Search results for 'Normative Powers' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Deborah G. Johnson & Thomas M. Powers (2005). Computer Systems and Responsibility: A Normative Look at Technological Complexity. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 7 (2):99-107.score: 360.0
    In this paper, we focus attention on the role of computer system complexity in ascribing responsibility. We begin by introducing the notion of technological moral action (TMA). TMA is carried out by the combination of a computer system user, a system designer (developers, programmers, and testers), and a computer system (hardware and software). We discuss three sometimes overlapping types of responsibility: causal responsibility, moral responsibility, and role responsibility. Our analysis is informed by the well-known accounts provided by Hart and Hart (...)
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  2. Neil C. Manson (2014). Transitional Paternalism: How Shared Normative Powers Give Rise to the Asymmetry of Adolescent Consent and Refusal. Bioethics 28 (9).score: 180.0
    In many jurisdictions, adolescents acquire the right to consent to treatment; but in some cases their refusals – e.g. of life-saving treatment – may not be respected. This asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal seems puzzling, even incoherent. The aim here is to offer an original explanation, and a justification, of this asymmetry. Rather than trying to explain the asymmetry in terms of a variable standard of competence – where the adolescent is competent to consent to, but not refuse, certain (...)
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  3. Neil MacCormick & Joseph Raz (1972). Voluntary Obligations and Normative Powers. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 46:59 - 102.score: 150.0
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  4. Gary Watson (2009). Promises, Reasons, and Normative Powers. In David Sobel & Steven Wall (eds.), Reasons for Action. Cambridge University Press.score: 150.0
     
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  5. Andrea C. Westlund (2013). Deference as a Normative Power. Philosophical Studies 166 (3):455-474.score: 144.0
    Much of the literature on practical authority concerns the authority of the state over its subjects—authority to which we are, as G. E. M. Anscombe says, subject “willy nilly”. Yet many of our “willy” (or voluntary) relationships also seem to involve the exercise of practical authority, and this species of authority is in some ways even more puzzling than authority willy nilly. In this paper I argue that voluntary authority relies on a form of voluntary obligation that is akin (in (...)
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  6. Anthony Holiday (1988). Moral Powers: Normative Necessity in Language and History. Routledge.score: 120.0
     
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  7. T. A. Roberts (1989). Moral Powers: Normative Necessity in Language and History. Philosophical Books 30 (4):236-237.score: 120.0
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  8. Jonathan Gelati, Antonino Rotolo, Giovanni Sartor & Guido Governatori (2004). Normative Autonomy and Normative Co-Ordination: Declarative Power, Representation, and Mandate. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (1-2):53-81.score: 108.0
    In this paper we provide a formal analysis of the idea of normative co-ordination. We argue that this idea is based on the assumption that agents can achieve flexible co-ordination by conferring normative positions to other agents. These positions include duties, permissions, and powers. In particular, we explain the idea of declarative power, which consists in the capacity of the power-holder of creating normative positions, involving other agents, simply by proclaiming such positions. In addition, we account (...)
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  9. David Enoch (2011). Giving Practical Reasons. Philosophers' Imprint 11 (4).score: 66.0
    I am writing a mediocre paper on a topic you are not particularly interested in. You don't have, it seems safe to assume, a (normative) reason to read my draft. I then ask whether you would be willing to have a look and tell me what you think. Suddenly you do have a (normative) reason to read my draft. By my asking, I managed to give you the reason to read the draft. What does such reason-giving consist in? (...)
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  10. David Enoch, Giving Someone a Reason to Φ.score: 66.0
    I am writing a mediocre paper on a topic you are not particularly interested in. You don't have, it seems safe to assume, a (normative) reason to read my draft. I then ask whether you would be willing to have a look and tell me what you think. Suddenly you do have a (normative) reason to read my draft. What exactly happened here? Your having the reason to read my draft – indeed, the very fact that there is (...)
