Search results for 'Number Ratio Result Social Phil' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John T. Sanders (1988). Why the Numbers Should Sometimes Count. Philosophy and Public Affairs 17 (1):3-14.score: 800.0
    John Taurek has argued that, where choices must be made between alternatives that affect different numbers of people, the numbers are not, by themselves, morally relevant. This is because we "must" take "losses-to" the persons into account (and these don't sum), but "must not" consider "losses-of" persons (because we must not treat persons like objects). I argue that the numbers are always ethically relevant, and that they may sometimes be the decisive consideration.
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  2. J. E. Lycett & R. I. M. Dunbar (2000). Mobile Phones as Lekking Devices Among Human Males. Human Nature 11 (1):93-104.score: 216.0
    This study investigated the use of mobile telephones by males and females in a public bar frequented by professional people. We found that, unlike women, men who possess mobile telephones more often publicly display them, and that these displays were related to the number of men in a social group, but not the number of women. This result was not due simply to a greater number of males who have telephones: we found an increase with (...)
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  3. John O'Neill & Martin O'Neill (2012). Social Justice and the Future of Flood Insurance. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.score: 126.0
    What would be a fair model for flood insurance? Catastrophic flooding has become increasingly frequent in the UK and, with climate change, is likely to become even more frequent in the future. With the UK's current flood insurance regime ending in 2013, we argues that: -/- - there is an overwhelming case for rejecting a free market in flood insurance after 2013; - this market-based approach threatens to leave many thousands of properties uninsurable, leading to extensive social blight; - (...)
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  4. Thomas Eberle (2010). The Phenomenological Life-World Analysis and the Methodology of the Social Sciences. Human Studies 33 (2):123-139.score: 126.0
    This Alfred Schutz Memorial Lecture discusses the relationship between the phenomenological life-world analysis and the methodology of the social sciences, which was the central motive of Schutz’s work. I have set two major goals in this lecture. The first is to scrutinize the postulate of adequacy, as this postulate is the most crucial of Schutz’s methodological postulates. Max Weber devised the postulate ‘adequacy of meaning’ in analogy to the postulate of ‘causal adequacy’ (a concept used in jurisprudence) and regarded (...)
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  5. Jacob Brower & Vijay Mahajan (2013). Driven to Be Good: A Stakeholder Theory Perspective on the Drivers of Corporate Social Performance. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):313-331.score: 126.0
    Despite growing evidence of the benefits to a firm of improving corporate social performance (CSP), many firms vary significantly in terms of their CSP activities. This research investigates how the characteristics of the stakeholder landscape influence a firm’s CSP breadth. Using stakeholder theory, we specifically propose that several factors increase the salience and impact of stakeholders’ demands on the firm and that, in response to these factors, a firm’s CSP will have greater breadth. A firm’s CSP breadth is operationalized (...)
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  6. Kai Vogeley Ulrich J. Pfeiffer, Leonhard Schilbach, Mathis Jording, Bert Timmermans, Gary Bente (2012). Eyes on the Mind: Investigating the Influence of Gaze Dynamics on the Perception of Others in Real-Time Social Interaction. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 126.0
    Social gaze provides a window into the interests and intentions of others and allows us to actively point out our own. It enables us to engage in triadic interactions involving human actors and physical objects and to build an indispensable basis for coordinated action and collaborative efforts. The object-related aspect of gaze in combination with the fact that any motor act of looking encompasses both input and output of the minds involved makes this non-verbal cue system particularly interesting for (...)
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  7. B. Porr & P. Di Prodi (2014). Subsystem Formation Driven by Double Contingency. Constructivist Foundations 9 (2):199-211.score: 118.0
    Purpose: This article investigates the emergence of subsystems in societies as a solution to the double contingency problem. Context: There are two underlying paradigms: one is radical constructivism in the sense that perturbations are at the centre of the self-organising processes; the other is Luhmann’s double contingency problem, where agents learn anticipations from each other. Approach: Central to our investigation is a computer simulation where we place agents into an arena. These agents can learn to (a) collect food and/or (b) (...)
