Search results for 'Nonmonotonic reasoning' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  27
    Isaac Levi (1996). For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
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  2.  33
    Gerhard Brewka (1991). Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense. Cambridge University Press.
    In this book the author gives a broad overview of different areas of research in nonmonotonic reasoning, and presents some new results and ideas based on his research. The guiding principles are: clarification of the different research activities in the area, which have sometimes been undertaken independently of each other; and appreciation of the fact that these research activities often represent different means to the same ends, namely sound theoretical foundations and efficient computation. The book begins with a (...)
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  3.  6
    Whybe Humean & Two Kinds of Nonmonotonic Reasoning (1995). The Thirty-Sixth Annual Lecture Series. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 26:411-412.
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  4.  6
    Steven O. Kimbrough & Hua Hua (1991). On Nonmonotonic Reasoning with the Method of Sweeping Presumptions. Minds and Machines 1 (4):393-416.
    Reasoning almost always occurs in the face of incomplete information. Such reasoning is nonmonotonic in the sense that conclusions drawn may later be withdrawn when additional information is obtained. There is an active literature on the problem of modeling such nonmonotonic reasoning, yet no category of method-let alone a single method-has been broadly accepted as the right approach. This paper introduces a new method, called sweeping presumptions, for modeling nonmonotonic reasoning. The main goal (...)
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  5.  51
    Hans Rott (2001). Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Oxford University Press.
    Change, Choice and Inference develops logical theories that are necessary both for the understanding of adaptable human reasoning and for the design of intelligent systems. The book shows that reasoning processes - the drawing on inferences and changing one's beliefs - can be viewed as belonging to the realm of practical reason by embedding logical theories into the broader context of the theory of rational choice. The book unifies lively and significant strands of research in logic, (...)
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  6. Gerhard Brewka, Jurgen Dix & Kurt Konolige (1997). Nonmonotonic Reasoning: An Overview. Center for the Study of Language and Inf.
     
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  7.  10
    Michael Morreau (1998). Review of Isaac Levi, For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophy 95 (10):540-546.
  8.  9
    Riccardo Rosati (1999). Reasoning About Minimal Knowledge in Nonmonotonic Modal Logics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (2):187-203.
    We study the problem of embedding Halpern and Moses's modal logic of minimal knowledge states into two families of modal formalism for nonmonotonic reasoning, McDermott and Doyle's nonmonotonic modal logics and ground nonmonotonic modal logics. First, we prove that Halpern and Moses's logic can be embedded into all ground logics; moreover, the translation employed allows for establishing a lower bound (3p) for the problem of skeptical reasoning in all ground logics. Then, we show a translation (...)
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  9. Gabriele Kern-Isberner (2001). Conditionals in Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Belief Revision Considering Conditionals as Agents.
     
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  10. Vladimir Lifschitz & Ilkka Niemelä (2004). Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning 7th International Conference, Lpnmr 2004, Fort Lauderdale, Fla., January 6-8, 2004 : Proceedings. [REVIEW]
     
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  11.  7
    Piotr Łukowski (2013). Is Human Reasoning Really Nonmonotonic? Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (1):63-73.
    It seems that nonmonotonicity of our reasoning is an obvious truth. Almost every logician not even believes, but simply knows very well that a human being thinks in a nonmonotonic way. Moreover, a nonmonotonicity of thinking seems to be a phenomenon parallel to the existence of human beings. Examples allegedly illustrating this phenomenon are not even analyzed today. They are simply quoted. Nowadays, this is a standard approach to nonmonotonicity. However, even simple analysis of those “obvious” examples shows (...)
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  12.  28
    Charles G. Morgan (2000). The Nature of Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Minds and Machines 10 (3):321-360.
    Conclusions reached using common sense reasoning from a set of premises are often subsequently revised when additional premises are added. Because we do not always accept previous conclusions in light of subsequent information, common sense reasoning is said to be nonmonotonic. But in the standard formal systems usually studied by logicians, if a conclusion follows from a set of premises, that same conclusion still follows no matter how the premise set is augmented; that is, the consequence relations (...)
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  13.  44
    Hannes Leitgeb (2004). Inference on the Low Level: An Investigation Into Deduction, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Philosophy of Cognition. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    This monograph provides a new account of justified inference as a cognitive process. In contrast to the prevailing tradition in epistemology, the focus is on low-level inferences, i.e., those inferences that we are usually not consciously aware of and that we share with the cat nearby which infers that the bird which she sees picking grains from the dirt, is able to fly. Presumably, such inferences are not generated by explicit logical reasoning, but logical methods can be used to (...)
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  14. Yi Mao (2003). A Formalism for Nonmonotonic Reasoning Encoded Generics. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin
    This dissertation is intended to provide a formalism for those generics that trigger nonmonotonic inferences. The formalism is to reflect intentionality and exception-tolerating features of generics, and has an emphasis on the axiomatization of generic reasoning that encodes nonmonotonicity. ;A modal conditional approach is taken to formalize the nonmonotonic reasoning in general at the level of object language. A serial of logic systems---MN, NID, NCUM, N STCUM---are constructed in an increasing strength of the characterized nonmonotonic (...)
     
