Search results for 'Normalcy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu (2012). The Concept of Harm and the Significance of Normality. Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (3):318.
    Many believe that severe intellectual impairment, blindness or dying young amount to serious harm and disadvantage. It is also increasingly denied that it matters, from a moral point of view, whether something is biologically normal to humans. We show that these two claims are in serious tension. It is hard explain how, if we do not ascribe some deep moral significance to human nature or biological normality, we could distinguish severe intellectual impairment or blindness from the vast list of seemingly (...)
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  2.  20
    Frederic Gilbert (2012). The Burden of Normality: From 'Chronically Ill' to 'Symptom Free'. New Ethical Challenges for Deep Brain Stimulation Postoperative Treatment. Journal of Medical Ethics 8 (7):408-412.
    Although an invasive medical intervention, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been regarded as an efficient and safe treatment of Parkinson’s disease for the last 20 years. In terms of clinical ethics, it is worth asking whether the use of DBS may have unanticipated negative effects similar to those associated with other types of psychosurgery. Clinical studies of epileptic patients who have undergone an anterior temporal lobectomy have identified a range of side effects and complications in a number of domains: psychological, (...)
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  3.  16
    Alberto Giubilini (2015). Normality, Therapy, and Enhancement - What Should Bioconservatives Say About the Medicalization of Love? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 24 (3):347-354.
    According to human enhancement advocates, it is morally permissible (and sometimes obligatory) to use biomedical means to modulate or select certain biological traits in order to increase people’s welfare, even when there is no pathology to be treated or prevented. Some authors have recently proposed to extend the use of biomedical means to modulate lust, attraction, and attachment. I focus on some conceptual implications of this proposal, particularly with regard to bioconservatives’ understanding of the notions of therapy and enhancement I (...)
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  4.  14
    Susan M. Squier (2008). So Long as They Grow Out of It: Comics, The Discourse of Developmental Normalcy, and Disability. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 29 (2):71-88.
    This essay draws on two emerging fields—the study of comics or graphic fiction, and disability studies—to demonstrate how graphic fictions articulate the embodied, ethical, and sociopolitical experiences of impairment and disability. Examining David B’s Epileptic and Paul Karasik and Judy Karasik’s The Ride Together, I argue that these graphic novels unsettle conventional notions of normalcy and disability. In so doing, they also challenge our assumed dimensions and possibilities of the comics genre and medium, demonstrating the great potential comics hold (...)
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  5.  27
    Paul Gyllenhammer (2009). Normality in Husserl and Foucault. Research in Phenomenology 39 (1):52-68.
    Husserl and Foucault appear to have little in common when it comes to the question of normality. Husserl often discusses the emergence or constitution of norms from a subjective perspective whereas Foucault targets norms as a coercive problem. But if we recognize that the body is the locus of concern for both thinkers, then we can see that Husserl's interest in norm optimization is at home with Foucault's genealogical critique of bio-power . The essay draws a line of comparison between (...)
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  6.  13
    Corina Strößner (2015). Normality and Majority: Towards a Statistical Understanding of Normality Statements. Erkenntnis 80 (4):793-809.
    Normality judgements are frequently used in everyday communication as well as in biological and social science. Moreover they became increasingly relevant to formal logic as part of defeasible reasoning. This paper distinguishes different kinds of normality statements. It is argued that normality laws like “Birds can normally fly” should be understood essentially in a statistical way. The argument has basically two parts: firstly, a statistical semantic core is mandatory for a descriptive reading of normality in order to explain the logical (...)
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  7.  32
    Lara Huber (2011). Norming Normality: On Scientific Fictions and Canonical Visualisations. Medicine Studies 3 (1):41-52.
    Taking the visual appeal of the ‘bell curve’ as an example, this paper discusses in how far the availability of quantitative approaches (here: statistics) that comes along with representational standards immediately affects qualitative concepts of scientific reasoning (here: normality). Within the realm of this paper I shall focus on the relationship between normality, as defined by scientific enterprise, and normativity, that result out of the very processes of standardisation itself. Two hypotheses are guiding this analysis: (1) normality, as it is (...)