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  8. Phil Nicholls (1989). Reviews : Roy Porter and Andrew Wear (Eds), Problems and Methods in the History of Medicine, Beckenham: Croom Helm, 1987, £30.00, Ix + 262 Pp. Social History of Medicine: The Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, Volume I, Number I, April 1988, Oxford: Oxford University Press, £35.00 (£12.00) P.A. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 2 (3):403-407.score: 117.0
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  9. Andrew Bailey, Samantha Brennan, Will Kymlicka, Jacob Levy, Alex Sager & Clark Wolf (eds.) (2008). The Broadview Anthology of Social and Political Thought: Volume 2: The Twentieth Century and Beyond. Broadview Press.score: 108.0
    This comprehensive volume contains much of the important work in political and social philosophy from ancient times until the end of the nineteenth century. The anthology offers both depth and breadth in its selection of material by central figures, while also representing other currents of political thought. Thucydides, Seneca, and Cicero are included along with Plato and Aristotle; Al-Farabi, Marsilius of Padua, and de Pizan take their place alongside Augustine and Aquinas; Astell and Constant are presented in the company (...)
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  10. Andrew Bailey, Samantha Brennan, Will Kymlicka, Jacob Levy, Alex Sager & Clark Wolf (eds.) (2008). The Broadview Anthology of Social and Political Thought: Volume 1: From Plato to Nietzsche. Broadview Press.score: 108.0
    This comprehensive volume contains much of the important work in political and social philosophy from ancient times until the end of the nineteenth century. The anthology offers both depth and breadth in its selection of material by central figures, while also representing other currents of political thought. Thucydides, Seneca, and Cicero are included along with Plato and Aristotle; Al-Farabi, Marsilius of Padua, and de Pizan take their place alongside Augustine and Aquinas; Astell and Constant are presented in the company (...)
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  11. Hubert M. Blalock (1986). Multiple Causation, Indirect Measurement and Generalizability in the Social Sciences. Synthese 68 (1):13-36.score: 108.0
    The fact that causal laws in the social sciences are most realistically expressed as both multivariate and stochastic has a number of very important implications for indirect measurement and generalizability. It becomes difficult to link theoretical definitions of general constructs in a one-to-one relationship to research operations, with the result that there is conceptual slippage in both experimental and nonexperimental research. It is argued that problems of this nature can be approached by developing specific multivariate causal models (...)
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  12. Hubert M. Blalock Jr (1986). Multiple Causation, Indirect Measurement and Generalizability in the Social Sciences. Synthese 68 (1):13 - 36.score: 108.0
    The fact that causal laws in the social sciences are most realistically expressed as both multivariate and stochastic has a number of very important implications for indirect measurement and generalizability. It becomes difficult to link theoretical definitions of general constructs in a one-to-one relationship to research operations, with the result that there is conceptual slippage in both experimental and nonexperimental research. It is argued that problems of this nature can be approached by developing specific multivariate causal models (...)
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  13. Adrian Desmond (1984). Robert E. Grant: The Social Predicament of a Pre-Darwinian Transmutationist. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2):189 - 223.score: 108.0
    Wakley in 1846 called Grant “at once the most eloquent, the most accomplished, the most self-sacrificing, and the most unrewarded man in the profession.”128 I have shown some of the reasons why this was so, and I have suggested that his Lamarckism was one of a number of factors that served to alienate him from the conservative scientific community in the 1830's and 1840's. I have further shown the need for a fundamental rethinking of Grant's position in the history (...)
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  14. Alexander Pruss, Functionalism and the Number of Minds Alexander R. Pruss January 27, 2004.score: 108.0
    I argue that standard functionalism leads to absurd conclusions as to the number of minds that would exist in the universe if persons were duplicated. Rather than yielding the conclusion that making a molecule-by-molecule copy of a material person would result in two persons, it leads to the conclusion that three persons, or perhaps only one person, would result. This is absurd and standard functionalism should be abandoned. Social varieties of functionalism fare no better, though there (...)
