Many of us were raised to believe the following story. By the end of the nineteenth century, darkness was over the surface of the deep. Philosophy was dominated by neo-Hegelian monistic idealism, and plunged into obscurity and confusion. And then there was light. As the twentieth century dawned, Russell and Moore separated from the neo-Hegelians by defending external relations, pluralism, realism, clarity, and all that is Good. The creation myth of analytic philosophy—like many founding myths—contains some traces of truth. By (...) the end of the nineteenth century, philosophy was indeed dominated by neo-Hegelian monistic idealism. Russell and Moore did indeed separate from the neo-Hegelians by defending external relations, pluralism, and realism. Russell and Moore were much clearer than their predecessors, and this was Good. But the neo-Hegelians actually had an argument for their monism—the argument from internal relatedness—which went misunderstood, and which may even be sound. Or so I will argue. Overview of the argument: The argument from internal relatedness, as I will reconstruct it, proceeds in two stages. First, it is argued that all things are internally related in ways that render them interdependent. Second, the substantial unity of the whole universe is inferred from the interdependence of all of its parts. Overall the argument runs from universal internal relatedness to priority monism. The guiding idea is that failure of free recombination is the modal signature of an integrated monistic cosmos. Overview of the paper: In section 1 I will clarify the key concepts of monism, priority, internal relatedness, and free recombination. In section 2 I will consider the second stage of the argument—from universal internal relatedness to monism—and provide some proofs. In section 3 I will turn to the first stage of the argument—that all things are internally related—and show how some plausible contemporary views vindicate this claim. I will conclude in section 4 by considering how the pluralist might respond.. (shrink)
Of all the major philosophical works, Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is one of the most rewarding, yet one of the most difficult. Norman Kemp Smith's Commentary elucidates not only textural questions and minor issues, but also the central problems which arise, he contends, from the conflicting tendencies of Kant's own thinking. Kemp Smith's Commentary continues to be in demand with Kant scholars, and it is being reissued here with a new introduction by Sebastian Gardner to set it in its (...) contemporary context. (shrink)
Norman Kemp Smith's The Philosophy of David Hume continues to be unsurpassed in its comprehensive coverage of the ideas and issues of Hume's Treatise. Now, after years of waiting, this currently out-of-print and highly sought-after classic is being re-issued. This ground-breaking book has long been regarded as a classic study by scholars in the field, yet a new introduction by Don Garrett places the book in its contemporary context, showing Humes's continuing importance in the field.