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  11. David Enoch (2014). Authority and Reason‐Giving1. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 89 (2):296-332.score: 60.0
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  12. Joseph Raz, Is There a Reason to Keep Promises.score: 60.0
    If promises are binding there must be a reason to do as one promised. The paper is motivated by belief that there is a difficulty in explaining what that reason is. It arises because the reasons that promising creates are content-independent. Similar difficulties arise regarding other content-independent reasons, though their solution need not be the same. -/- Section One introduces an approach to promises, and outlines an account of them that I have presented before. It forms the backdrop for the (...)
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  13. Pamela Pansardi (2012). A Non-Normative Theory of Power and Domination. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 16 (5):1-20.score: 60.0
    Despite the variety of competing interpretations of domination, a common feature of the most influential analyses of the concept is their reliance on a normative criterion: the detrimental effect of domination on those subject to it. This article offers a non-evaluative, non-consequence-based definition of domination, in line with the perspective on power developed by the theory of the social exchange. Domination, it is argued, should be seen as a structural property of a power relation, and consists in an extreme (...)
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  14. Brandon Warmke (forthcoming). The Economic Model of Forgiveness. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.score: 60.0
    It is sometimes claimed that forgiveness involves the cancellation of a moral debt. This way of speaking about forgiveness exploits an analogy between moral forgiveness and economic debt-cancellation. Call the view that moral forgiveness is like economic debt-cancellation the Economic Model of Forgiveness. In this paper I articulate and motivate the model, defend it against some recent objections, and pose a new puzzle for this way of thinking about forgiveness.
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  15. Julia Barragán (2003). The Perverse Normative Power of Self-Exceptions. Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 18 (2):209-225.score: 60.0
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  16. Key-Young Son (2014). Middle Powers and the Rise of China: 'Identity Norms' of Dependency and Activism and the Outlook for Japan–South Korea Relations Vis-à-Vis the Great Powers. Japanese Journal of Political Science 15 (1):91-112.score: 60.0
    How do state identities and their accompanying norms affect security behaviour especially when states consider forming alliances or alignments? Are middle powers different from great powers in their security norms and preferences? This article identifies dependency and activism as two that constitute and reproduce medium-sized states as bona fide middle powers. This article argues that, due to the identity norms of a middle power, Japan and South Korea are reluctant to form a bilateral alliance between themselves and (...)
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  17. William J. FitzPatrick (2004). Reasons, Value, and Particular Agents: Normative Relevance Without Motivational Internalism. Mind 113 (450):285-318.score: 54.0
    While differing widely in other respects, both neo-Humean and neo-Kantian approaches to normativity embrace an internalist thesis linking reasons for acting to potential motivation. This thesis pushes in different directions depending on the underlying view of the powers of practical reason, but either way it sets the stage for an attack on realist attempts to ground reasons directly in facts about value. How can reasons that are not somehow grounded in motivational features of the agent nonetheless count as reasons (...)
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  18. William Trott (2010). An Analysis of Civilian, Military and Normative Power in EU Foreign Policy. Polis 4:1.score: 50.0
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  19. Poul Wisborg (2013). Human Rights Against Land Grabbing? A Reflection on Norms, Policies, and Power. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1199-1222.score: 48.0
    Large-scale transnational land acquisition of agricultural land in the global south by rich corporations or countries raises challenging normative questions. In this article, the author critically examines and advocates a human rights approach to these questions. Mutually reinforcing, policies, governance and practice promote equitable and secure land tenure that in turn, strengthens other human rights, such as to employment, livelihood and food. Human rights therefore provide standards for evaluating processes and outcomes of transnational land acquisitions and, thus, for determining (...)
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  20. Francesco Guala (2013). Bargaining Power and the Evolution of Un-Fair, Non-Mutualistic Moral Norms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):92 - 93.score: 48.0
    Mutualistic theory explains convincingly the prevalence of fairness norms in small societies of foragers and in large contemporary democratic societies. However, it cannot explain the U-shaped curve of egalitarianism in human history. A theory based on bargaining power is able to provide a more general account and to explain mutualism as a special case. According to this approach, social norms may be more variable and malleable than Baumard et al. suggest.