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  15. Jim I. Unah (2008). The Obligatory Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 7:43-48.score: 108.0
    The ongoing discourse on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) recognises two positions canvassed extensively in literature. These positions have crystallised in the agency theory and the stakeholder theory. The agency theory holds the proposition to be true that the social responsibility of business is profit maximisationand that the duty of the business executive or manager is to produce result for his employer(s) namely, the board of directors and the shareholders. The stakeholder theory, on the other hand, avers that (...)
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  16. R. I. M. Dunbar & M. Spoors (1995). Social Networks, Support Cliques, and Kinship. Human Nature 6 (3):273-290.score: 108.0
    Data on the number of adults that an individual contacts at least once a month in a set of British populations yield estimates of network sizes that correspond closely to those of the typical “sympathy group” size in humans. Men and women do not differ in their total network size, but women have more females and more kin in their networks than men do. Kin account for a significantly higher proportion of network members than would be expected by chance. (...)
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  17. Paul Bloom (2001). Précis of How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1095-1103.score: 99.0
    Normal children learn tens of thousands of words, and do so quickly and efficiently, often in highly impoverished environments. In How Children Learn the Meanings of Words, I argue that word learning is the product of certain cognitive and linguistic abilities that include the ability to acquire concepts, an appreciation of syntactic cues to meaning, and a rich understanding of the mental states of other people. These capacities are powerful, early emerging, and to some extent uniquely human, but they are (...)
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  18. Jonathan Birch (2014). Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.score: 99.0
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project of (...)
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  19. Yilmaz Hatipkarasulu & James H. Gill (2004). Identification of Shareholder Ethics and Responsibilities in Online Reverse Auctions for Construction Projects. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):283-288.score: 99.0
    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse (...)
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  20. Linda J. Graham (2008). Child-Rearing Inc.: On the Perils of Political Paralysis Down Under. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (6):739-746.score: 99.0
    In his 2007 PESA keynote address, Paul Smeyers discussed the increasing regulation of child-rearing through government intervention and the generation of 'experts', citing particular examples from Europe where cases of childhood obesity and parental neglect have stirred public opinion and political debate. In his paper ('Child-Rearing: On government intervention and the discourse of experts', this issue), Smeyers touches on a number of tensions before concluding that child-rearing qualifies as a practice in which liberal governments should be reluctant to intervene. (...)
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  21. Lorne Campbell, Jeffry A. Simpson, Mark Stewart & John G. Manning (2002). The Formation of Status Hierarchies in Leaderless Groups. Human Nature 13 (3):345-362.score: 99.0
    Two studies examined the link between social dominance and male waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Groups of four men interacted in a leaderless group discussion. In both studies, men with higher WHRs (associated with current and long-term health status) were rated by other group members as behaving more leader-like when an observer was present, and rated themselves as being more assertive. In Study 2, men with higher WHRs were rated by independent observers as behaving more dominantly, but only when the (...)
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  22. Darryl W. Coulthard (2010). Catching Gender-Identity Production in Flight: Making the Commonplace Visible. Journal of Research Practice 5 (2):Article M5.score: 99.0
    The purpose of this article is to develop and illustrate an approach for making the commonplace visible in a natural, as opposed to manipulated, social setting. The key research task was to find a way of capturing the ongoing production or enactment of the self that provides some insight into the way in which it is produced in a routine, matter of fact way. The article takes a number of steps to develop a research approach to the task. (...)
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  23. Nanna Mik-Meyer (2006). Identities and Organisations. Evaluating the Personality Traits of Clients in Two Danish Rehabilitation Organizations. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 8 (1):32-48.score: 99.0
    This article explores how the guidelines for personality assessments in two Danish rehabilitation organizations influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis shows how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client types pertaining to that organization. The rehabilitation organizations’ local history, legislation, along with the (...)
