Search results for 'Nonmonotonic reasoning' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Gerhard Brewka (1991). Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense. Cambridge University Press.score: 240.0
    In this book the author gives a broad overview of different areas of research in nonmonotonic reasoning, and presents some new results and ideas based on his research. The guiding principles are: clarification of the different research activities in the area, which have sometimes been undertaken independently of each other; and appreciation of the fact that these research activities often represent different means to the same ends, namely sound theoretical foundations and efficient computation. The book begins with a (...)
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  2. Whybe Humean & Two Kinds of Nonmonotonic Reasoning (1995). The Thirty-Sixth Annual Lecture Series. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 26:411-412.score: 240.0
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  3. Steven O. Kimbrough & Hua Hua (1991). On Nonmonotonic Reasoning with the Method of Sweeping Presumptions. Minds and Machines 1 (4):393-416.score: 240.0
    Reasoning almost always occurs in the face of incomplete information. Such reasoning is nonmonotonic in the sense that conclusions drawn may later be withdrawn when additional information is obtained. There is an active literature on the problem of modeling such nonmonotonic reasoning, yet no category of method-let alone a single method-has been broadly accepted as the right approach. This paper introduces a new method, called sweeping presumptions, for (...)
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  4. Isaac Levi (1996). For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Cambridge University Press.score: 234.0
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
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  5. Hans Rott (2001). Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Oxford University Press.score: 216.0
    Change, Choice and Inference develops logical theories that are necessary both for the understanding of adaptable human reasoning and for the design of intelligent systems. The book shows that reasoning processes - the drawing on inferences and changing one's beliefs - can be viewed as belonging to the realm of practical reason by embedding logical theories into the broader context of the theory of rational choice. The book unifies lively and significant strands of research in logic, philosophy, economics (...)
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  6. Michael Morreau (1998). Review of Isaac Levi, For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 95 (10):540-546.score: 210.0
  7. Riccardo Rosati (1999). Reasoning About Minimal Knowledge in Nonmonotonic Modal Logics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (2):187-203.score: 210.0
    We study the problem of embedding Halpern and Moses's modal logic of minimal knowledge states into two families of modal formalism for nonmonotonic reasoning, McDermott and Doyle's nonmonotonic modal logics and ground nonmonotonic modal logics. First, we prove that Halpern and Moses's logic can be embedded into all ground logics; moreover, the translation employed allows for establishing a lower bound (3p) for the problem of skeptical reasoning in all ground logics. Then, we show a translation (...)
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  8. Piotr Łukowski (2013). Is Human Reasoning Really Nonmonotonic? Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (1):63-73.score: 204.0
    It seems that nonmonotonicity of our reasoning is an obvious truth. Almost every logician not even believes, but simply knows very well that a human being thinks in a nonmonotonic way. Moreover, a nonmonotonicity of thinking seems to be a phenomenon parallel to the existence of human beings. Examples allegedly illustrating this phenomenon are not even analyzed today. They are simply quoted. Nowadays, this is a standard approach to nonmonotonicity. However, even simple analysis of those “obvious” examples shows (...)
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  9. Charles G. Morgan (2000). The Nature of Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Minds and Machines 10 (3):321-360.score: 192.0
    Conclusions reached using common sense reasoning from a set of premises are often subsequently revised when additional premises are added. Because we do not always accept previous conclusions in light of subsequent information, common sense reasoning is said to be nonmonotonic. But in the standard formal systems usually studied by logicians, if a conclusion follows from a set of premises, that same conclusion still follows no matter how the premise set is augmented; that is, the consequence relations (...)
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  10. Hannes Leitgeb (2004). Inference on the Low Level: An Investigation Into Deduction, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Philosophy of Cognition. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 180.0
    This monograph provides a new account of justified inference as a cognitive process. In contrast to the prevailing tradition in epistemology, the focus is on low-level inferences, i.e., those inferences that we are usually not consciously aware of and that we share with the cat nearby which infers that the bird which she sees picking grains from the dirt, is able to fly. Presumably, such inferences are not generated by explicit logical reasoning, but logical methods can be used to (...)