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  21. Moira Gatens (2009). Spinoza's Disturbing Thesis: Power, Norms and Fiction in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. History of Political Thought 30 (3):455-468.score: 48.0
    This paper treats a recalcitrant problem in Spinoza scholarship, namely, how to reconcile the conception of 'power' in his political writings with that found in his Ethics. Some have doubted the capacity of Spinoza's political philosophy to yield an adequate normative theory. If he is unable to provide a normative ground for political philosophy then perhaps this exposes a problem in Spinoza's philosophy taken as a whole. I argue that the considerable normative resources of his ethical and (...)
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  22. Jan Tullberg (2004). Illusions of Corporate Power:Revisiting the Relative Powers of Corporations and Governments. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 52 (4):325 - 333.score: 46.0
    A common opinion is that power has shifted from states to companies. This article discusses quantitative and qualitative aspects of power possessed by companies and by states. A more adequate comparison than that between company sales and gross national product is the one between company value added and GNP. Also more adequate is the comparison between the public sector and company net profit. These rival measures take down company power to about a tenth of the sales measure. Also in qualitative (...)
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  23. Brian Robinson, Paul Stey & Mark Alfano (forthcoming). Reversing the Side-Effect Effect: The Power of Salient Norms. Philosophical Studies:1-30.score: 46.0
    In the last decade, experimental philosophers have documented systematic asymmetries in the attributions of mental attitudes to agents who produce different types of side effects. We argue that that this effect is driven not simply by the violation of a norm, but by salient-norm violation. As evidence for this hypothesis, we present two new studies in which two conflicting norms are present, and one or both of them is raised to salience. Expanding one’s view to these additional cases presents, we (...)
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  24. Neil MacCormick (1999). Powers and Power-Conferring Norms. In Stanley L. Paulson (ed.), Normativity and Norms: Critical Perspectives on Kelsenian Themes. Oup Oxford.score: 42.0
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  25. Deborah L. Kasman (2003). Knowledge as Power: The Impact of Normativity on Epistemology. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):20 – 22.score: 40.0
  26. Ian Zuckerman (2006). One Law for War and Peace? Judicial Review and Emergency Powers Between the Norm and the Exception. Constellations 13 (4):522-545.score: 40.0
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  27. Joyeeta Gupta (forthcoming). Normative Issues in Global Environmental Governance: Connecting Climate Change, Water and Forests. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics:1-21.score: 40.0
    Glocal (global to local) environmental governance lags behind the science regarding the seriousness of the combined environmental and developmental challenges. Governance regimes have developed differently in different issue areas and are often inconsistent and contradictory; furthermore governance innovations in each area lead to new challenges. The combined effect of issue-based, plural, and fragmented governance raises key normative questions in environmental governance. Hence, this overview paper aims to address the following questions: How can the global community move towards a more (...)
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  28. Hector A. Munera (1985). The Generalized Means Model (GMM) for Non-Deterministic Decision Making: Its Normative and Descriptive Power, Including Sketch of the Representation Theorem. Theory and Decision 18 (2):173-202.score: 40.0
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  29. Stuart Macdonald (forthcoming). The Role of the Courts in Imposing Terrorism Prevention and Investigation Measures: Normative Duality and Legal Realism. [REVIEW] Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-19.score: 38.0
    This article argues that the courts, not the Home Secretary, should be empowered to issue Terrorism Prevention and Investigation Measures (TPIMs). It explains that at the heart of the debate are three questions: whether measures like TPIMs should be viewed primarily from the perspective of security or liberty; how we should conceive the executive and the courts; and the empirical question of how these two arms of government answer these questions. The non-mechanistic nature of legal reasoning means that legal reasons (...)