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  15.  6
    Peter Clark (1990). Nonmonotonic Reasoning , Argumentation and Machine Learning 1 Introduction. Argumentation:1-11.
    Machine learning and nonmonotonic reasoning are closely related, both concerned with making plausible as well as certain inferences based on available data. In this document a brief overview of different approaches to nonmonotonic reasoning is presented, and it is shown how the concept of argumentation systems arises. The relationship with machine learning work is also discussed. The document aims to highlight the links between nonmonotonic reasoning, argumentation and machine learning and as a result propose (...)
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  16.  25
    Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter (2002). Experiments on Nonmonotonic Reasoning. The Coherence of Human Probability Judgments. In H. Leitgeb & G. Schurz (eds.), Pre-Proceedings of the 1 s T Salzburg Workshop on Paradigms of Cognition.
    Nonmonotonic reasoning is often claimed to mimic human common sense reasoning. Only a few studies, though, investigated this claim empirically. In the present paper four psychological experiments are reported, that investigate three rules of system p, namely the and, the left logical equivalence, and the or rule. The actual inferences of the subjects are compared with the coherent normative upper and lower probability bounds derived from a non-infinitesimal probability semantics of system p. We found a relatively good (...)
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  17.  5
    Wayne Wobcke (1995). Belief Revision, Conditional Logic and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 36 (1):55-103.
    We consider the connections between belief revision, conditional logic and nonmonotonic reasoning, using as a foundation the approach to theory change developed by Alchourrón, Gärdenfors and Makinson (the AGM approach). This is first generalized to allow the iteration of theory change operations to capture the dynamics of epistemic states according to a principle of minimal change of entrenchment. The iterative operations of expansion, contraction and revision are characterized both by a set of postulates and by Grove's construction based (...)
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  18.  13
    Marilyn Ford (2005). Human Nonmonotonic Reasoning: The Importance of Seeing the Logical Strength of Arguments. Synthese 146 (1-2):71 - 92.
    Three studies of human nonmonotonic reasoning are described. The results show that people find such reasoning quite difficult, although being given problems with known subclass-superclass relationships is helpful. The results also show that recognizing differences in the logical strengths of arguments is important for the nonmonotonic problems studied. For some of these problems, specificity – which is traditionally considered paramount in drawing appropriate conclusions – was irrelevant and so should have lead to a “can’t tell” response; (...)
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  19.  6
    O. Arieli & A. Avron (2000). General Patterns for Nonmonotonic Reasoning: From Basic Entailments to Plausible Relations. Logic Journal of the Igpl 8 (2):119-148.
    This paper has two goals. First, we develop frameworks for logical systems which are able to reflect not only non-monotonic patterns of reasoning, but also paraconsistent reasoning. Our second goal is to have a better understanding of the conditions that a useful relation for nonmonotonic reasoning should satisfy. For this we consider a sequence of generalizations of the pioneering works of Gabbay, Kraus, Lehmann, Magidor and Makinson. These generalizations allow the use of monotonic nonclassical logics as (...)
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  20. Isaac Levi (2010). For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
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  21. Isaac Levi (2011). For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
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  22. Isaac Levi (2007). For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
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  23. Isaac Levi (1996). For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Cambridge University Press.
    This book by one of the world's foremost philosophers in the fields of epistemology and logic offers an account of suppositional reasoning relevant to practical deliberation, explanation, prediction and hypothesis testing. Suppositions made 'for the sake of argument' sometimes conflict with our beliefs, and when they do, some beliefs are rejected and others retained. Thanks to such belief contravention, adding content to a supposition can undermine conclusions reached without it. Subversion can also arise because suppositional reasoning is ampliative. (...)
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  24. Gerhard Brewka (1989). Nonmonotonic Reasoning From Theoretical Foundation Towards Efficient Computation. [S.N.
     
