Search results for 'Novel predictions' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Mario Alai (2014). Novel Predictions and the No Miracle Argument. Erkenntnis 79 (2):297-326.score: 180.0
    Predictivists use the no miracle argument to argue that “novelpredictions are decisive evidence for theories, while mere accommodation of “old” data cannot confirm to a significant degree. But deductivists claim that since confirmation is a logical theory-data relationship, predicted data cannot confirm more than merely deduced data, and cite historical cases in which known data confirmed theories quite strongly. On the other hand, the advantage of prediction over accommodation is needed by scientific realists to resist Laudan’s criticisms (...)
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  2. Samuel Schindler (2008). Use-Novel Predictions and Mendeleev's Periodic Table: Response To. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (2):265-269.score: 150.0
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  3. Robert G. Hudson (2007). What's Really at Issue with Novel Predictions? Synthese 155 (1):1 - 20.score: 150.0
    In this paper I distinguish two kinds of predictivism, ‘timeless’ and ‘historicized’. The former is the conventional understanding of predictivism. However, I argue that its defense in the works of John Worrall (Scerri and Worrall 2001, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 32, 407–452; Worrall 2002, In the Scope of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, 1, 191–209) and Patrick Maher (Maher 1988, PSA 1988, 1, pp. 273) is wanting. Alternatively, I promote an historicized predictivism, and briefly defend such (...)
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  4. Ioannis Votsis (2014). Objectivity in Confirmation: Post Hoc Monsters and Novel Predictions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45:70-78.score: 150.0
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  5. Ioannis Votsis, Ludwig Fahrbach & Gerhard Schurz (2014). Introduction: Novel Predictions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 45:43-45.score: 150.0
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  6. H. R. Post (1976). Novel Predictions as a Criterion of Merit. In R. S. Cohen, P. K. Feyerabend & M. Wartofsky (eds.), Essays in Memory of Imre Lakatos. Reidel. 493--495.score: 150.0
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  7. Milena Ivanova (2010). Pierre Duhem's Good Sense as a Guide to Theory Choice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 41 (1):58-64.score: 60.0
    This paper examines Duhem’s concept of good sense as an attempt to support a non rule-governed account of rationality in theory choice. Faced with the underdetermination of theory by evidence thesis and the continuity thesis, Duhem tried to account for the ability of scientists to choose theories that continuously grow to a natural classification. I will examine the concept of good sense and the problems that stem from it. I will also present a recent attempt by David Stump to link (...)
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  8. Wenceslao J. Gonzalez (2001). Lakatos's Approach on Prediction and Novel Facts. Theoria 16 (3):499-518.score: 60.0
    Lakatos’s approach to prediction and novel facts is of considerable interest. Prediction appears in his conception in at least three different levels: a) as an important aim of the research programs; b) as a procedure -a key method- for increasing our scientific knowledge both theoretically and empirically; and c) as the way to assess the scientific character of knowledge claims -means for evaluating results-. At all these levels he envisions a close connection between prediction and novel facts. The (...)
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  9. Stephen G. Brush (1994). Dynamics of Theory Change: The Role of Predictions. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:133 - 145.score: 60.0
    The thesis that scientists give greater weight to novel predictions than to explanations of known facts is tested against historical cases in physical science. Several theories were accepted after successful novel predictions but there is little evidence that extra credit was given for novelty. Other theories were rejected despite, or accepted without, making successful novel predictions. No examples were found of theories that were accepted primarily because of successful novel predictions and would (...)
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  10. Heather Douglas & P. D. Magnus (2013). State of the Field: Why Novel Prediction Matters. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (4):580-589.score: 60.0
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  11. Paul M. Churchland (2005). Chimerical Colors: Some Phenomenological Predictions From Cognitive Neuroscience. Philosophical Psychology 18 (5):527-560.score: 54.0
    The Hurvich-Jameson (H-J) opponent-process network offers a familiar account of the empirical structure of the phenomenological color space for humans, an account with a number of predictive and explanatory virtues. Its successes form the bulk of the existing reasons for suggesting a strict identity between our various color sensations on the one hand, and our various coding vectors across the color-opponent neurons in our primary visual pathways on the other. But anti-reductionists standardly complain that the systematic parallels discovered by the (...)
