Search results for 'Number Ratio Result Social Phil' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John T. Sanders (1988). Why the Numbers Should Sometimes Count. Philosophy and Public Affairs 17 (1):3-14.score: 810.0
    John Taurek has argued that, where choices must be made between alternatives that affect different numbers of people, the numbers are not, by themselves, morally relevant. This is because we "must" take "losses-to" the persons into account (and these don't sum), but "must not" consider "losses-of" persons (because we must not treat persons like objects). I argue that the numbers are always ethically relevant, and that they may sometimes be the decisive consideration.
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  2. J. E. Lycett & R. I. M. Dunbar (2000). Mobile Phones as Lekking Devices Among Human Males. Human Nature 11 (1):93-104.score: 216.0
    This study investigated the use of mobile telephones by males and females in a public bar frequented by professional people. We found that, unlike women, men who possess mobile telephones more often publicly display them, and that these displays were related to the number of men in a social group, but not the number of women. This result was not due simply to a greater number of males who have telephones: we found an increase with (...)
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  3. Phil Nicholls (1989). Reviews : Roy Porter and Andrew Wear (Eds), Problems and Methods in the History of Medicine, Beckenham: Croom Helm, 1987, £30.00, Ix + 262 Pp. Social History of Medicine: The Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, Volume I, Number I, April 1988, Oxford: Oxford University Press, £35.00 (£12.00) P.A. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 2 (3):403-407.score: 189.0
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  4. John O'Neill & Martin O'Neill (2012). Social Justice and the Future of Flood Insurance. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.score: 144.0
    What would be a fair model for flood insurance? Catastrophic flooding has become increasingly frequent in the UK and, with climate change, is likely to become even more frequent in the future. With the UK's current flood insurance regime ending in 2013, we argues that: -/- - there is an overwhelming case for rejecting a free market in flood insurance after 2013; - this market-based approach threatens to leave many thousands of properties uninsurable, leading to extensive social blight; - (...)
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  5. Thomas Eberle (2010). The Phenomenological Life-World Analysis and the Methodology of the Social Sciences. Human Studies 33 (2):123-139.score: 144.0
    This Alfred Schutz Memorial Lecture discusses the relationship between the phenomenological life-world analysis and the methodology of the social sciences, which was the central motive of Schutz’s work. I have set two major goals in this lecture. The first is to scrutinize the postulate of adequacy, as this postulate is the most crucial of Schutz’s methodological postulates. Max Weber devised the postulate ‘adequacy of meaning’ in analogy to the postulate of ‘causal adequacy’ (a concept used in jurisprudence) and regarded (...)
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  6. Jacob Brower & Vijay Mahajan (2013). Driven to Be Good: A Stakeholder Theory Perspective on the Drivers of Corporate Social Performance. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):313-331.score: 144.0
    Despite growing evidence of the benefits to a firm of improving corporate social performance (CSP), many firms vary significantly in terms of their CSP activities. This research investigates how the characteristics of the stakeholder landscape influence a firm’s CSP breadth. Using stakeholder theory, we specifically propose that several factors increase the salience and impact of stakeholders’ demands on the firm and that, in response to these factors, a firm’s CSP will have greater breadth. A firm’s CSP breadth is operationalized (...)
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  7. Santi Phithakkitnukoon & Ram Dantu (2011). Mobile Social Group Sizes and Scaling Ratio. AI and Society 26 (1):71-85.score: 144.0
    Social data mining has become an emerging area of research in information and communication technology fields. The scope of social data mining has expanded significantly in the recent years with the advance of telecommunication technologies and the rapidly increasing accessibility of computing resources and mobile devices. People increasingly engage in and rely on phone communications for both personal and business purposes. Hence, mobile phones become an indispensable part of life for many people. In this article, we perform (...) data mining on mobile social networking by presenting a simple but efficient method to define social closeness and social grouping, which are then used to identify social sizes and scaling ratio of close to “8”. We conclude that social mobile network is a subset of the face-to-face social network, and both groupings are not necessary the same, hence the scaling ratios are distinct. Mobile social data mining. (shrink)
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  8. Kai Vogeley Ulrich J. Pfeiffer, Leonhard Schilbach, Mathis Jording, Bert Timmermans, Gary Bente (2012). Eyes on the Mind: Investigating the Influence of Gaze Dynamics on the Perception of Others in Real-Time Social Interaction. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 144.0
    Social gaze provides a window into the interests and intentions of others and allows us to actively point out our own. It enables us to engage in triadic interactions involving human actors and physical objects and to build an indispensable basis for coordinated action and collaborative efforts. The object-related aspect of gaze in combination with the fact that any motor act of looking encompasses both input and output of the minds involved makes this non-verbal cue system particularly interesting for (...)