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  8. Martin Smith (2007). Ceteris Paribus Conditionals and Comparative Normalcy. Journal of Philosophical Logic 36 (1):97 - 121.
    Our understanding of subjunctive conditionals has been greatly enhanced through the use of possible world semantics and, more precisely, by the idea that they involve variably strict quantification over possible worlds. I propose to extend this treatment to ceteris paribus conditionals - that is, conditionals that incorporate a ceteris paribus or 'other things being equal' clause. Although such conditionals are commonly invoked in scientific theorising, they traditionally arouse suspicion and apprehensiveness amongst philosophers. By treating ceteris paribus conditionals as a species (...)
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  9. Gerhard Schurz (2001). What is 'Normal'? An Evolution-Theoretic Foundation for Normic Laws and Their Relation to Statistical Normality. Philosophy of Science 68 (4):476-497.
    Normic laws have the form "if A, then normally B." They are omnipresent in everyday life and non-physical 'life' sciences such as biology, psychology, social sciences, and humanities. They differ significantly from ceteris-paribus laws in physics. While several authors have doubted that normic laws are genuine laws at all, others have argued that normic laws express a certain kind of prototypical normality which is independent of statistical majority. This paper presents a foundation for normic laws which is based on generalized (...)
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  10. Martin Smith, Justification, Normalcy and Evidential Probability.
    NOTE: This paper is a reworking of some aspects of a previous paper of mine – ‘What else justification could be’ published in Noûs in 2010. I’m currently in the process of writing a book developing and defending some of the ideas from this paper. What follows will, I hope, fall into place as one of the chapters of this book – though it is still very much at the draft stage. Comments are welcome. -/- My concern in this paper (...)
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  11.  99
    Robert Wachbroit (1994). Normality as a Biological Concept. Philosophy of Science 61 (4):579-591.
    The biological sciences employ a concept of normality that must be distinguished from statistical or value concepts. The concept of normality is presupposed in the standard explications of biological functions, and it is crucial to the strategy of explanation by approximations in, for example, physiology. Nevertheless, this concept of normality does not seem to be captured in the language of physics. Thus attempts at explaining the methodological relationship between the biological sciences and the physical sciences by concentrating only on the (...)
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  12.  29
    Joona Taipale (2012). Twofold Normality: Husserl and the Normative Relevance of Primordial Constitution. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 28 (1):49-60.
    This article draws on Husserl’s manuscripts from the 1920s and 1930s (especially on the as-yet unpublished D-manuscripts), arguing that each concrete experience is governed by an irreducible tension between two intersecting normative dimensions: primordial and intersubjective. Husserl’s ideas of normality and normativity have gained a lot of attention in recent years, but the normative aspects of primordial constitution have not been properly taken into account. By arguing for the “normative tension” between the primordial and the intersubjective, this article contributes to (...)
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  13.  17
    Georgi Gardiner (2015). Normalcy and the Contents of Philosophical Judgements. Inquiry 58 (7-8):700-740.
    Thought experiments as counterexamples are a familiar tool in philosophy. Frequently understanding a vignette seems to generate a challenge to a target theory. In this paper I explore the content of the judgement that we have in response to these vignettes. I first introduce several competing proposals for the content of our judgement, and explain why they are inadequate. I then advance an alternative view. I argue that when we hear vignettes we consider the normal instances of the vignette. If (...)
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  14.  6
    Christian Straßer (2012). Adaptively Applying Modus Ponens in Conditional Logics of Normality. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 22 (1-2):125-148.
    This paper presents an adaptive logic enhancement of conditional logics of normality that allows for defeasible applications of Modus Ponens to conditionals. In addition to the possibilities these logics already offer in terms of reasoning about conditionals, this way they are enriched by the ability to perform default inferencing. The idea is to apply Modus Ponens defeasibly to a conditional and a fact on the condition that it is ?safe' to do so concerning the factual and conditional knowledge at hand. (...)