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  25.  22
    Michael Freund & Daniel Lehmann (1994). Nonmonotonic Reasoning: From Finitary Relations to Infinitary Inference Operations. Studia Logica 53 (2):161 - 201.
    A. Tarski [22] proposed the study of infinitary consequence operations as the central topic of mathematical logic. He considered monotonicity to be a property of all such operations. In this paper, we weaken the monotonicity requirement and consider more general operations, inference operations. These operations describe the nonmonotonic logics both humans and machines seem to be using when infering defeasible information from incomplete knowledge. We single out a number of interesting families of inference operations. This study of infinitary inference (...)
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  26.  42
    Nicholas Allott & Hiroyuki Uchida (2009). Classical Logic, Conditionals and “NonmonotonicReasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):85-85.
    Reasoning with conditionals is often thought to be non-monotonic, but there is no incompatibility with classical logic, and no need to formalise inference itself as probabilistic. When the addition of a new premise leads to abandonment of a previously compelling conclusion reached by modus ponens, for example, this is generally because it is hard to think of a model in which the conditional and the new premise are true.
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  27. David Makinson (1994). General Patterns in Nonmonotonic Reasoning. In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence Nad Logic Programming, Vol. Iii. Clarendon Press
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  28. Dov M. Gabbay, C. J. Hogger, J. A. Robinson & D. Nute (2000). Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.
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  29.  4
    Yoav Shoham (1990). Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Causation. Cognitive Science 14 (2):213-252.
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  30.  29
    Niki Pfeifer & G. D. Kleiter (2006). Is Human Reasoning About Nonmonotonic Conditionals Probabilistically Coherent? In Proceedings of the 7 T H Workshop on Uncertainty Processing. 138--150.
    Nonmonotonic conditionals (A |∼ B) are formalizations of common sense expressions of the form “if A, normally B”. The nonmonotonic conditional is interpreted by a “high” coherent conditional probability, P(B|A) > .5. Two important properties are closely related to the nonmonotonic conditional: First, A |∼ B allows for exceptions. Second, the rules of the nonmonotonic system p guiding A |∼ B allow for withdrawing conclusions in the light of new premises. This study reports a series of (...)
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  31.  8
    Tuan-Fang Fan, I. -Peng Lin & Churn-Jung Liau (1997). Nonmonotonic Reasoning Based on Incomplete Logic. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 7 (4):375-395.
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  32.  10
    David Makinson (2009). Levels of Belief in Nonmonotonic Reasoning. In Franz Huber & Christoph Schmidt-Petri (eds.), Degrees of Belief. Springer 341--354.
  33.  2
    Herbert A. Simon (1991). Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Causation: Comment. Cognitive Science 15 (2):293-300.
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  34.  3
    Ilkka Niemelä & Jussi Rintanen (1994). On the Impact of Stratification on the Complexity of Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 4 (2):141-179.
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  35.  3
    Nick Chater (1993). Mental Models and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):340.
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  36.  2
    Sven Ove Hansson (2004). Review of Hans Rott, Change, Choice and Inference: A Study of Belief Revision and Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic 77:145-147.
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  37.  6
    Gerhard Schurz (2004). Normic Laws, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Unity of Science. In S. Rahman (ed.), Logic, Epistemology, and the Unity of Science. Dordrecht, Kluwer 181-211.
    Normic laws have the form "if A, then normally B". This paper attempts to show that if a philosophical analysis of normic laws (1, 4) is combined with certain developments in nonmono- tonic logic (2, 3), the following problems in philosophy of science can be seen in a new pers- pective which, at least in many cases, allows to improve their received analysis: explanation and individual case understanding in the humanities (1, 2), an evolution-theoretic foundation of normic laws which explains (...)
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  38.  18
    Gerhard Schurz (2007). Hannes Leitgeb, Inference on the Low Level: An Investigation Into Deduction, Nonmonotonic Reasoning, and the Philosophy of Cognition. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (2):393-395.
  39. Donald Nute (1989). Review of Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 2:351-355.
     
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  40.  1
    G. Aldo Antonelli (2000). Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning, Edited by Gabbay Dov M., Hogger CJ, and Robinson JA, with Nute D., Handbooks of Logic in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, Etc., 1994, Xix+ 529 Pp.–. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.
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  41.  9
    Wiebe van der Hoek (2000). Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Grigoris Antoniou. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (1):125-128.
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  42.  2
    Marek A. Suchenek (2000). Review: Grigoris Antoniou, Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):484-490.
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  43.  2
    Joeri Engelfriet & Jan Treur (2012). Specification of Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 10 (1):7-26.
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  44.  1
    K. Tanaka (2001). Review of G. Antoniou Nonmonotonic Reasoning. [REVIEW] Studia Logica 67:144-146.
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  45. William Seager (1997). Isaac Levi, For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 17 (3):181-183.
     
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  46.  1
    Heinrich Herre (1993). Review: Gerhard Brewka, Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Logical Foundations of Commonsense. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 58 (3):1079-1080.
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  47.  1
    G. Aldo Antonelli (2000). Review: Dov M. Gabbay, C. J. Hogger, J. A. Robinson, D. Nute, Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3, Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning. [REVIEW] Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):480-484.
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  48.  3
    Joseph Mendola (1998). Book Review:For the Sake of the Argument: Ramsey Test Conditionals, Inductive Inference, and Nonmonotonic Reasoning Isaac Levi. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 65 (4):725-.
  49. G. Antoniou & Marek A. Suchenek (2000). REVIEWS-Nonmonotonic Reasoning. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 6 (4):484-489.
     
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  50. Philippe Balbiani (1991). Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Modal Logic, From Negation as Failure to Default Logic. In B. Bouchon-Meunier, R. R. Yager & L. A. Zadeh (eds.), Uncertainty in Knowledge Bases. Springer 223--231.
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