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  9. R. Ragland (1980). On Playing Dice with the Universe-Problems in the Use of Random Number Tables in Social-Science Research. Journal of Thought 15 (1):93-98.score: 132.0
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  10. Alfred W. Steinhauser (1941). An Evaluation of the Social Teachings Found in a Selected Number of High School Textbooks. Washington, D.C.,The Catholic University of America.score: 132.0
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  11. P. J. J. Phillips (2011). Book Review: Phil Hutchinson, Rupert Read, and Wes Sharrock: There is No Such Thing as a Social Science: In Defence of Peter Winch. Directions in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis Farnham, UK: Ashgate Press, 2008. 156 Pp. {Pound}50.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):295-297.score: 126.0
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  12. Andrew Bailey, Samantha Brennan, Will Kymlicka, Jacob Levy, Alex Sager & Clark Wolf (eds.) (2008). The Broadview Anthology of Social and Political Thought: Volume 2: The Twentieth Century and Beyond. Broadview Press.score: 126.0
    This comprehensive volume contains much of the important work in political and social philosophy from ancient times until the end of the nineteenth century. The anthology offers both depth and breadth in its selection of material by central figures, while also representing other currents of political thought. Thucydides, Seneca, and Cicero are included along with Plato and Aristotle; Al-Farabi, Marsilius of Padua, and de Pizan take their place alongside Augustine and Aquinas; Astell and Constant are presented in the company (...)
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  13. Andrew Bailey, Samantha Brennan, Will Kymlicka, Jacob Levy, Alex Sager & Clark Wolf (eds.) (2008). The Broadview Anthology of Social and Political Thought: Volume 1: From Plato to Nietzsche. Broadview Press.score: 126.0
    This comprehensive volume contains much of the important work in political and social philosophy from ancient times until the end of the nineteenth century. The anthology offers both depth and breadth in its selection of material by central figures, while also representing other currents of political thought. Thucydides, Seneca, and Cicero are included along with Plato and Aristotle; Al-Farabi, Marsilius of Padua, and de Pizan take their place alongside Augustine and Aquinas; Astell and Constant are presented in the company (...)
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  14. Hubert M. Blalock (1986). Multiple Causation, Indirect Measurement and Generalizability in the Social Sciences. Synthese 68 (1):13-36.score: 126.0
    The fact that causal laws in the social sciences are most realistically expressed as both multivariate and stochastic has a number of very important implications for indirect measurement and generalizability. It becomes difficult to link theoretical definitions of general constructs in a one-to-one relationship to research operations, with the result that there is conceptual slippage in both experimental and nonexperimental research. It is argued that problems of this nature can be approached by developing specific multivariate causal models (...)
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  15. Hubert M. Blalock Jr (1986). Multiple Causation, Indirect Measurement and Generalizability in the Social Sciences. Synthese 68 (1):13 - 36.score: 126.0
    The fact that causal laws in the social sciences are most realistically expressed as both multivariate and stochastic has a number of very important implications for indirect measurement and generalizability. It becomes difficult to link theoretical definitions of general constructs in a one-to-one relationship to research operations, with the result that there is conceptual slippage in both experimental and nonexperimental research. It is argued that problems of this nature can be approached by developing specific multivariate causal models (...)
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  16. Adrian Desmond (1984). Robert E. Grant: The Social Predicament of a Pre-Darwinian Transmutationist. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2):189 - 223.score: 126.0
    Wakley in 1846 called Grant “at once the most eloquent, the most accomplished, the most self-sacrificing, and the most unrewarded man in the profession.”128 I have shown some of the reasons why this was so, and I have suggested that his Lamarckism was one of a number of factors that served to alienate him from the conservative scientific community in the 1830's and 1840's. I have further shown the need for a fundamental rethinking of Grant's position in the history (...)
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  17. Alexander Pruss, Functionalism and the Number of Minds Alexander R. Pruss January 27, 2004.score: 126.0
    I argue that standard functionalism leads to absurd conclusions as to the number of minds that would exist in the universe if persons were duplicated. Rather than yielding the conclusion that making a molecule-by-molecule copy of a material person would result in two persons, it leads to the conclusion that three persons, or perhaps only one person, would result. This is absurd and standard functionalism should be abandoned. Social varieties of functionalism fare no better, though there (...)
