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Norman Swartz [26]Norman M. Swartz [2]
  1. Norman Swartz, A Neo-Humean Perspective: Laws as Regularities.
    I was seven or eight years old. In Hebrew school we had just learned the Aleph-Bet and were, haltingly, beginning to sound out words. As we spoke the ancient text, our teacher translated: "... And God said: 'Let there be light.' And there was light. ..."[note 2] Here was magic; here was the supernatural; here was the creation of the universe. I resonated to the story. I was filled with wonder, far more than had ever been elicited by any fairy (...)
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  2. Norman Swartz, Explanation, Causation And.
    Wilson has returned to a debate whose heyday was the fifties and early sixties. He staunchly aligns himself with the deductivists, philosophers such as Popper, Hempel, Bergmann, and Braithwaite, who argued that scientific and historical explanations presuppose general laws and statements of initial conditions from which explanandum statements are validly deduced.
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  3. Norman Swartz, Alphabetizing da a T.
    As children in elementary school we were taught to recite the alphabet in order: “Aay, Bee, See, Dee, Eii, Eff, Ghee, Aaych, …, Why and Zee”. There is nothing natural about this particular ordering: it is strictly a matter of convention. (When and where it was settled upon I haven’t the remotest notion.) Then, having mastered the ordering, we were taught to apply that knowledge to alphabetize lists of words. The procedure is surprisingly complex, and its mastery by mere eight-year (...)
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  4. Norman Swartz, Can Existence and Nomicity Devolve From Axiological Principles? {1}.
    [1] The venerable question "Why is there anything (rather than nothing) at all?" has become particularly topical after a long absence from the philosophical scene. In 1981, it elicited a novel, and rather startling, response from Robert Nozick (Nozick 1981: 115-64). Since then, it has received steady attention from a number of astrophysicists, in particular, those promoting one version or another of an Anthropic Principle (see e.g. Barrow et al. 1986). [2] In the midst of this activity, a small volume (...)
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  5. Norman Swartz, Definitions, Dictionaries, and Meanings.
    7.3.1 Ostension 7.3.2 Extensional Definition by Naming 7.3.3 Extensional Definition by Unique Description 7.4 Two Case Studies in the Application of the Intension/Extension Distinction 7.4.1 "God exists, by definition" 7.4.2 The 'Width' of an Intensional Definition..
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  6. Norman Swartz, First Set of Practice Exercises on Necessary Conditions and Sufficient Conditions.
    Definition: A condition A is said to be sufficient for a condition B, if (and only if) the truth (/existence /occurrence) [as the case may be] of A guarantees (or brings about) the truth (/existence /occurrence) of B.
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  7. Norman Swartz, Lecture Notes on Free Will and Determinism.
    For an expansion of the discussion of Sections 2-5 (Logical Determinism, Epistemic Determinism, and Modal Concepts) see Foreknowledge and Free Will ", in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  8. Norman Swartz, The Bearers of Truth-Values.
    Thesis: Such things as beliefs, statements, assertions, remarks, hypotheses, and theories are those things that are true or false . (Example: we do say such things as "Her belief that her mother had phoned was false." Or, "His assertion that Alberta is smaller than British Columbia is true.").
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  9. Norman Swartz, 'The' Modal Fallacy.
    Note: the technical vocabulary used in this article is explained in a glossary that I prepared for my introductory logic course in 1997.
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  10. Norman Swartz, The Obdurate Persistence of Rationalism.
    Marcus J. is a mathematician extraordinaire. Because it is no longer politically correct to use ivory, the tower in which he is hermetically sealed is made of recycled plastics. In his tower, walled off from the rest of the world, he pursues mathematics. Having started out modestly with theorizing that flipping two coins will yield two heads with a probability of 25%, he has lately gone on to more ambitious projects. Most recently he has published a paper, earning wide acclaim, (...)
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  11. Norman Swartz, The Presuppositions of Empirical Research.
    A carpet vendor has to measure her customer's living room for some new broadloom. She has forgotten her tape measure, but does have a meterstick. She lays the meterstick on the floor, snug up against the wall, with the left edge of the stick in one corner of the room. She then makes a pencil mark at the right edge. Next she shifts the stick right until the left edge of the stick is at her mark, and again marks the (...)