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  12. Michael R. Gardner (1982). Predicting Novel Facts. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 33 (1):1-15.score: 50.0
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  13. F. Michael Akeroyd (2003). Prediction and the Periodic Table: A Response to Scerri and Worrall. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 34 (2):337-355.score: 46.0
    In a lengthy article E. Scerri and J. Worrall (2001) put forward the case for a novel ‘accommodationist’ version of the events surrounding the development of Mendeleef's Periodic Table 1869–1899. However these authors lay undue stress on the fact that President of the Royal Society of London Spottiswoode made absolutely no mention of Mendeleef's famous predictions in the Davy Medal eulogy in 1883 and undue stress on the fact that Cleve's classic 1879 Scandium paper contained an acknowledgement of (...)
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  14. Stephen G. Brush (2002). How Theories Became Knowledge: Morgan's Chromosome Theory of Heredity in America and Britain. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (3):471 - 535.score: 42.0
    T. H. Morgan, A. H. Sturtevant, H. J. Muller and C. B. Bridges published their comprehensive treatise "The Mechanism of Mendelian Heredity" in 1915. By 1920 Morgan's "Chromosome Theory of Heredity" was generally accepted by geneticists in the United States, and by British geneticists by 1925. By 1930 it had been incorporated into most general biology, botany, and zoology textbooks as established knowledge. In this paper, I examine the reasons why it was accepted as part of a series (...)
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  15. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (2009). Prediction in Selectionist Evolutionary Theory. Philosophy of Science 76 (5):889-901.score: 40.0
    Selectionist evolutionary theory has often been faulted for not making novel predictions that are surprising, risky, and correct. I argue that it in fact exhibits the theoretical virtue of predictive capacity in addition to two other virtues: explanatory unification and model fitting. Two case studies show the predictive capacity of selectionist evolutionary theory: parallel evolutionary change in E. coli and the origin of eukaryotic cells through endosymbiosis. †To contact the author, please write to: Philosophy Department, University of California, (...)
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  16. [deleted]Peter Vuust & Maria A. G. Witek (2014). Rhythmic Complexity and Predictive Coding: A Novel Approach to Modeling Rhythm and Meter Perception in Music. Frontiers in Psychology 5.score: 40.0
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  17. [deleted]Elliot C. Brown & Martin Brüne (2012). The Role of Prediction in Social Neuroscience. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6 (147):147-147.score: 38.0
    Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e. by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one’s own and observing (...)
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  18. Avi Rosenfeld, Inon Zuckerman, Amos Azaria & Sarit Kraus (2012). Combining Psychological Models with Machine Learning to Better Predict People's Decisions. Synthese 189 (S1):81-93.score: 38.0
    Creating agents that proficiently interact with people is critical for many applications. Towards creating these agents, models are needed that effectively predict people's decisions in a variety of problems. To date, two approaches have been suggested to generally describe people's decision behavior. One approach creates a-priori predictions about people's behavior, either based on theoretical rational behavior or based on psychological models, including bounded rationality. A second type of approach focuses on creating models based exclusively on observations of people's behavior. (...)
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  19. [deleted]Rachel N. Denison, Elise A. Piazza & Michael A. Silver (2011). Predictive Context Influences Perceptual Selection During Binocular Rivalry. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 38.0
    Prediction may be a fundamental principle of sensory processing: it has been proposed that the brain continuously generates predictions about forthcoming sensory information. However, little is known about how prediction contributes to the selection of a conscious percept from among competing alternatives. Here, we used binocular rivalry to investigate the effects of prediction on perceptual selection. In binocular rivalry, incompatible images presented to the two eyes result in a perceptual alternation between the images, even though the visual stimuli remain (...)
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  20. [deleted]Tiago V. Maia Guillermo Horga (2012). Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Cognitive Control: A Theoretical Perspective and a Novel Empirical Approach. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 36.0
    Controlled processing is often referred to as “voluntary” or “willful” and therefore assumed to depend entirely on conscious processes. Recent studies using subliminal-priming paradigms, however, have started to question this assumption. Specifically, these studies have shown that subliminally presented stimuli can induce adjustments in control. Such findings are not immediately reconcilable with the view that conscious and unconscious processes are separate, with each having its own neural substrates and modus operandi. We propose a different theoretical perspective that suggests that conscious (...)