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  11. Marilyn Ford (2005). Human Nonmonotonic Reasoning: The Importance of Seeing the Logical Strength of Arguments. Synthese 146 (1-2):71 - 92.score: 180.0
    Three studies of human nonmonotonic reasoning are described. The results show that people find such reasoning quite difficult, although being given problems with known subclass-superclass relationships is helpful. The results also show that recognizing differences in the logical strengths of arguments is important for the nonmonotonic problems studied. For some of these problems, specificity – which is traditionally considered paramount in drawing appropriate conclusions – was irrelevant and so should have lead to a “can’t tell” response; (...)
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  12. Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter (2002). Experiments on Nonmonotonic Reasoning. The Coherence of Human Probability Judgments. In H. Leitgeb & G. Schurz (eds.), Pre-Proceedings of the 1 s T Salzburg Workshop on Paradigms of Cognition.score: 180.0
    Nonmonotonic reasoning is often claimed to mimic human common sense reasoning. Only a few studies, though, investigated this claim empirically. In the present paper four psychological experiments are reported, that investigate three rules of system p, namely the and, the left logical equivalence, and the or rule. The actual inferences of the subjects are compared with the coherent normative upper and lower probability bounds derived from a non-infinitesimal probability semantics of system p. We found a relatively good (...)
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  13. Arnon Avron, General Patterns for Nonmonotonic Reasoning: From Basic Entailments to Plausible Relations.score: 180.0
    This paper has two goals. First, we develop frameworks for logical systems which are able to re ect not only nonmonotonic patterns of reasoning, but also paraconsistent reasoning. Our second goal is to have a better understanding of the conditions that a useful relation for nonmonotonic reasoning should satisfy. For this we consider a sequence of generalizations of the pioneering works of Gabbay, Kraus, Lehmann, Magidor and Makinson. These generalizations allow the use of monotonic nonclassical (...)
     
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  14. Wayne Wobcke (1995). Belief Revision, Conditional Logic and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (1):55-103.score: 180.0
    We consider the connections between belief revision, conditional logic and nonmonotonic reasoning, using as a foundation the approach to theory change developed by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson (the AGM approach). This is first generalized to allow the iteration of theory change operations to capture the dynamics of epistemic states according to a principle of minimal change of entrenchment. The iterative operations of expansion, contraction and revision are characterized both by a set of postulates and by Grove's construction based (...)
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  15. Peter Clark (1990). Nonmonotonic Reasoning , Argumentation and Machine Learning 1 Introduction. Argumentation:1-11.score: 180.0
    Machine learning and nonmonotonic reasoning are closely related, both concerned with making plausible as well as certain inferences based on available data. In this document a brief overview of different approaches to nonmonotonic reasoning is presented, and it is shown how the concept of argumentation systems arises. The relationship with machine learning work is also discussed. The document aims to highlight the links between nonmonotonic reasoning, argumentation and machine learning and as a result propose (...)
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  16. Nicholas Allott & Hiroyuki Uchida (2009). Classical Logic, Conditionals and “NonmonotonicReasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):85-85.score: 156.0
    Reasoning with conditionals is often thought to be non-monotonic, but there is no incompatibility with classical logic, and no need to formalise inference itself as probabilistic. When the addition of a new premise leads to abandonment of a previously compelling conclusion reached by modus ponens, for example, this is generally because it is hard to think of a model in which the conditional and the new premise are true.
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  17. Michael Freund & Daniel Lehmann (1994). Nonmonotonic Reasoning: From Finitary Relations to Infinitary Inference Operations. Studia Logica 53 (2):161 - 201.score: 156.0
    A. Tarski [22] proposed the study of infinitary consequence operations as the central topic of mathematical logic. He considered monotonicity to be a property of all such operations. In this paper, we weaken the monotonicity requirement and consider more general operations, inference operations. These operations describe the nonmonotonic logics both humans and machines seem to be using when infering defeasible information from incomplete knowledge. We single out a number of interesting families of inference operations. This study of infinitary inference (...)