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  30. Vytautas Sinkevičius (2009). Gross Violation of the Law on Elections to the Seimas Constitutes the Grounds for Discontinuation of the Powers of the Member of the Seimas. Jurisprudence 115 (1):123-153.score: 38.0
    Under Article 63 of the Constitution, a gross violation of the Law on Elections to the Seimas is one of the grounds for discontinuation of the powers of the Member of the Seimas. The Constitution does not reveal expressis verbis as to what is a gross violation of the law on election. The establishment of this is within the discretion of the legislator. While defining what a gross violation of the Law on Elections to the Seimas is, the legislator (...)
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  31. Beth Innocenti Manolescu (2006). A Normative Pragmatic Perspective on Appealing to Emotions in Argumentation. Argumentation 20 (3):327-343.score: 38.0
    Is appealing to emotions in argumentation ever legitimate and, if so, what is the best way to analyze and evaluate such appeals? After overviewing a normative pragmatic perspective on appealing to emotions in argumentation, I present answers to these questions from pragma-dialectical, informal logical, and rhetorical perspectives, and note positions shared and supplemented by a normative pragmatic perspective. A normative pragmatic perspective holds that appealing to emotions in argumentation may be relevant and non-manipulative; and that emotional appeals (...)
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  32. William A. Edmundson (2010). Political Authority, Moral Powers and the Intrinsic Value of Obedience. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 30 (1):179-191.score: 36.0
    Three concepts—authority, obedience and obligation—are central to understanding law and political institutions. The three are also involved in the legitimation of the state: an apology for the state has to make a normative case for the state’s authority, for its right to command obedience, and for the citizen’s obligation to obey the state’s commands. Recent discussions manifest a cumulative scepticism about the apologist’s task. Getting clear about the three concepts is, of..
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  33. Italo Testa (2011). Social Space and the Ontology of Recognition. In Heikki Ikäheimo Arto Laitinen (ed.), Recognition and Social Ontology. Brill Books (pp. 287-308).score: 36.0
    In this paper recognition is taken to be a question of social ontology, regarding the very constitution of the social space of interaction. I concentrate on the question of whether certain aspects of the theory of recognition can be translated into the terms of a socio-ontological paradigm: to do so, I make reference to some conceptual tools derived from John Searle's social ontology and Robert Brandom's normative pragmatics. My strategy consists in showing that recognitive phenomena cannot be isolated at (...)
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  34. Luigi Ferrajoli (2011). The Normative Paradigm of Constitutional Democracy. Res Publica 17 (4):355-367.score: 36.0
    This piece criticizes traditional formal and procedural conceptions of democracy, which fail to account for the development of contemporary constitutional democracy. The latter is characterized by a substantive dimension with respect to the content of the decisions taken through the democratic process. The validity of such decision is conditioned by the respect and actualization of fundamental rights, which are established by the constitution. The limits and constraints established by the constitution require juridical science to play a critical and programmatic role (...)
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  35. Giovanni Sartor (2006). Fundamental Legal Concepts: A Formal and Teleological Characterisation. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 14 (1-2):101-142.score: 36.0
    We shall introduce a set of fundamental legal concepts, providing a definition of each of them. This set will include, besides the usual deontic modalities (obligation, prohibition and permission), the following notions: obligative rights (rights related to other’s obligations), permissive rights, erga-omnes rights, normative conditionals, liability rights, different kinds of legal powers, potestative rights (rights to produce legal results), result-declarations (acts intended to produce legal determinations), and sources of the law.
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  36. Bindu Puri (forthcoming). Finding Reasons for Being Reasonable: Interrogating Rawls. Sophia:1-25.score: 36.0
    This essay discusses Rawls distinction between the reasonable and the rational in the context of the liberal effort to establish the priority of the right over the good. It argues that inarticulacy about the good makes it difficult for Rawls to find arguments in support of a minimal conception of the reasonable overlapping consensus. The essay examines Rawls’ arguments in support of the distinction between the rational and the reasonable. The paper suggests that in terms of these arguments, the term (...)