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  21. Peter Achinstein (1994). Explanation V. Prediction: Which Carries More Weight? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:156 - 164.score: 34.0
    Do predictions of novel facts provide stronger evidence for a theory than explanations of old ones? Sometimes yes, sometimes no. Which obtains has nothing to do with whether the evidence is predicted or explained, but only with the selection procedure used to generate the evidence. This is demonstrated by reference to a series of hypothetical drug cases and to Heinrich Hertz's 1883 cathode ray experiments.
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  22. Malcolm R. Forster (1994). Non-Bayesian Foundations for Statistical Estimation, Prediction, and the Ravens Example. Erkenntnis 40 (3):357 - 376.score: 34.0
    The paper provides a formal proof that efficient estimates of parameters, which vary as as little as possible when measurements are repeated, may be expected to provide more accurate predictions. The definition of predictive accuracy is motivated by the work of Akaike (1973). Surprisingly, the same explanation provides a novel solution for a well known problem for standard theories of scientific confirmation — the Ravens Paradox. This is significant in light of the fact that standard Bayesian analyses of (...)
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  23. Malcolm Forster, The Einsteinian Prediction of the Precession of Mercury's Perihelion.score: 34.0
    Puzzle solving in normal science involves a process of accommodation—auxiliary assumptions are changed, and parameter values are adjusted so as to eliminate the known discrepancies with the data. Accommodation is often contrasted with prediction. Predictions happen when one achieves a good fit with novel data without accommodation. So, what exactly is the distinction, and why is it important? The distinction, as I understand it, is relative to a model M and a data set D, where M is a (...)
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  24. Jarrett Leplin (1997). A Novel Defense of Scientific Realism. Oxford University Press.score: 32.0
    Leplin attempts to reinstate the common sense idea that theoretical knowledge is achievable, indeed that its achievement is part of the means to progress in empirical knowledge. He sketches the genesis of the skeptical position, then introduces his argument for Minimalist Scientific Realism -- the requirement that novel predicitons be explained, and the claim that only realism about scientific theories can explain the importance of novel prediction.
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  25. James A. Kahn, Steven E. Landsburg & Alan C. Stockman (1992). On Novel Confirmation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 43 (4):503-516.score: 32.0
    Evidence that confirms a scientific hypothesis is said to be ‘novel’ if it is not discovered until after the hypothesis isconstructed. The philosophical issues surrounding novel confirmation have been well summarized by Campbell and Vinci [1983]. They write that philosophers of science generally agree that when observational evidence supports a theory, the confirmation is much stronger when the evidence is ‘novel’. . . There are, nevertheless, reasons to be skeptical of this tradition . . . The notion (...)
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  26. Greg Frost-Arnold, The Limits of Scientific Explanation and the No-Miracles Argument.score: 30.0
    There are certain explanations that scientists do not accept, even though such explanations do not conflict with observation, logic, or other scientific theories. I argue that a common version of the no-miracles argument (NMA) for scientific realism relies upon just such an explanation. First, scientists (usually) do not accept explanations whose explanans neither generates novel predictions nor unifies apparently disparate phenomena. Second, scientific realism (as it appears in the NMA) is an explanans that makes no new predictions, (...)
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  27. Greg Frost‐Arnold (2010). The No‐Miracles Argument for Realism: Inference to an Unacceptable Explanation. Philosophy of Science 77 (1):35-58.score: 30.0
    I argue that a certain type of naturalist should not accept a prominent version of the no‐miracles argument (NMA). First, scientists (usually) do not accept explanations whose explanans‐statements neither generate novel predictions nor unify apparently disparate established claims. Second, scientific realism (as it appears in the NMA) is an explanans that makes no new predictions and fails to unify disparate established claims. Third, many proponents of the NMA explicitly adopt a naturalism that forbids philosophy of science from (...)
