offer a solution to the problem of multiplication of Schwartz distributions similar to but different from Colombeau’s solution.We show that the set of scalars of our algebra is an algebraically closed field unlike its counterpart in Colombeau theory, which is a ring with zero divisors. We prove a Hahn–Banach extension principle which does not hold in Colombeau theory. We establish a connection between (...)
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  15. Andrzej Mostowski (1948). Proofs of Non-Deducibility in Intuitionistic Functional Calculus. Journal of Symbolic Logic 13 (4):204-207.score: 36.0
  16. Jennifer J. Kulynych (2007). Some Thoughts About the Evaluation of Non-Clinical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. American Journal of Bioethics 7 (9):57 – 58.score: 36.0
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  17. Niels Egmont Christensen (1965). A Non-Truth-Functional Interpretation of Mathematical Logic. Analysis 25 (Suppl-3):129 - 132.score: 36.0
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  18. John Beierle (1984). A Truth-Functional Non-Modal Interpretation of Ockham's Theory of Consequences. Franciscan Studies 44 (1):71-80.score: 36.0
  19. Herbert E. Hendry (1980). Functional Completeness and Non-Ł Ukasiewiczian Truth Functions. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 21 (3):536-538.score: 36.0
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  20. Dirk S. Paul, Nicole Soranzo & Stephan Beck (2014). Functional Interpretation of Non‐Coding Sequence Variation: Concepts and Challenges. Bioessays 36 (2):191-199.score: 36.0
  21. Buchsbaum Arthur & Jean-Yves Béziau, Non Truth-Functional Many-Valuedness.score: 36.0
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  22. Paton Bryan, Raniga Parnesh & Egan Gary (2013). Non-Linear and Non-Stationary Resting State Functional Connectivity Examined Using Fast (Sub-Second) Functional MRI. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 36.0
  23. Antonio Bucciarelli, Thomas Ehrhard & Giulio Manzonetto (2012). A Relational Semantics for Parallelism and Non-Determinism in a Functional Setting. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 163 (7):918-934.score: 36.0
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  24. C. Caleiro, W. A. Carnielli & M. E. Coniglio (2003). And C. Sernadas/Fibring Non-Truth-Functional Logics: Completeness Preservation 183–211 Kentaro Kikuchi and Katsumi Sasaki/a Cut-Free Gentzen Formulation of Basic Propositional Calculus 213–225. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 12:533-535.score: 36.0
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  25. Leon Henkin (1955). Review: H. Rasiowa, R. Sikorski, On Existential Theorems in Non-Classical Functional Calculi. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 20 (1):80-80.score: 36.0
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  26. Mihaly Makkai (1967). Review: R. Sikorski, A Theorem on Non-Classical Functional Calculi; R. Sikorski, Some Applications of Interior Mappings. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 32 (4):537-537.score: 36.0
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  27. J. Rinn (2009). HOTAIR is One of an Increasing Number of Functional Non-Coding RNAs Identified From the Human Genome. Phronesis 1:42.score: 36.0
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  28. Th Skolem (1949). Review: Andrzej Mostowski, Proofs of Non-Deducibility in Intuitionistic Functional Calculus. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 14 (2):137-137.score: 36.0
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  29. De Tiège Xavier (2012). Changes in Functional Integration with the Non-Epileptic Temporal Lobe of Patients with Unilateral Mesiotemporal Epilepsy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 36.0
  30. Jessica M. Wilson (2011). Non-Reductive Realization and the Powers-Based Subset Strategy. The Monist (Issue on Powers) 94 (1):121-154.score: 32.0
    I argue that an adequate account of non-reductive realization must guarantee satisfaction of a certain condition on the token causal powers associated with (instances of) realized and realizing entities---namely, what I call the 'Subset Condition on Causal Powers' (first introduced in Wilson 1999). In terms of states, the condition requires that the token powers had by a realized state on a given occasion be a proper subset of the token powers had by the state that realizes it on that occasion. (...)
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  31. Edward Hinchman (2013). Rational Requirements and 'Rational' Akrasia. Philosophical Studies 166 (3):529-552.score: 32.0
    On one conception of practical rationality, being rational is most fundamentally a matter of avoiding incoherent combinations of attitudes. This conception construes the norms of rationality as codified by rational requirements, and one plausible rational requirement is that you not be akratic: that you not judge, all things considered, that you ought to ϕ while failing to choose or intend to ϕ. On another conception of practical rationality, being rational is most fundamentally a matter of thinking or acting in (...)
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  32. Gunnar Björnsson & Tristram McPherson (2014). Moral Attitudes for Non-Cognitivists: Solving the Specification Problem. Mind 123 (489):1-38.score: 32.0
    Moral non-cognitivists hope to explain the nature of moral agreement and disagreement as agreement and disagreement in non-cognitive attitudes. In doing so, they take on the task of identifying the relevant attitudes, distinguishing the non-cognitive attitudes corresponding to judgements of moral wrongness, for example, from attitudes involved in aesthetic disapproval or the sports fan’s disapproval of her team’s performance. We begin this paper by showing that there is a simple recipe for generating apparent counterexamples to any informative specification of the (...)