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  24. Shogo Okada, Yoichi Kobayashi, Satoshi Ishibashi & Toyoaki Nishida (2010). Incremental Learning of Gestures for Human–Robot Interaction. AI and Society 25 (2):155-168.score: 99.0
    For a robot to cohabit with people, it should be able to learn people’s nonverbal social behavior from experience. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning method for recognizing gestures used in interaction and communication. Our method enables robots to learn gestures incrementally during human–robot interaction in an unsupervised manner. It allows the user to leave the number and types of gestures undefined prior to the learning. The proposed method (HB-SOINN) is based on a self-organizing incremental (...)
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  25. Santi Phithakkitnukoon & Ram Dantu (2011). Mobile Social Group Sizes and Scaling Ratio. AI and Society 26 (1):71-85.score: 96.0
    Social data mining has become an emerging area of research in information and communication technology fields. The scope of social data mining has expanded significantly in the recent years with the advance of telecommunication technologies and the rapidly increasing accessibility of computing resources and mobile devices. People increasingly engage in and rely on phone communications for both personal and business purposes. Hence, mobile phones become an indispensable part of life for many people. In this article, we perform (...) data mining on mobile social networking by presenting a simple but efficient method to define social closeness and social grouping, which are then used to identify social sizes and scaling ratio of close to “8”. We conclude that social mobile network is a subset of the face-to-face social network, and both groupings are not necessary the same, hence the scaling ratios are distinct. Mobile social data mining. (shrink)
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  26. Larry Laudan & Harry Saunders, Re-Thinking the Criminal Standard of Proof: Seeking Consensus About the Utilities of Trial Outcomes.score: 90.0
    For more than a half-century, evidence scholars have been exploring whether the criminal standard of proof can be grounded in decision theory. Such grounding would require the emergence of a social consensus about the utilities to be assigned to the four outcomes at trial. Significant disagreement remains, even among legal scholars, about the relative desirability of those outcomes and even about the formalisms for manipulating their respective utilities. We attempt to diagnose the principal reasons for this dissensus and to (...)
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  27. Véronique Munoz-Dardé (2005). The Distribution of Numbers and the Comprehensiveness of Reasons. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 (2):207–233.score: 90.0
    In this paper, I concentrate on two themes: to what extent numbers bear on an agent's duties, and how numbers should relate to social policy. In the first half of the paper I consider the abstract case of a choice between saving two people and saving one, and my focus is on the contrast between a duty to act and a reason which merely makes an action intelligible. In the second half, I turn to the issue of social (...)
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  28. Veronique Munoz-Darde (2005). The Distribution of Numbers and the Comprehensiveness of Reason. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 105 105 (2):207-233.score: 90.0
    In this paper, I concentrate on two themes: to what extent numbers bear on an agent's duties, and how numbers should relate to social policy. In the first half of the paper I consider the abstract case of a choice between saving two people and saving one, and my focus is on the contrast between a duty to act and a reason which merely makes an action intelligible. In the second half, I turn to the issue of social (...)
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  29. Katie Steele, Helen M. Regan, Mark Colyvan & Mark A. Burgman (2007). Right Decisions or Happy Decision-Makers? Social Epistemology 21 (4):349 – 368.score: 90.0
    Group decisions raise a number of substantial philosophical and methodological issues. We focus on the goal of the group decision exercise itself. We ask: What should be counted as a good group decision-making result? The right decision might not be accessible to, or please, any of the group members. Conversely, a popular decision can fail to be the correct decision. In this paper we discuss what it means for a decision to be "right" and what components are required (...)
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  30. Odireleng Jankey & Tirelo Modie-Moroka (2011). The Daily Grind of the Forgotten Heroines: Experiences of HIV/AIDS Informal Caregivers in Botswana. Ethics and Social Welfare 5 (2):217-224.score: 90.0
    With the increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS and the escalating costs of health care, there is an increasing demand for informal caregiving in the community. Currently, much emphasis is placed on individuals who are living with HIV/AIDS (in terms of the provision of social, psychological and economic support), but very little attention has been paid to the well-being and quality of life of informal caregivers. Lack of support and care for caregivers may have a negative impact (...)