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  28. P. Kyle Stanford (2000). An Antirealist Explanation of the Success of Science. Philosophy of Science 67 (2):266-284.score: 30.0
    I develop an account of predictive similarity that allows even Antirealists who accept a correspondence conception of truth to answer the Realist demand (recently given sophisticated reformulations by Musgrave and Leplin) to explain the success of particular scientific theories by appeal to some intrinsic feature of those theories (notwithstanding the failure of past efforts by van Fraassen, Fine, and Laudan). I conclude by arguing that we have no reason to find truth a better (i.e., more plausible) explanation of a theory's (...)
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  29. Esther Thelen, Gregor Schöner, Christian Scheier & Linda B. Smith (2001). The Dynamics of Embodiment: A Field Theory of Infant Perseverative Reaching. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):1-34.score: 30.0
    The overall goal of this target article is to demonstrate a mechanism for an embodied cognition. The particular vehicle is a much-studied, but still widely debated phenomenon seen in 7–12 month-old-infants. In Piaget's classic “A-not-B error,” infants who have successfully uncovered a toy at location “A” continue to reach to that location even after they watch the toy hidden in a nearby location “B.” Here, we question the traditional explanations of the error as an indicator of infants' concepts of objects (...)
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  30. Greg Frost-Arnold (2010). The No-Miracles Argument for Realism: Inference to an Unacceptable Explanation. Philosophy of Science 77 (1):35-58.score: 30.0
    I argue that a certain type of naturalist should not accept a prominent version of the no-miracles argument (NMA). First, scientists (usually) do not accept explanations whose explanans-statements neither generate novel predictions nor unify apparently disparate established claims. Second, scientific realism (as it appears in the NMA) is an explanans that makes no new predictions and fails to unify disparate established claims. Third, many proponents of the NMA explicitly adopt a naturalism that forbids philosophy of science from (...)
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  31. Elie G. Zahar (2001). The Interdependence of the Core, the Heuristic and the Novelty of Facts in Lakatos's MSRP. Theoria 16 (3):415-435.score: 30.0
    In this paper I try to explain why Lakatos’s (and Popper’s) conventionalist view must be replaced by a phenomenological conception of the empirical basis; for only in this way can one make sense of the theses that the hard core of an RP (Research Programme) can be shielded against refutations; that this metaphysical hard core can be turned into a set of guidelines or, alternatively, into a set of heuristic metaprinciples governing the development of an RP; and that a distinction (...)
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  32. Chris Cummins, Uli Sauerland & Stephanie Solt (2012). Granularity and Scalar Implicature in Numerical Expressions. Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (2):135-169.score: 30.0
    It has been generally assumed that certain categories of numerical expressions, such as ‘more than n’, ‘at least n’, and ‘fewer than n’, systematically fail to give rise to scalar implicatures in unembedded declarative contexts. Various proposals have been developed to explain this perceived absence. In this paper, we consider the relevance of scale granularity to scalar implicature, and make two novel predictions: first, that scalar implicatures are in fact available from these numerical expressions at the appropriate granularity (...)
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  33. Richard Nunan (1993). Heuristic Novelty and the Asymmetry Problem in Bayesian Confirmation Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 44 (1):17-36.score: 30.0
    Bayesian confirmation theory, as traditionally interpreted, treats the temporal relationship between the formulation of a hypothesis and the confirmation (or recognition) of evidence entailed by that hypothesis merely as a component of the psychology of discovery and acceptance of a hypothesis. The temporal order of these events is irrelevant to the logic of rational theory choice. A few years ago Richmond Campbell and Thomas Vinci offered a reinterpretation of Bayes' Theorem in defense of the view that the temporal relationship between (...)
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  34. David L. Hull (1998). Studying the Study of Science Scientifically. Perspectives on Science 6 (3):209-231.score: 30.0
    : Testing the claims that scientists make is extremely difficult. Testing the claims that philosophers of science make about science is even more difficult, difficult but not impossible. I discuss three efforts at testing the sorts of claims that philosophers of science make about science: the influence of scientists' age on the alacrity with which they accept new views, the effect of birth order on the sorts of contributions that scientists make, and the role of novel predictions in (...)