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  12. Norman M. Swartz, Foreknowledge and Free Will. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Suppose it were known, by someone else, what you are going to choose to do tomorrow. Wouldn't that entail that tomorrow you must do what it was known in advance that you would do? In spite of your deliberating and planning, in the end, all is futile: you must choose exactly as it was earlier known that you would. The supposed exercise of your free will is ultimately an illusion. Historically, the tension between foreknowledge and the exercise of free will (...)
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  13. Norman Swartz, Laws of Nature. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Within metaphysics, there are two competing theories of Laws of Nature. On one account, the Regularity Theory, Laws of Nature are statements of the uniformities or regularities in the world; they are mere descriptions of the way the world is. On the other account, the Necessitarian Theory, Laws of Nature are the “principles” which govern the natural phenomena of the world. That is, the natural world “obeys” the Laws of Nature. This seemingly innocuous difference marks one of the most profound (...)
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  14. Norman Swartz (1995). Bradley H. Dowden, Logical Reasoning Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 15 (2):91-94.
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  15. Norman Swartz (1995). Topology in Informal Logic: Slippery Slopes and Black Holes. Dialogue 34 (04):797-.
  16. Norman Swartz (1993). Baffling Phenomena and Other Studies in the Philosophy of Knowledge and Valuation. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (1):224-229.
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  17. Norman Swartz (1993). Getting From P to Q: Valid Inferences and Heuristics. Dialogue 32 (04):689-.
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  18. Norman Swartz (1993). Pascal Engel, The Norm of Truth: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Logic Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 13 (2):86-88.
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  19. Norman Swartz (1991). A Guide for the Disputatious. Dialogue 30 (1-2):123-.
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  20. Norman Swartz (1988). Denis J. Hilton, Ed., Contemporary Science and Natural Explanation: Commonsense Conceptions of Causality Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 8 (9):346-348.
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  21. Norman Swartz (1988). Reply to Ruse. Dialogue 27 (03):529-.
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  22. Norman Swartz (1986). Fred Wilson, Explanation, Causation and Deduction Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 6 (9):456-458.
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  23. Norman Swartz (1985). The Concept of Physical Law. Cambridge University Press.
    The Concept of Physical Law is an original and creative defense of the Regularity theory of physical law, the concept that physical laws are nothing more than descriptions of whatever universal truths happen to be instanced in nature. Professor Swartz clearly identifies and analyzes the arguments and intuitions of the opposing Necessitarian theory, and argues that the standard objection to the Regularity theory turns on a mistaken view of what Regularists mean by 'physical impossibility'; that it is impossible to construct (...)
     
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  24. Norman Swartz (1975). Emergence and Materialist Theories of Sentience. World Futures 14 (3):241-267.
    CONTEMPORARY MATERIALIST theories of mind, viz. Causal Correspondence and Identity, are usually contrasted with several alleged historical competitors: Parallelism; Epiphenomenalism; Dual-aspect; and Emergence. What I shall here attempt to argue is that this last-mentioned theory, Emergence, is no competitor at all, but rather is a natural supplement to a materialist theory. I shall try to argue that there is a good case for saying that if, in particular, sensation-states are caused by or are identical to brain-states, then they are caused (...)
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  25. Norman Swartz (1974). On Reducing the Number of Possible Worlds. Dialogue 13 (01):111-112.
    In his paper, "The Two Main Problems of Philosophy"[Note 1], Professor N.L. Wilson offers an inductive argument for the thesis "that there is only one possible world … possibility, actuality and necessity collapse into each other."[p. 200].
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  26. Norman M. Swartz (1974). Can the Theory of Contingent Identity Between Sensation-States and Brain-States Be Made Empirical? Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3 (March):405-17.
  27. Norman Swartz (1973). Absolute Probability in Small Worlds: A New Paradox in Probability Theory. Philosophia 3 (2-3):167-178.
    For a finite universe of discourse, if Φ → and ~(Ψ → Φ) , then P(Ψ) > P(Φ), i.e., there is always a loss of information, there is an increase in probability, in a non reversible implication. But consider the two propositions, "All ravens are black", (i.e., "(x)(Rx ⊃ Bx)"), and "Some ravens are black" (i.e., "(∃x)(Rx & Bx)"). In a world of one individual, called "a", these two propositions are equivalent to "~Ra ∨ Ba" and "Ra & Ba" respectively. (...)
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  28. Norman Swartz (1973). Is There an Ozma-Problem for Time? Analysis 33 (3):77 - 82.
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