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  33. Mark Johnson (1999). A Resource Sensitive Interpretation of Lexical Functional Grammar. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (1):45-81.score: 32.0
    This paper investigates whether the fundamental linguistic insights and intuitions of Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG), which is usually presented as a constraint-based linguistic theory, can be reformulated in a resource sensitive framework using a substructural modal logic. In the approach investigated here, LFG's f-descriptions are replaced with expressions from a multi-modal propositional logic (with permutation and possibly limited contraction). In effect, the feature structure unification basis of LFG's f-structures is replaced with a very different resource based mechanism. It turns out (...)
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  34. J. M. Smith (1933). The Sensory Function of the Non-Preferred Hand. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (2):271.score: 30.0
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  35. Christian Bauer (2012). Products of Non-Additive Measures: A Fubini-Like Theorem. Theory and Decision 73 (4):621-647.score: 28.0
    For non-additive set functions, the independent product, in general, is not unique and the Fubini theorem is restricted to slice-comonotonic functions. In this paper, we use the representation theorem of Gilboa and Schmeidler (Math Oper Res 20:197–212, 1995) to extend the Möbius product for non-additive set functions to non-finite spaces. We extend the uniqueness result of Ghirardato (J Econ Theory 73:261–291, 1997) for products of two belief functions and weaken the requirements on the marginals necessary to obtain the Fubini (...)
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  36. Neil Campbell (2010). Functional Reduction and Mental Causation. Acta Analytica 25 (4):435-446.score: 27.0
    Over the past few decades, Jaegwon Kim has argued that non-reductive physicalism is an inherently unstable position. In his view, the most serious problem is that non-reductive physicalism leads to type epiphenomenalism—the causal inefficacy of mental properties. Kim suggests that we can salvage mental causation by endorsing functional reduction. Given the fact that Kim’s goal in formulating functional reduction is to provide a robust account of mental causation it would be surprising if his position implies eliminativism about mental properties or (...)
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  37. Sjoerd D. Zwart & Maarten Franssen (2007). An Impossibility Theorem for Verisimilitude. Synthese 158 (1):75 - 92.score: 27.0
    In this paper, we show that Arrow’s well-known impossibility theorem is instrumental in bringing the ongoing discussion about verisimilitude to a more general level of abstraction. After some preparatory technical steps, we show that Arrow’s requirements for voting procedures in social choice are also natural desiderata for a general verisimilitude definition that places content and likeness considerations on the same footing. Our main result states that no qualitative unifying procedure of a functional form can simultaneously satisfy the requirements (...)
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  38. Daniel Simberloff (2005). Non-Native Species DO Threaten the Natural Environment! Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (6):595-607.score: 27.0
    Sagoff [Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18 (2005), 215–236] argues, against growing empirical evidence, that major environmental impacts of non-native species are unproven. However, many such impacts, including extinctions of both island and continental species, have both been demonstrated and judged by the public to be harmful. Although more public attention has been focused on non-native animals than non-native plants, the latter more often cause ecosystem-wide impacts. Increased regulation of introduction of non-native species is, therefore, warranted, and, contra Sagoff’s (...)
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  39. Arno Wouters (2005). The Functional Perspective of Organismal Biology. In Thomas Reydon & Lia Hemerik (eds.), Current Themes in Theoretical Biology. Springer. 33--69.score: 27.0
    Following Mayr (1961) evolutionary biologists often maintain that the hallmark of biology is its evolutionary perspective. In this view, biologists distinguish themselves from other natural scientists by their emphasis on why-questions. Why-questions are legitimate in biology but not in other natural sciences because of the selective character of the process by means of which living objects acquire their characteristics. For that reason, why-questions should be answered in terms of natural selection. Functional biology is seen as a reductionist science that applies (...)
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  40. Alexander Rueger (2006). Functional Reduction and Emergence in the Physical Sciences. Synthese 151 (3):335 - 346.score: 27.0
    Kim’s model of ‘functional reduction’ of properties is shown to fail in a class of cases from physics involving properties at different spatial levels. The diagnosis of this failure leads to a non-reductive account of the relation of micro and macro properties.
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  41. Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi (2013). The Δ-Quantum Machine, the K-Model, and the Non-Ordinary Spatiality of Quantum Entities. Foundations of Science 18 (1):11-41.score: 27.0
    The purpose of this article is threefold. Firstly, it aims to present, in an educational and non-technical fashion, the main ideas at the basis of Aerts’ creation-discovery view and hidden measurement approach : a fundamental explanatory framework whose importance, in this author’s view, has been seriously underappreciated by the physics community, despite its success in clarifying many conceptual challenges of quantum physics. Secondly, it aims to introduce a new quantum machine—that we call the δ quantum machine —which is able to (...)