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  35. Ralph Hertwig Valerie M. Chase (1998). Many Reasons or Just One: How Response Mode Affects Reasoning in the Conjunction Problem. Thinking and Reasoning 4 (4):319 – 352.score: 30.0
    Forty years of experimentation on class inclusion and its probabilistic relatives have led to inconsistent results and conclusions about human reasoning. Recent research on the conjunction "fallacy" recapitulates this history. In contrast to previous results, we found that a majority of participants adhere to class inclusion in the classic Linda problem. We outline a theoretical framework that attributes the contradictory results to differences in statistical sophistication and to differences in response mode-whether participants are asked for probability estimates or ranks-and propose (...)
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  36. Stuart Marcovitch & Philip David Zelazo (2001). On the Need for Conscious Control and Conceptual Understanding. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):48-49.score: 30.0
    The dynamic systems approach simulates a wide range of effects and generates novel predictions, but it fails to explain age-related behavioral changes in psychological terms. We argue that the roles of conscious control and explicit knowledge must be addressed in any model of A-not-B performance, and a fortiori, in any model of goal-directed action.
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  37. Catherine L. Reed, Jefferson D. Grubb & Piotr Winkielman (2004). Emulation Theory Offers Conceptual Gains but Needs Filters. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):411-412.score: 30.0
    Much can be gained by specifying the operation of the emulation process. A brief review of studies from diverse domains, including complex motor-skill representation, emotion perception, and face memory, highlights that emulation theory offers precise explanations of results and novel predictions. However, the neural instantiation of the emulation process requires development to move the theory from armchair to laboratory.
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  38. Bob Rehder (2011). Taking the Rationality Out of Probabilistic Models. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):210-211.score: 30.0
    Rational models vary in their goals and sources of justification. While the assumptions of some are grounded in the environment, those of others are induced and so require more traditional sources of justification, such as generalizability to dissimilar tasks and making novel predictions. Their contribution to scientific understanding will remain uncertain until standards of evidence are clarified.
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  39. Tom Ziemke Robert Lowe (2011). The Feeling of Action Tendencies: On the Emotional Regulation of Goal-Directed Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 28.0
    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion research, over the past century and beyond, has tended to view feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: Attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic (...)
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  40. Sergeiy Sandler, Bakhtin on Poetry, Epic, and the Novel: Behind the Façade.score: 24.0
    Mikhail Bakhtin has gained a reputation of a thinker and literary theorist somehow hostile to poetry, and more specifically to the epic. This view is based on texts, in which Bakhtin creates and develops a conceptual contrast between poetry and the novel (in "Discourse in the Novel") or between epic and the novel (in "Epic and Novel"). However, as I will show, such perceptions of Bakhtin's position are grounded in a misunderstanding of Bakhtin's writing strategy and (...)
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  41. Lee Smolin (2012). A Real Ensemble Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 42 (10):1239-1261.score: 24.0
    A new ensemble interpretation of quantum mechanics is proposed according to which the ensemble associated to a quantum state really exists: it is the ensemble of all the systems in the same quantum state in the universe. Individual systems within the ensemble have microscopic states, described by beables. The probabilities of quantum theory turn out to be just ordinary relative frequencies probabilities in these ensembles. Laws for the evolution of the beables of individual systems are given such that their ensemble (...)
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  42. Peter Achinstein (2001). The Book of Evidence. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    What is required for something to be evidence for a hypothesis? In this fascinating, elegantly written work, distinguished philosopher of science Peter Achinstein explores this question, rejecting typical philosophical and statistical theories of evidence. He claims these theories are much too weak to give scientists what they want--a good reason to believe--and, in some cases, they furnish concepts that mistakenly make all evidential claims a priori. Achinstein introduces four concepts of evidence, defines three of them by reference to "potential" evidence, (...)
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  43. Nicholas Asher (1986). Belief in Discourse Representation Theory. Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 (2):127 - 189.score: 24.0
    I hope I have convinced the reader that DR theory offers at least some exciting potential when applied to the semantics of belief reports. It differs considerably from other approaches, and it makes intuitively acceptable predictions that other theories do not. The theory also provides a novel approach to the semantics of other propsitional attitude reports. Further, DR theory enables one to approach the topic of anaphora within belief and other propositional attitude contexts in a novel way, (...)