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  15.  19
    André Fuhrmann (2003). Some Remarks on Ultrafilter and Normality Logics. Studia Logica 73 (2):197 - 207.
    The paper presents the main ideas of Ultrafilter Logic (UL), as introduced by Veloso and others. A new proposal, Normality Logic (NL), is outlined for expanding the expressive power of UL. The system NL appears to offer a simpler solution to the problem of expressive power than the sorting strategy of Carnielli and Veloso. Interpretations of NL are discussed and an important point of contact to Hansson's notion of non-prioritized belief revision is observed.
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  16.  11
    Donald Ipperciel (1998). The Paradox of Normalcy in the Frankfurt School. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 2 (1):37-59.
    This article proposes a solution to the ‘paradox of normalcy’, a problem raised by the early Frankfurt Sehool in its questioning of basic concepts of psychoanalysis. After reviewing the different definitions of normalcy put forward by Freud, the paradoxical character of the concept of normalcy, as perceived by the various members of the Frankfurt School, will be made explicit. The solution to the paradox will take the form ofa practical ‘dis-solution’, and will bring to the fore a (...)
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  17.  29
    Barbara A. Misztal (2001). Normality and Trust in Goffman's Theory of Interaction Order. Sociological Theory 19 (3):312-324.
    The article asserts that Goffman's concept of normality comes close to the notion of trust as a protective mechanism that prevents chaos and disorder by providing us with feelings of safety, certainty, and familiarity. Arguing that to account for the tendency of social order to be seen as normal we need to conceptualize trust as the routine background of everyday interaction, the article analyzes Goffman's concepts of normal appearances, stigma, and frames as devices for endowing social order with predictability, reliability, (...)
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  18.  3
    Xavier Caicedo (1993). Compactness and Normality in Abstract Logics. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 59 (1):33-43.
    We generalize a theorem of Mundici relating compactness of a regular logic L to a strong form of normality of the associated spaces of models. Moreover, it is shown that compactness is in fact equivalent to ordinary normality of the model spaces when L has uniform reduction for infinite disjoint sums of structures. Some applications follow. For example, a countably generated logic is countably compact if and only if every clopen class in the model spaces is elementary. The model spaces (...)
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  19.  10
    Michael Thomas & Annette Karmiloff-Smith (2002). Residual Normality: Friend or Foe? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):772-780.
    In response to our target article, many of the commentators concentrated on our notion of Residual Normality. In our response, we focus on the questions raised by this idea. However, we also examine broader issues concerning the importance of incorporating a realistic theory of the process of development into explanations of developmental deficits.
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  20.  8
    Jirí Vácha (1985). German Constitutional Doctrine in the 1920s and 1930s and Pitfalls of the Contemporary Conception of Normality in Biology and Medicine. [REVIEW] Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 10 (4):339-368.
    From the end of the First World War, a broad discussion took place within the framework of the revived German constitutional teaching on the question of the physical normality of man. The founder of the so-called statistical concept of normality, which preceded the still widespread normal (reference) interval concept, is H. Rautmann, who gave it the character of a tool for discriminating between health and disease. Among some of his successors (Bauer, Borchardt, Günther), however, it was considered more a means (...)
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  21.  9
    Paul Howard, Kyriakos Keremedis, Herman Rubin & Jean E. Rubin (1998). Versions of Normality and Some Weak Forms of the Axiom of Choice. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 44 (3):367-382.
    We investigate the set theoretical strength of some properties of normality, including Urysohn's Lemma, Tietze-Urysohn Extension Theorem, normality of disjoint unions of normal spaces, and normality of Fσ subsets of normal spaces.
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  22.  12
    Arturo José Sánchez Hernández (2013). Relationship between normality of personality criteria, neurotic disorders and ethical-moral values. Humanidades Médicas 13 (1):5-21.