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  42. Werner A. Hofer (2011). Unconventional Approach to Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory Derived From a Model of Extended Electrons. Foundations of Physics 41 (4):754-791.score: 27.0
    An equation proposed by Levy, Perdew and Sahni (Phys. Rev. A 30:2745, 1984) is an orbital-free formulation of density functional theory. However, this equation describes a bosonic system. Here, we analyze on a very fundamental level, how this equation could be extended to yield a formulation for a general fermionic distribution of charge and spin. This analysis starts at the level of single electrons and with the question, how spin actually comes into a charge distribution in a non-relativistic model. To (...)
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  43. Lepša Vušković, Dušan Arsenović & Mirjana Božić (2002). Non-Classical Behavior of Atoms in an Interferometer. Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1329-1346.score: 27.0
    Using the time-dependent wave function we have studied the properties of the atomic transverse motion in an interferometer, and the cause of the non-classical behavior of atoms reported by Kurtsiefer, Pfau, and Mlynek [Nature 386, 150 (1997)]. The transverse wave function is derived from the solution of the two-dimensional Schrödinger's equation, written in the form of the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral. It is assumed that the longitudinal motion is classical. Comparing data of the space distribution and of the transverse momentum distribution (...)
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  44. Dwayne Moore & Neil Campbell (2010). Functional Reduction and Mental Causation. Acta Analytica 25 (4):435-446.score: 27.0
    Over the past few decades, Jaegwon Kim has argued that non-reductive physicalism is an inherently unstable position. In his view, the most serious problem is that non-reductive physicalism leads to type epiphenomenalism—the causal inefficacy of mental properties. Kim suggests that we can salvage mental causation by endorsing functional reduction. Given the fact that Kim’s goal in formulating functional reduction is to provide a robust account of mental causation it would be surprising if his position implies eliminativism about mental properties or (...)
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  45. Wendy Hasenkamp & Lawrence W. Barsalou (2012). Effects of Meditation Experience on Functional Connectivity of Distributed Brain Networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 27.0
    This study sought to examine the effect of meditation experience on brain networks underlying cognitive actions employed during contemplative practice. In a previous study, we proposed a basic model of naturalistic cognitive fluctuations that occur during the practice of focused attention meditation. This model specifies four intervals in a cognitive cycle: mind wandering, awareness of mind wandering, shifting of attention, and sustained attention. Using subjective input from experienced practitioners during meditation, we identified activity in salience network regions during awareness of (...)
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  46. Yvonne M. Scherrer (2009). Environmental Conservation NGOs and the Concept of Sustainable Development. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (3):555-571.score: 27.0
    On the background of the widely known and controversially discussed concept of sustainable development and the ever increasing influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on social, environmental and economic issues, this article focuses on how NGOs, specialised in environmental protection and conservation issues, reacted to the holistic societal concept of sustainable development which aims at finding solutions not only to environmental, but also to social and economic issues. For this purpose, the article investigates whether and to what extent the sustainability concept (...)
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  47. Elliott Tammaro (2012). Mechanics: Non-Classical, Non-Quantum. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 42 (2):284-290.score: 27.0
    A non-classical, non-quantum theory, or NCQ, is any fully consistent theory that differs fundamentally from both the corresponding classical and quantum theories, while exhibiting certain features common to both. Such theories are of interest for two primary reasons. Firstly, NCQs arise prominently in semi-classical approximation schemes. Their formal study may yield improved approximation techniques in the near-classical regime. More importantly for the purposes of this note, it may be possible for NCQs to reproduce quantum results over experimentally tested regimes while (...)
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  48. Emmanuelle Volle Gil Gonen-Yaacovi, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Richard Levy, Marika Urbanski, Goulven Josse (2013). Rostral and Caudal Prefrontal Contribution to Creativity: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 27.0
    Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the caudal (...)
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  49. Yong Jeong Kwangsun Yoo, William S. Sohn (2013). Tool-Use Practice Induces Changes in Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Parietal Areas. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 27.0
    Intrinsic functional connectivity from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has increasingly received attention as a possible predictor of cognitive function and performance. In this study, we investigated the influence of practicing skillful tool manipulation on intrinsic functional connectivity in the resting brain. Acquisition of tool-use skill has two aspects such as formation of motor representation for skillful manipulation and acquisition of the tool concept. To dissociate these two processes, we chose chopsticks-handling with the non-dominant hand. Because participants were (...)
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  50. Yvonne M. Scherrer (2009). Environmental Conservation NGOs and the Concept of Sustainable Development: A Research Into the Value Systems of Greenpeace International, WWF International and IUCN International. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (3):555 - 571.score: 27.0
    On the background of the widely known and controversially discussed concept of sustainable development and the ever increasing influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on social, environmental and economic issues, this article focuses on how NGOs, specialised in environmental protection and conservation issues, reacted to the holistic societal concept of sustainable development which aims at finding solutions not only to environmental, but also to social and economic issues. For this purpose, the article investigates whether and to what extent the sustainability concept (...)
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