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  31. Alfred W. Steinhauser (1941). An Evaluation of the Social Teachings Found in a Selected Number of High School Textbooks. Washington, D.C.,The Catholic University of America.score: 84.0
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  32. Otávio Bueno (2010). A Defense of Second-Order Logic. Axiomathes 20 (2-3):365-383.score: 81.0
    Second-order logic has a number of attractive features, in particular the strong expressive resources it offers, and the possibility of articulating categorical mathematical theories (such as arithmetic and analysis). But it also has its costs. Five major charges have been launched against second-order logic: (1) It is not axiomatizable; as opposed to first-order logic, it is inherently incomplete. (2) It also has several semantics, and there is no criterion to choose between them (Putnam, J Symbol Logic 45:464–482, 1980 ). (...)
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  33. Simon Beck (2011). Can Parables Work? Philosophy and Theology 23 (1):149-165.score: 81.0
    While theories about interpreting biblical and other parables have long realised the importance of readers’ responses to the topic, recent results in social psychology concerning systematic self-deception raise unforeseen problems. In this paper I first set out some of the problems these results pose for the authority of fictional thought-experiments in moral philosophy. I then consider the suggestion that biblical parables face the same problems and as a result cannot work as devices for moral or religious instruction in (...)
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  34. Tamar Szabó Gendler (2006). Imaginative Contagion. Metaphilosophy 37 (2):183-203.score: 81.0
    The aim of this article is to expand the diet of examples considered in philosophical discussions of imagination and pretense, and to offer some preliminary observations about what we might learn about the nature of imagination as a result. The article presents a number of cases involving imaginative contagion: cases where merely imagining or pretending that P has effects that we would expect only perceiving or believing that P to have. Examples are offered that involve visual imagery, motor (...)
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  35. Patricia Keith-Spiegel (ed.) (2002). The Ethics of Teaching: A Casebook. Lawrence Erlbaum.score: 81.0
    The Ethics of Teaching provides a frank discussion of the most frequently encountered ethical dilemmas that can arise in educational settings, as well as tips on how to avoid these predicaments and how to deal with them when they do occur. The goal is to stimulate discussion and raise faculties' consciousness about ethical issues. Ethical dilemmas are presented as short, engaging case scenarios, most of which are based on actual situations, so as to furnish more realistic and interesting stimuli for (...)
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  36. Andrei Babaitsev (2008). The Semantics of Political Symbols. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 44:5-9.score: 81.0
    With the use symbols by political subjects arises the problem of their understanding. Groups of symbols can be created in such a way to contain a message. The state coat of arms is a political symbol, in which is concentrated a number of meanings and significance. The coat of arms — it is a symbol garnished with colossal endless meaning and potential withing its power. Besides this, the state coat of arms appears in numbers like mandalas: it is like (...)
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  37. Nabeel Manzar, Bushra Manzar, Nuzhat Hussain, M. Fawwad Ahmed Hussain & Sajjad Raza (2013). The Ethical Dilemma of Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):97-106.score: 81.0
    To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were (...)
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  38. Janice Richardson (2011). The Changing Meaning of Privacy, Identity and Contemporary Feminist Philosophy. Minds and Machines 21 (4):517-532.score: 81.0
    This paper draws upon contemporary feminist philosophy in order to consider the changing meaning of privacy and its relationship to identity, both online and offline. For example, privacy is now viewed by European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) as a right, which when breached can harm us by undermining our ability to maintain social relations. I briefly outline the meaning of privacy in common law and under the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in order to show the relevance (...)
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  39. Christian Munthe, Should Promotion of Autonomy Be a Goal of Public Health?score: 81.0
    While health care goals are usually formulated in terms of the securing of good health for the population, the goal of public health is to an increasing extent, at least in Western countries, being formulated in terms of the provision of societal preconditions for securing of good health. This goal may be attained although no one enjoys good health as a result, namely if people choose not to make use of the preconditions provided. However, reaching this goal may still (...)