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  18. Gerhard Schurz (2007). Hannes Leitgeb, Inference on the Low Level: An Investigation Into Deduction, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Philosophy of Cognition. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 38 (2):393-395.score: 150.0
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  19. Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter (2006). Is Human Reasoning About Nonmonotonic Conditionals Probabilistically Coherent? In Proceedings of the 7 T H Workshop on Uncertainty Processing. 138--150.score: 150.0
    Nonmonotonic conditionals (A |∼ B) are formalizations of common sense expressions of the form “if A, normally B”. The nonmonotonic conditional is interpreted by a “high” coherent conditional probability, P(B|A) > .5. Two important properties are closely related to the nonmonotonic conditional: First, A |∼ B allows for exceptions. Second, the rules of the nonmonotonic system p guiding A |∼ B allow for withdrawing conclusions in the light of new premises. This study reports a series of (...)
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  20. Gerhard Schurz (2004). Normic Laws, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Unity of Science. In S. Rahman (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Dordrecht, Kluwer. 181-211.score: 150.0
    Normic laws have the form "if A, then normally B". This paper attempts to show that if a philosophical analysis of normic laws (1, 4) is combined with certain developments in nonmono- tonic logic (2, 3), the following problems in philosophy of science can be seen in a new pers- pective which, at least in many cases, allows to improve their received analysis: explanation and individual case understanding in the humanities (1, 2), an evolution-theoretic foundation of normic laws which explains (...)
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  21. Joseph Mendola (1998). Book Review:For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning Isaac Levi. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 65 (4):725-.score: 150.0
  22. Wiebe van der Hoek (2000). Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Grigoris Antoniou. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (1):125-128.score: 150.0
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  23. G. Aldo Antonelli (2000). Review: Dov M. Gabbay, C. J. Hogger, J. A. Robinson, D. Nute, Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.score: 150.0
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  24. Joeri Engelfriet & Jan Treur (2012). Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 10 (1):7-26.score: 150.0
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  25. Heinrich Herre (1993). Review: Gerhard Brewka, Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (3):1079-1080.score: 150.0
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  26. David Makinson (1994). General Patterns in Nonmonotonic Reasoning. In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence Nad Logic Programming, Vol. Iii. Clarendon Press.score: 150.0
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  27. William Seager (1997). Isaac Levi, For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 17 (3):181-183.score: 150.0
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  28. Marek A. Suchenek (2000). Review: Grigoris Antoniou, Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):484-490.score: 150.0
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  29. G. Aldo Antonelli (2000). Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning, Edited by Gabbay Dov M., Hogger CJ, and Robinson JA, with Nute D., Handbooks of Logic in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Etc., 1994, Xix+ 529 Pp.–. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.score: 150.0
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  30. G. Antoniou & Marek A. Suchenek (2000). REVIEWS-Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):484-489.score: 150.0
     
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  31. Philippe Balbiani (1991). Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Modal Logic, From Negation as Failure to Default Logic. In B. Bouchon-Meunier, R. R. Yager & L. A. Zadeh (eds.), Uncertainty in Knowledge Bases. Springer. 223--231.score: 150.0
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  32. Nick Chater (1993). Mental Models and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):340.score: 150.0
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  33. Tuan-Fang Fan, I. -Peng Lin & Churn-Jung Liau (1997). Nonmonotonic Reasoning Based on Incomplete Logic. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 7 (4):375-395.score: 150.0
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  34. Sven Ove Hansson (2004). Review of Hans Rott, Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic 77:145-147.score: 150.0
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  35. J. F. Horthy (1994). Moral Dilemmas and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Journal of Philosophical Logic 93:35-65.score: 150.0
     
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  36. David Makinson (2009). Levels of Belief in Nonmonotonic Reasoning. In Franz Huber & Christoph Schmidt-Petri (eds.), Degrees of Belief. Springer. 341--354.score: 150.0
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  37. Ilkka Niemelä & Jussi Rintanen (1994). On the Impact of Stratification on the Complexity of Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 4 (2):141-179.score: 150.0
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  38. Donald Nute (1989). Review of Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 2:351-355.score: 150.0
     
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  39. Yoav Shoham (1990). Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Causation. Cognitive Science 14 (2):213-252.score: 150.0
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  40. Y. Shoham (1991). Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Causation-Reply. Cognitive Science 15 (2):301-303.score: 150.0
     
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  41. Herbert A. Simon (1991). Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Causation: Comment. Cognitive Science 15 (2):293-300.score: 150.0
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  42. K. Tanaka (2001). Review of G. Antoniou Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Studia Logica 67:144-146.score: 150.0
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  43. Matthew Stone, Partial Order Reasoning for a Nonmonotonic Theory of Action.score: 144.0
    This paper gives a new, proof-theoretic explanation of partial-order reasoning about time in a nonmonotonic theory of action. The explanation relies on the technique of lifting ground proof systems to compute results using variables and unification. The ground theory uses argumentation in modal logic for sound and complete reasoning about specifications whose semantics follows Gelfond and Lifschitz’s language . The proof theory of modal logic A represents inertia by rules that can be instantiated by sequences of time (...)