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  18. Jim I. Unah (2008). The Obligatory Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 7:43-48.score: 126.0
    The ongoing discourse on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) recognises two positions canvassed extensively in literature. These positions have crystallised in the agency theory and the stakeholder theory. The agency theory holds the proposition to be true that the social responsibility of business is profit maximisationand that the duty of the business executive or manager is to produce result for his employer(s) namely, the board of directors and the shareholders. The stakeholder theory, on the other hand, avers that (...)
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  19. R. I. M. Dunbar & M. Spoors (1995). Social Networks, Support Cliques, and Kinship. Human Nature 6 (3):273-290.score: 126.0
    Data on the number of adults that an individual contacts at least once a month in a set of British populations yield estimates of network sizes that correspond closely to those of the typical “sympathy group” size in humans. Men and women do not differ in their total network size, but women have more females and more kin in their networks than men do. Kin account for a significantly higher proportion of network members than would be expected by chance. (...)
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  20. Carolyn Wilde (2010). There is No Such Thing as Social Science: In Defence of Peter Winch – by Phil Hutchinson, Rupert Read and Wes Sharrock. Philosophical Investigations 33 (2):191-199.score: 120.0
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  21. Lawrence A. Scaff (1993). Life Contra Ratio: Music and Social Theory. Sociological Theory 11 (2):234-240.score: 120.0
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  22. J. S. Minas (1958). Book Review:Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Volume 1, Number 1 Arne Naess. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 25 (4):309-.score: 120.0
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  23. [author unknown] (1991). Prepared Testimony and Statement for the Record of Marc Rotenberg Director, Washington Office, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR) on the Use of the Social Security Number as a National Identifier Before the Subcommittee on Social Secu Rity, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S House of Representatives February 27, 1991. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 21 (2-4):13-19.score: 120.0
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  24. William Demopoulos’Anthology (1995). Der Arithmetik and His Earlier Exoteric Book Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik. We May Describe the Two Central Results of the Recent Re-Evaluation of His Work in the Following Way: Let Frege Arithmetic Be the Result of Adjoining to Full Axiomatic Second-Order Logic a Suitable Formalization of the Statement That the Fs and the Gs Have the Same Number If and Only If the Fs and the Gs Are. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 1 (3):317-326.score: 120.0
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  25. V. Gavalas, K. Rontos & N. Nagopoulos (forthcoming). Sex Ratio at Birth in Twenty-First Century Greece: The Role of Ethnic and Social Groups. Journal of Biosocial Science:1-13.score: 120.0
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  26. Paul M. Bronstein (1984). A Confound in the Application of Fixed-Ratio Schedules to the Social Behavior of Male Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta Splendens). Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (5):484-487.score: 120.0
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  27. T. M. Fogarty (1982). A Limited Possibility Result for Social Choice Under Majority Voting. Theory and Decision 14 (4):361-372.score: 120.0
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  28. Surname Given-Names (2010). Announcement: Journal of Social Issues (2009, Volume 65, Number 3) Special Issue on Human-Animal Interactions. Society and Animals 18 (1):105-106.score: 120.0
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  29. Harry J. Jerison (1993). Number Our Days: Quantifying Social Evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):712.score: 120.0
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  30. John Shotter (1994). 84 History of the Human Sciences Vol. 7 No. 1 3 This Development in Social Psychology Can Be Seen Both Here (Gergen, 1985) and in a Large Number of Subsequent Publications and Collections, Too Numerous to Cite, in Which Gergen has Played a Major Role. That He is Not Alone Can Be Seen in the Work Of. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 7 (1).score: 120.0
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  31. B. Porr & P. Di Prodi (2014). Subsystem Formation Driven by Double Contingency. Constructivist Foundations 9 (2):199-211.score: 118.0
    Purpose: This article investigates the emergence of subsystems in societies as a solution to the double contingency problem. Context: There are two underlying paradigms: one is radical constructivism in the sense that perturbations are at the centre of the self-organising processes; the other is Luhmann’s double contingency problem, where agents learn anticipations from each other. Approach: Central to our investigation is a computer simulation where we place agents into an arena. These agents can learn to (a) collect food and/or (b) (...)
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  32. Paul Bloom (2001). Précis of How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1095-1103.score: 99.0
    Normal children learn tens of thousands of words, and do so quickly and efficiently, often in highly impoverished environments. In How Children Learn the Meanings of Words, I argue that word learning is the product of certain cognitive and linguistic abilities that include the ability to acquire concepts, an appreciation of syntactic cues to meaning, and a rich understanding of the mental states of other people. These capacities are powerful, early emerging, and to some extent uniquely human, but they are (...)