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  44. Michael Anderson, Evolution, Embodiment and the Nature of the Mind.score: 24.0
    In: B. Hardy-Vallee & N. Payette, eds. Beyond the brain: embodied, situated & distributed cognition. (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar’s Press), in press. Abstract: In this article, I do three main things: 1. First, I introduce an approach to the mind motivated primarily by evolutionary considerations. I do that by laying out four principles for the study of the mind from an evolutionary perspective, and four predictions that they suggest. This evolutionary perspective is completely compatible with, although broader than, the embodied (...)
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  45. Ian Thompson (2011). Starting Science From God. Eagle Pearl Press.score: 24.0
    Many of us these days sense there is something real beyond the scope of naturalistic science. But what? Must mental and religious lives always remain a mystery and never become part of scientific knowledge? In this well-argued book, physicist Ian Thompson makes a case for a 'scientific theism'. He shows how a following of core postulates of theism leads to novel and useful predictions about the psychology of minds and the physics of materials which should appear in the (...)
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  46. Volkert Beekman (2000). You Are What You Eat: Meat, Novel Protein Foods, and Consumptive Freedom. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 12 (2):185-196.score: 24.0
    Animal husbandry has been accused ofmaltreating animals, polluting the environment, and soon. These accusations were thought to be answered whenthe Dutch research program ``Sustainable TechnologicalDevelopment'' (STD) suggested a government-initiatedconversion from meat to novel protein foods (NPFs).STD reasoned that if consumers converted from meat toNPFs, non-sustainable animal husbandry would no longerbe needed. Whereas STD only worried about how toconstruct NPFs with a meat bite, this paper drawsattention to the presumed, but problematic, role forthe government in the execution of the STDsuggestions. (...)
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  47. Anatoli Andrei Vankov (2008). On Relativistic Generalization of Gravitational Force. Foundations of Physics 38 (6):523-545.score: 24.0
    In relativistic theories, the assumption of proper mass constancy generally holds. We study gravitational relativistic mechanics of point particle in the novel approach of proper mass varying under Minkowski force action. The motivation and objective of this work are twofold: first, to show how the gravitational force can be included in the Special Relativity Mechanics framework, and, second, to investigate possible consequences of the revision of conventional proper mass concept (in particular, to clarify a proper mass role in the (...)
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  48. Linda Palmer, Kant and the Brain: A New Empirical Hypothesis.score: 24.0
    Immanuel Kant’s three great Critiques stand among the bulkier monuments of Enlightenment thought. The first is best known; the last had until recently been rather less studied. But his final Critique contains, I contend, a remarkable development of Kant’s theory of how human beings use and create systems of knowledge. While Kant was not himself concerned with the neuronal substrates of cognition, I argue this development yields a novel empirical hypothesis susceptible of experimental investigation. Here I present the Kantian (...)
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  49. Keith Stenning & Jon Oberlander (1997). A Cognitive Theory of Graphical and Linguistic Reasoning: Logic and Implementation. Cognitive Science. Philosophical Explorations.score: 24.0
    We discuss external and internal graphical and linguistic representational systems. We argue that a cognitive theory of peoples' reasoning performance must account for (a) the logical equivalence of inferences expressed in graphical and linguistic form; and (b) the implementational differences that affect facility of inference. Our theory proposes that graphical representations limit abstraction and thereby aid processibility. We discuss the ideas of specificity and abstraction, and their cognitive relevance. Empirical support comes from tasks (i) involving and (ii) not involving the (...)
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  50. E. Panarella (1974). Theory of Laser-Induced Gas Ionization. Foundations of Physics 4 (2):227-259.score: 24.0
    The mechanism of laser-induced gas ionization is analyzed in the context of the theories presently available, namely multiphoton and cascade theory, and their predictions are shown to be in serious divergence from experimentation. A novel hypothesis is then formulated which considers the classical photon energy expression ε=hν as the limit of a general expression ε=hν/[1−βν f(I)],f(I) being a function of light intensity and βν a coefficient such that βν f(I) significantly differs from zero only for high-intensity laser light. (...)
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