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  44. Erkan Tin & Varol Akman (1997). Situated Nonmonotonic Temporal Reasoning with Baby-Sit. Philosophical Explorations.score: 144.0
    After a review of situation theory and previous attempts at `computational' situation theory, we present a new programming environment, BABY-SIT, which is based on situation theory. We then demonstrate how problems requiring formal temporal reasoning can be solved in this framework. Specifically, the Yale Shooting Problem, which is commonly regarded as a canonical problem for nonmonotonic temporal reasoning, is implemented in BABY-SIT using Yoav Shoham's causal theories.
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  45. Thomas Lukasiewicz (2005). Nonmonotonic Probabilistic Reasoning Under Variable-Strength Inheritance with Overriding. Synthese 146 (1-2):153 - 169.score: 120.0
    We present new probabilistic generalizations of Pearl’s entailment in System Z and Lehmann’s lexicographic entailment, called Zλ- and lexλ-entailment, which are parameterized through a value λ ∈ [0,1] that describes the strength of the inheritance of purely probabilistic knowledge. In the special cases of λ = 0 and λ = 1, the notions of Zλ- and lexλ-entailment coincide with probabilistic generalizations of Pearl’s entailment in System Z and Lehmann’s lexicographic entailment that have been recently introduced by the author. We show (...)
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  46. Robert L. Causey (2003). Computational Dialogic Defeasible Reasoning. Argumentation 17 (4):421-450.score: 120.0
    This article begins with an introduction to defeasible (nonmonotonic) reasoning and a brief description of a computer program, EVID, which can perform such reasoning. I then explain, and illustrate with examples, how this program can be applied in computational representations of ordinary dialogic argumentation. The program represents the beliefs and doubts of the dialoguers, and uses these propositional attitudes, which can include commonsense defeasible inference rules, to infer various changing conclusions as a dialogue progresses. It is proposed (...)
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  47. Varol Akman, Situated Nonmonotonic Temporal Reasoning with BABY-SIT.score: 120.0
    gramming environment, BABY-SIT, which is based on situation theory. We then demonstrate how problems requir-.
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  48. Rosati Riccardo (1999). Reasoning About Minimal Knowledge in Nonmonotonic Modal Logics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (2).score: 120.0
     
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  49. Klaus U. Schulz (1991). Preferential Cumulative Reasoning and Nonmonotonic Semantic Nets. In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer. 223--240.score: 120.0
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  50. Hanti Lin (2013). Foundations of Everyday Practical Reasoning. Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (6):831-862.score: 102.0
    “Since today is Saturday, the grocery store is open today and will be closed tomorrow; so let’s go today”. That is an example of everyday practical reasoningreasoning directly with the propositions that one believes but may not be fully certain of. Everyday practical reasoning is one of our most familiar kinds of decisions but, unfortunately, some foundational questions about it are largely ignored in the standard decision theory: (Q1) What are the decision rules in everyday practical (...) that connect qualitative belief and desire to preference over acts? (Q2) What sort of logic should govern qualitative beliefs in everyday practical reasoning, and to what extent is that logic necessary for the purposes of qualitative decisions? (Q3) What kinds of qualitative decisions are always representable as results of everyday practical reasoning? (Q4) Under what circumstances do the results of everyday practical reasoning agree with the Bayesian ideal of expected utility maximization? This paper proposes a rigorous decision theory for answering all of those questions, which is developed in parallel to Savage’s (1954) foundation of expected utility maximization. In light of a new representation result, everyday practical reasoning provides a sound and complete method for a very wide class of qualitative decisions; and, to that end, qualitative beliefs must be allowed to be closed under classical logic plus a well-known nonmonotonic logic—the so-called system ℙ. (shrink)
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