    Se reflexionó sobre la personalidad normal, su relación con los valores ético-morales, y los aspectos en los que la personalidad del paciente con trastornos neuróticos se aparta de la normalidad y que varios criterios de la normalidad constituyen precisiones del concepto de valor ético-moral. Se concluyó que la personalidad del paciente con trastornos neuróticos se aparta de la mayoría de los criterios analizados de normalidad de la personalidad: los criterios de ausencia de psicopatología, el estadístico, el de relaciones interpersonales, el (...)
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  23.  7
    Henrik Lerner & Bjørn Hofmann (2011). Normality and Naturalness: A Comparison of the Meanings of Concepts Used Within Veterinary Medicine and Human Medicine. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (6):403-412.
    This article analyses the different connotations of “normality” and “being natural,” bringing together the theoretical discussion from both human medicine and veterinary medicine. We show how the interpretations of the concepts in the different areas could be mutually fruitful. It appears that the conceptions of “natural” are more elaborate in veterinary medicine, and can be of value to human medicine. In particular they can nuance and correct conceptions of nature in human medicine that may be too idealistic. Correspondingly, the wide (...)
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  24.  19
    Shu-Chen Li & Ulman Lindenberger (2002). Coconstructed Functionality Instead of Functional Normality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):761-762.
    We agree with the critique of the Residual Normality assumption. Moreover, we challenge monolithic views of functional normality. Throughout life, development and adaptation require variations in cortical functional circuitry within and across individuals. We propose the principle of “coconstructed functionality” which maintains that brain-behavior functional correspondences are dynamically coproduced by neurobiological, experiential, and contextual processes.
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  25.  17
    Richard P. Cooper (2002). Two Closely Related Simulations Provide Weak Limits on Residual Normality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):754-755.
    Thomas & Karmiloff- Smith correctly identify Residual Normality as a critical assumption of some theorising about mental structure within developmental psychology. However, their simulations provide only weak support for the conditions under which RN may occur because they explore closely related architectures that share a learning algorithm. It is suggested that more work is required to establish the limits of RN.
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  26.  7
    Peter Alexander (1973). Normality. Philosophy 48 (184):137 - 151.
    I wish to ask what it is for something to be normal, what ‘normal’ means. In one sense we all know, since we freely use conceptions of normality in our everyday talk about things and people. Normality is what the conservative hopes to return to and the progressive hopes to establish. Normal weather is what we usually get at a given season; a normal day is one that is unrelieved by great strokes of either good or ill fortune. In some (...)
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  27.  3
    Csaba Pléh, Ágnes Lukács & Mihály Racsmány (2002). Residual Normality and the Issue of Language Profiles in Williams Syndrome. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):766-767.
    One of the debated issues regarding Residual Normality (RN) is frequency sensitivity in Williams syndrome (WS). We present some data on frequency sensitivity in Hungarian WS subjects. Based on vocabulary measures, we suggest that instead of the across-the-board frequency insensitivity proposed by some, a higher frequency threshold characterizes these subjects’performance. Results from a category fluency task show that whereas frequency sensitivity in WS is in line with controls, error patterns imply a qualitatively distinct, looser categorical organization. Regarding the much-debated issue (...)
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  28.  8
    Ruth Condray & Stuart R. Steinhauer (2002). The Residual Normality Assumption and Models of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):753-754.
    Thomas & Karmiloff- Smith ’ argument that the Residual Normality assumption is not valid for developmental disorders has implications for models of cognition in schizophrenia, a disorder that may involve a neurodevelopmental pathogenesis. A limiting factor for such theories is the lack of understanding about the nature of the cognitive system. Moreover, it is unclear how the proposal that modularization emerges from developmental processes would change that fundamental question.
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  29.  6
    Susan C. Levine, Terry Regier & Tracy L. Solomon (2002). Did Residual Normality Ever Have a Chance? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):759-760.
    Thomas & Karmiloff- Smith show that the assumption of residual normality does not hold in connectionist simulations, and argue that RN has been inappropriately applied to childhood disorders. We agree. However, we suggest that the RN hypothesis may never have been fully viable, either empirically or computationally.