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  37. Chris M. Bell & Justin Hughes-Jones (2008). Power, Self-Regulation and the Moralization of Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):503 - 514.score: 34.0
    The perception of behavior as a moral or conventional concern can be influenced by contextual variables, including status and power differences. We propose that social processes and in particular social role enactment through the exercise of power will psychologically motivate moralization. Punishing or rewarding others creates a moral dilemma that can be resolved by externalizing causation to incontrovertible moral rules. Legitimate power related to structure and position can carry moral weight but may not influence the power holder’s perceptions of rules (...)
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  38. Richard Yetter Chappell (2012). Fittingness: The Sole Normative Primitive. Philosophical Quarterly 62 (249):684 - 704.score: 30.0
    This paper draws on the 'Fitting Attitudes' analysis of value to argue that we should take the concept of fittingness (rather than value) as our normative primitive. I will argue that the fittingness framework enhances the clarity and expressive power of our normative theorising. Along the way, we will see how the fittingness framework illuminates our understanding of various moral theories, and why it casts doubt on the Global Consequentialist idea that acts and (say) eye colours are normatively (...)
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  39. Enzo Rossi (2012). Justice, Legitimacy, and (Normative) Authority for Political Realists. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 15 (2):149-164.score: 30.0
    One of the main challenges faced by realists in political philosophy is that of offering an account of authority that is genuinely normative and yet does not consist of a moralistic application of general, abstract ethical principles to the practice of politics. Political moralists typically start by devising a conception of justice based on their pre-political moral commitments; authority would then be legitimate only if political power is exercised in accordance with justice. As an alternative to that dominant approach (...)
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  40. William A. Edmundson (2013). Politics in a State of Nature. Ratio Juris 26 (2):149-186.score: 30.0
    Aristotle thought we are by nature political animals, but the state-of-nature tradition sees political society not as natural but as an artifice. For this tradition, political society can usefully be conceived as emerging from a pre-political state of nature by the exercise of innate normative powers. Those powers, together with the rest of our native normative endowment, both make possible the construction of the state, and place sharp limits on the state's just powers and prerogatives. (...)
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  41. Hallvard Lillehammer (2003). The Idea of a Normative Reason. In P. Schaber & R. Huntelmann (eds.), Grundlagen der Ethik. 41--65.score: 30.0
    Recent work in English speaking moral philosophy has seen the rise to prominence of the idea of a normative reason1. By ‘normative reasons’ I mean the reasons agents appeal to in making rational claims on each other. Normative reasons are good reasons on which agents ought to act, even if they are not actually motivated accordingly2. To this extent, normative reasons are distinguishable from the motivating reasons agents appeal to in reason explanations. Even agents who fail (...)
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  42. Anthony A. Long (2007). Stoic Communitarianism and Normative Citizenship. Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (2):241-261.score: 30.0
    This essay argues that Stoicism is the ancient philosophy most relevant to modern politics and civic education. Its relevance is due not to the advocacy of any specific political system or public policy but to its theory that the human good depends primarily on rationality and excellence of character rather than on material prosperity and productivity. According to Stoicism, all human beings are related to one another in virtue of our communal nature as rational animals. Reflection on the norms of (...)
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  43. Sanjay Reddy (2005). The Role of Apparent Constraints in Normative Reasoning: A Methodological Statement and Application to Global Justice. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 9 (1-2):119 - 125.score: 30.0
    The assumptions that are made about the features of the world that are relatively changeable by agents and those that are not (constraints) play a central role in determining normative conclusions. In this way, normative reasoning is deeply dependent on accounts of the empirical world. Successful normative reasoning must avoid the naturalization of constraints and seek to attribute correctly to agents what is and is not in their power to change. Recent discourse on global justice has often (...)