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  33. Jonathan Birch (2014). Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.score: 99.0
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project of (...)
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  34. Yilmaz Hatipkarasulu & James H. Gill (2004). Identification of Shareholder Ethics and Responsibilities in Online Reverse Auctions for Construction Projects. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):283-288.score: 99.0
    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse (...)
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  35. Linda J. Graham (2008). Child-Rearing Inc.: On the Perils of Political Paralysis Down Under. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (6):739-746.score: 99.0
    In his 2007 PESA keynote address, Paul Smeyers discussed the increasing regulation of child-rearing through government intervention and the generation of 'experts', citing particular examples from Europe where cases of childhood obesity and parental neglect have stirred public opinion and political debate. In his paper ('Child-Rearing: On government intervention and the discourse of experts', this issue), Smeyers touches on a number of tensions before concluding that child-rearing qualifies as a practice in which liberal governments should be reluctant to intervene. (...)
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  36. Lorne Campbell, Jeffry A. Simpson, Mark Stewart & John G. Manning (2002). The Formation of Status Hierarchies in Leaderless Groups. Human Nature 13 (3):345-362.score: 99.0
    Two studies examined the link between social dominance and male waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Groups of four men interacted in a leaderless group discussion. In both studies, men with higher WHRs (associated with current and long-term health status) were rated by other group members as behaving more leader-like when an observer was present, and rated themselves as being more assertive. In Study 2, men with higher WHRs were rated by independent observers as behaving more dominantly, but only when the (...)
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  37. Darryl W. Coulthard (2010). Catching Gender-Identity Production in Flight: Making the Commonplace Visible. Journal of Research Practice 5 (2):Article M5.score: 99.0
    The purpose of this article is to develop and illustrate an approach for making the commonplace visible in a natural, as opposed to manipulated, social setting. The key research task was to find a way of capturing the ongoing production or enactment of the self that provides some insight into the way in which it is produced in a routine, matter of fact way. The article takes a number of steps to develop a research approach to the task. (...)
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  38. Nanna Mik-Meyer (2006). Identities and Organisations. Evaluating the Personality Traits of Clients in Two Danish Rehabilitation Organizations. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 8 (1):32-48.score: 99.0
    This article explores how the guidelines for personality assessments in two Danish rehabilitation organizations influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis shows how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client types pertaining to that organization. The rehabilitation organizations’ local history, legislation, along with the (...)
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  39. Shogo Okada, Yoichi Kobayashi, Satoshi Ishibashi & Toyoaki Nishida (2010). Incremental Learning of Gestures for Human–Robot Interaction. AI and Society 25 (2):155-168.score: 99.0
    For a robot to cohabit with people, it should be able to learn people’s nonverbal social behavior from experience. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning method for recognizing gestures used in interaction and communication. Our method enables robots to learn gestures incrementally during human–robot interaction in an unsupervised manner. It allows the user to leave the number and types of gestures undefined prior to the learning. The proposed method (HB-SOINN) is based on a self-organizing incremental (...)
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  40. Véronique Munoz-Dardé (2005). The Distribution of Numbers and the Comprehensiveness of Reasons. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 (2):207–233.score: 96.0
    In this paper, I concentrate on two themes: to what extent numbers bear on an agent's duties, and how numbers should relate to social policy. In the first half of the paper I consider the abstract case of a choice between saving two people and saving one, and my focus is on the contrast between a duty to act and a reason which merely makes an action intelligible. In the second half, I turn to the issue of social (...)
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  41. Veronique Munoz-Darde (2005). The Distribution of Numbers and the Comprehensiveness of Reason. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 105 (2):207-233.score: 96.0
    In this paper, I concentrate on two themes: to what extent numbers bear on an agent's duties, and how numbers should relate to social policy. In the first half of the paper I consider the abstract case of a choice between saving two people and saving one, and my focus is on the contrast between a duty to act and a reason which merely makes an action intelligible. In the second half, I turn to the issue of social (...)
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  42. Jonas Nilsson (2008). Investment with a Conscience: Examining the Impact of Pro-Social Attitudes and Perceived Financial Performance on Socially Responsible Investment Behavior. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 83 (2):307 - 325.score: 94.8
    This article addresses the growing industry of retail socially responsible investment (SRI) profiled mutual funds. Very few previous studies have examined the final consumer of SRI profiled mutual funds. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to, in an exploratory manner, examine the impact of a number of pro-social, financial performance, and socio-demographic variables on SRI behavior in order to explain why investors choose to invest different proportions of their investment portfolio in SRI profiled funds. An ordinal logistic (...)