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  30. Krysia Broda, Dov Gabbay, Luís Lamb & Alessandra Russo (2002). Labelled Natural Deduction for Conditional Logics of Normality. Logic Journal of the Igpl 10 (2):123-163.
    We propose a family of Labelled Deductive Conditional Logic systems by defining a Labelled Deductive formalisation for the propositional conditional logics of normality proposed by Boutilier and Lamarre. By making use of the Compilation approach to Labelled Deductive Systems we define natural deduction rules for conditional logics and prove that our formalisation is a generalisation of the conditional logics of normality.
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  31.  26
    Erich Fromm (2010). The Pathology of Normalcy: Its Genius for Good and Evil. American Mental Health Foundation Books.
    Modern man's pathology of normalcy -- The concept of mental health -- Humanistic science of man -- Is man lazy by nature?.
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  32. Sonja Olin Lauritzen & Lars-Christer Hydén (2007). Medical Technologies, the Lifeworld, and Normality : An Introduction. In Sonja Olin-Lauritzen & Lars-Christer Hydén (eds.), Medical Technologies and the Life World: The Social Construction of Normality. Routledge
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  33.  8
    Sonja Olin-Lauritzen & Lars-Christer Hydén (eds.) (2007). Medical Technologies and the Life World: The Social Construction of Normality. Routledge.
    Although the use of new health technologies in healthcare and medicine is generally seen as beneficial, there has been little analysis of the impact of such technologies on people's lives and understandings of health and illness. This book explores how new technologies not only provide hope for cure and well-being, but also introduce new ethical dilemmas and raise questions about the "natural" body. Focusing on the ways new health technologies intervene into our lives and affect our ideas about normalcy, (...)
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  34. Kristin Zeiler (2007). Gyneacologists and Geneticists as Storytellers : Disease, Choice, and Normality as the Fabric of Narratives on Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis. In Sonja Olin-Lauritzen & Lars-Christer Hydén (eds.), Medical Technologies and the Life World: The Social Construction of Normality. Routledge
     
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  35. Bernard Nickel (2008). Generics and the Ways of Normality. Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (6):629-648.
    I contrast two approaches to the interpretation of generics such as ‘ravens are black:’ majority-based views, on which they are about what is the case most of the time, and inquiry-based views, on which they are about a feature we focus on in inquiry. I argue that majority-based views face far more systematic counterexamples than has previously been supposed. They cannot account for generics about kinds with multiple characteristic properties, such as ‘elephants live in Africa and Asia.’ I then go (...)
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  36. Mark Fuller (1994). Normality of a Filter Over a Space of Partitions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (2):529-533.
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  37. R. Zrotowski (1991). Normality and P(Κ)/J. Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1064-1067.
    The main result of this paper is that if κ is not a weakly Mahlo cardinal, then the following two conditions are equivalent: 1. P(κ)/ J is κ+-complete. 2. J is a prenormal ideal. Our result is a generalization of an announcement made in [Z]. We say that J is selective iff for every J-function f: κ → κ there is a set X ∈ J such that f∣(κ - X) is one-to-one. Our theorem provides a positive partial answer to (...)
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  38.  45
    Nils Kurbis, Harmony, Normality and Stability.
    The paper begins with a conceptual discussion of Michael Dummett's proof-theoretic justification of deduction or proof-theoretic semantics, which is based on what we might call Gentzen's thesis: 'the introductions constitute, so to speak, the "definitions" of the symbols concerned, and the eliminations are in the end only consequences thereof, which could be expressed thus: In the elimination of a symbol, the formula in question, whose outer symbol it concerns, may only "be used as that which it means on the basis (...)
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  39.  9
    Markos Valaris (2016). Induction, Normality and Reasoning with Arbitrary Objects. Ratio 29 (2):n/a-n/a.