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  44. Frank Hindriks (2012). But Where Is the University? Dialectica 66 (1):93-113.score: 30.0
    Famously Ryle imagined a visitor who has seen the colleges, departments, and libraries of a university but still wonders where the university is. The visitor fails to realize that the university consists of these organizational units. In this paper I ask what exactly the relation is between institutional entities such as universities and the entities they are composed of. I argue that the relation is constitution, and that it can be illuminated in terms of constitutive rules. The understanding of the (...)
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  45. Armin Grunwald (2004). The Normative Basis of (Health) Technology Assessment and the Role of Ethical Expertise. Poiesis and Praxis 2 (s 2-3):175-193.score: 30.0
    The role of normative reflection and the possibilities of ethical inquiry in technology assessment have been under discussion in the TA community for several years. As an outcome of this discussion the necessity of explicitly dealing with normativity in TA has widely been acknowledged. However, it is still quite unclear in which way this should be done. This paper is dedicated to the role (and limitations) of ethical expertise in this field, especially in HTA. By methodological analysis an approach (...)
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  46. Rauno Huttunen & Mark Murphy (2012). Discourse and Recognition as Normative Grounds for Radical Pedagogy: Habermasian and Honnethian Ethics in the Context of Education. Studies in Philosophy and Education 31 (2):137-152.score: 30.0
    The idea of radical pedagogy is connected to the ideals of social justice and democracy and also to the ethical demands of love, care and human flourishing, an emotional context that is sometimes forgotten in discussions of power and inequality. Both this emotional context and also the emphasis on politics can be found in the writings of Paolo Freire, someone who has provided much inspiration for radical pedagogy over the years. However, Freire did not create any explicit ethical foundation for (...)
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  47. Kenneth R. Livingston (1996). The Neurocomputational Mind Meets Normative Epistemology. Philosophical Psychology 9 (1):33-59.score: 30.0
    The rapid development of connectionist models in computer science and of powerful computational tools in neuroscience has encouraged eliminativist materialist philosophers to propose specific alternatives to traditional mentalistic theories of mind. One of the problems associated with such a move is that elimination of the mental would seem to remove access to ideas like truth as the foundations of normative epistemology. Thus, a successful elimination of propositional or sentential theories of mind must not only replace them for purposes of (...)
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  48. William Gay, A Normative Framework for Addressing Peace and Related Global Issues.score: 30.0
    Plato said that as long as wisdom and power, or philosophy and politics, are separated, “there can be no rest from troubles.”1 In The Republic, he sought to forge such a union. For over two millennia, from Plato through John Rawls, philosophers have put forward models for the just state.2 Despite these ongoing efforts, W. B. Gallie contends, “No political philosopher has ever dreamed of looking for the criteria of a good state viz-à-viz [sic] other states.”3 I will argue that (...)
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  49. Kenneth R. Westphal (2007). Normative Constructivism: Hegel's Radical Social Philosophy. SATS: Northern European Journal of Philosophy 8 (2):7-41.score: 30.0
    Onora O’Neill has contributed enormously to moral philosophy (broadly speaking, including both ethics and political philosophy) by identifying Kant’s unique and powerful form of normative constructivism. Frederick Neuhouser has contributed similarly by showing that all of Hegel’s standards of moral rationality aim to insure the complete development of three distinct, complementary forms of personal, moral and social freedom. However, Neuhouser’s study does not examine Hegel’s justificatory methods and principles. The present article aims to reinforce and extend Neuhouser’s findings by (...)
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  50. Kelly D. Martin, Jean L. Johnson & John B. Cullen (2009). Organizational Change, Normative Control Deinstitutionalization, and Corruption. Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (1):105-130.score: 30.0
    Despite widespread attention to corruption and organizational change in the literature, to our knowledge, no research has attempted to understand the linkages between these two powerful organizational phenomena. Accordingly, we draw on major theories in ethics, sociology, and management to develop a theoretical framework for understanding how organizational change can sometimes generate corruption. We extend anomie theory and ethical climate theory to articulate the deinstitutionalization of the normative control system and argue that, through this deinstitutionalization, organizations have the potential (...)
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