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  43. Bradley J. Morris & Amy M. Masnick (2014). Comparing Data Sets: Implicit Summaries of the Statistical Properties of Number Sets. Cognitive Science 38 (7).score: 93.2
    Comparing datasets, that is, sets of numbers in context, is a critical skill in higher order cognition. Although much is known about how people compare single numbers, little is known about how number sets are represented and compared. We investigated how subjects compared datasets that varied in their statistical properties, including ratio of means, coefficient of variation, and number of observations, by measuring eye fixations, accuracy, and confidence when assessing differences between number sets. Results indicated that (...)
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  44. Manuela Piazza, Pierre Pica, Véronique Izard, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene (2013). Education Enhances the Acuity of the Nonverbal Approximate Number System. Psychological Science 24 (4):p.score: 92.0
    All humans share a universal, evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) that estimates and combines the numbers of objects in sets with ratio-limited precision. Interindividual variability in the acuity of the ANS correlates with mathematical achievement, but the causes of this correlation have never been established. We acquired psychophysical measures of ANS acuity in child and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucú, who have a very restricted numerical lexicon and highly variable access to (...)
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  45. Raimo Tuomela (1995). The Importance of Us: A Philosophical Study of Basic Social Notions. Stanford University Press.score: 92.0
    This book develops a systematic philosophical theory of social action and group phenomena, in the process presenting detailed analyses of such central social notions as 'we-attitude' (especially 'we-intention' and mutual belief, social norm, joint action, and - most important - group goal, group belief, and group action). Though this is a philosophical work, it presents a unified conceptual framework that may be useful to social scientists, especially social psychologists, as well as philosophers. The book puts (...)
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  46. Christian Miller (2009). Empathy, Social Psychology, and Global Helping Traits. Philosophical Studies 142 (2):247-275.score: 92.0
    The central virtue at issue in recent philosophical discussions of the empirical adequacy of virtue ethics has been the virtue of compassion. Opponents of virtue ethics such as Gilbert Harman and John Doris argue that experimental results from social psychology concerning helping behavior are best explained not by appealing to so-called ‘global’ character traits like compassion, but rather by appealing to external situational forces or, at best, to highly individualized ‘local’ character traits. In response, a number of philosophers (...)
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  47. Heledd Jenkins (2006). Small Business Champions for Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 67 (3):241 - 256.score: 92.0
    While Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has traditionally been the domain of the corporate sector, recognition of the growing significance of the Small and Medium Sized Enterprise (SME) sector has led to an emphasis on their social and environmental impact, illustrated by an increasing number of initiatives aimed at engaging SMEs in the CSR agenda. CSR has been well researched in large companies, but SMEs have received less attention in this area. This paper presents the findings from a (...)
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  48. K. Brad Wray (1999). A Defense of Longino's Social Epistemology. Philosophy of Science 66 (3):552.score: 92.0
    Though many agree that we need to account for the role that social factors play in inquiry, developing a viable social epistemology has proved to be difficult. According to Longino, it is the processes that make inquiry possible that are aptly described as "social," for they require a number of people to sustain them. These processes, she claims, not only facilitate inquiry, but also ensure that the results of inquiry are more than mere subjective opinions, and (...)
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  49. Stephen Bear, Noushi Rahman & Corinne Post (2010). The Impact of Board Diversity and Gender Composition on Corporate Social Responsibility and Firm Reputation. Journal of Business Ethics 97 (2):207 - 221.score: 92.0
    This article explores how the diversity of board resources and the number of women on boards affect firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR) ratings, and how, in turn, CSR influences corporate reputation. In addition, this article examines whether CSR ratings mediate the relationships among board resource diversity, gender composition, and corporate reputation. The OLS regression results using lagged data for independent and control variables were statistically significant for the gender composition hypotheses, but not for the resource diversitybased hypotheses. CSR (...)
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  50. Belaid Rettab, Anis Ben Brik & Kamel Mellahi (2009). A Study of Management Perceptions of the Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Organisational Performance in Emerging Economies: The Case of Dubai. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):371 - 390.score: 92.0
    Although a number of studies have shown that corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities often lead to greater organisational performance in western developed economies, researchers are yet to examine the strategic value of CSR in emerging economies. Using survey data from 280 firms operating in Dubai, this study examines the link between CSR activities and organisational performance. The results show that CSR has a positive relationship with all three measures of organisational performance: financial performance, employee commitment, and corporate reputation. (...)
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