    This paper concerns the apparent fact — discussed by Sinan Dogramaci and Brian Weatherson — that inductive reasoning often interacts in disastrous ways with patterns of reasoning that seem perfectly fine in the deductive case. In contrast to Dogramaci's and Weatherson's own suggestions, I argue that these cases show that we cannot reason inductively about arbitrary objects. Moreover, as I argue, this prohibition is neatly explained by a certain hypothesis about the rational basis of inductive reasoning — namely, the hypothesis (...)
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  40.  5
    Jochen Reb & Terry Connolly (2010). The Effects of Action, Normality, and Decision Carefulness on Anticipated Regret: Evidence for a Broad Mediating Role of Decision Justifiability. Cognition and Emotion 24 (8):1405-1420.
  41. William Lane Craig (2001). Prof. Grünbaum on the ‘Normalcy of Nothingness’ in the Leibnizian and Kalam Cosmological Arguments. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (2):371-386.
  42.  3
    Diana Aurenque & Hans-Jörg Ehni (2013). For the Sake of “Normality”? Medical Indication, Social Justification, and the Welfare of Children. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10):55 - 57.
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  43.  4
    L. Marti (2006). Restoring Indefinites to Normalcy: An Experimental Study on the Scope of Spanish Algunos. Journal of Semantics 24 (1):1-25.
    It is widely assumed that the scope of indefinites is island insensitive, i.e., that, generally, an indefinite inside of a syntactic island, such as an adjunct clause, is capable of taking scope outside of that island. This paper challenges this assumption by studying the scope behaviour of the Spanish plural indefinite algunos (roughly, ‘some (pl.)’). It presents an experimental study that shows that the scope of algunos is not free and depends on its syntactic environment, at least in the dialect (...)
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  44.  12
    Neil Levy, Thomas Douglas, Guy Kahane, Sylvia Terbeck, Philip J. Cowen, Miles Hewstone & Julian Savulescu (2014). Disease, Normality, and Current Pharmacological Moral Modification. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (2):135-137.
  45. Theodore Adorno (2006). Constructing Normalcy The Bell Curve, the Novel, and the Invention of the Disabled Body in the Nineteenth Century Lennard J. Davis. In Lennard J. Davis (ed.), The Disability Studies Reader. Psychology Press 1.
     
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  46. Richard Bellamy & Justus Schonlau (2004). The Normality of Constitutional Politics: An Analysis of the Drafting of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. Constellations 11 (3):412-433.
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  47.  29
    Antoine C. Dussault & Anne-Marie Gagné-Julien (2015). Health, Homeostasis, and the Situation-Specificity of Normality. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):61-81.
    Christopher Boorse’s Biostatistical Theory of Health has been the main contender among naturalistic accounts of health for the last 40 years. Yet, a recent criticism of this theory, presented by Elselijn Kingma, identifies a dilemma resulting from the BST’s conceptual linking of health and statistical typicality. Kingma argues that the BST either cannot accommodate the situation-specificity of many normal functions or cannot account for many situation-specific diseases. In this article, we expand upon with (...) Hausman’s response to Kingma’s dilemma. We propose that recalling Boorse’s specification that health is an intrinsic property of its bearers and explicating this intrinsic property in relation to the concept of homeostasis can illuminate how proponents of naturalistic accounts of health should deal with the situation-specificity of normal functions. We argue that beyond what Boorse and Hausman have delineated, the situation-specificity of normal function cannot be fully captured in a simple dichotomy between normal and abnormal environment or between relevant and irrelevant situations. By bringing homeostasis to the fore of the analysis of health, we set out a richer picture of what the various situations that affect living organisms’ functional performance can be. Accordingly, we provide a broader classification of these various situations which, we contend, better accounts for the main intuitions that philosophers of medicine have sought to accommodate than previous naturalistic theories of health. (shrink)
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  48.  13
    Anthony J. Steinbock (1995). Phenomenological Concepts of Normality and Abnormality. Man and World 28 (3):241-260.
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  49.  4
    Ronald M. Green (2010). The Risks of “Sexual Normalcy”. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):13-14.
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  50.  34
    Lennart Nordenfelt (2004). On Holism and Normality. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 7 (2):149-152.
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