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  40. Georges Enderle (1997). A Worldwide Survey of Business Ethics in the 1990s. Journal of Business Ethics 16 (14):1475-1483.score: 81.0
    This unique collection of reports encompasses a wide range of challenges and activities of business ethics in most parts of the world. In the introduction, after a brief explanation of the sixfold questionnaire and its assumptions, I try to highlight a number of striking features contained in these reports, which may help to delineate the state-of-the-art of business ethics at national and regional levels. As a result of this international comparison, the following features deserve particular attention: the relevance (...)
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  41. Max Charlesworth (2009). Anthropological Approaches to 'Primitive' Religions. Sophia 48 (2):119-125.score: 81.0
    The study of religion by social anthropologists, as distinct from the classical philosophical approach of the Greeks and their medieval heirs, began in the late 19th century with Edward Tyler’s Primitive Culture (1871). Tyler’s approach was completely a priori in style in that it did not rest on systematic field work or empirical observation. The same approach characterized James Frazer’s famous book, The Golden Bough (1891). Baldwin Spencer, the founding father of Australian anthropology, was persuaded by Frazer to see (...)
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  42. Kathryn Pyne Addelson (1994). Moral Passages: Toward a Collectivist Moral Theory. Routledge.score: 81.0
    In Moral Passages, Kathryn Pyne Addelson presents an original moral theory suited for contemporary life and its moral problems. Her basic principle is that knowledge and morality are generated in collective action, and she develops it through a critical examination of theories in philosophy, sociology and women's studies, most of which hide the collective nature and as a result hide the lives and knowledge of many people. At issue are the questions of what morality is, and how moral theories (...)
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  43. James P. Cadello (1988). Richard Rorty's Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature: An Existential Critique. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 22 (1):67-76.score: 81.0
    Seeing philosophy as conversation with a number of fruitful avenues of discourse, Rorty seems to be caught in limbo, unwilling to follow through or commit himself to any particular line of discourse for fear of closing himself off to alternative discourses. Choosing to adopt this particular attitude he still has made a choice: he has made a commitment to non-commitment, or as Ortega puts it, “decided not to decide.” Jose Ortega y Gasset, The Revolt of the Masses, trans. anonymously (...)
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  44. Steven E. Wallis (2010). Toward More Robust Policy Models. Integral Review 6 (1):153-160.score: 81.0
    The current state of the world suggests we have some difficulty in developing effective policy. This paper demonstrates two methods for the objective analysis of logic models within policy documents. By comparing policy models, we will be better able to compare policies and so determine which policy is best. Our ability to develop effective policy is reflected across the social sciences where our ability to create effective theoretical models is being called into question. The broad scope of this issue (...)
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  45. Jamie Terence Kelly (2012). Framing Democracy: A Behavioral Approach to Democratic Theory. Princeton University Press.score: 81.0
    The past thirty years have seen a surge of empirical research into political decision making and the influence of framing effects--the phenomenon that occurs when different but equivalent presentations of a decision problem elicit different judgments or preferences. During the same period, political philosophers have become increasingly interested in democratic theory, particularly in deliberative theories of democracy. Unfortunately, the empirical and philosophical studies of democracy have largely proceeded in isolation from each other. As a result, philosophical treatments of democracy (...)
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  46. Peter J. Richersona, Gene-Culture Coevolution in the Age of Genomics.score: 81.0
    The use of socially learned information (culture) is central to human adaptations. We investigate the hypothesis that the process of cultural evolution has played an active, leading role in the evolution of genes. Culture normally evolves more rapidly than genes, creating novel environments that expose genes to new selective pressures. Many human genes that have been shown to be under recent or current selection are changing as a result of new environments created by cultural innovations. Some changed in response (...)
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  47. Patricia G. Smith (1986). Ethics and Action Theory on Refraining: A Familiar Refrain in Two Parts. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (1):3-17.score: 81.0
    We can see from the analysis set out here that the two accounts that were the focus of consideration are complementary to one another. It has been my contention that a problem like specifying a concept such as ‘refrain’ is highly complex. One part of it is the problem of determining the relation between the action (or event) and the result. Another part of the problem is that of describing the event itself; what kind of an event is it? (...)
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  48. Robert Keith Shaw (1977). Assessing Components of Morality. Dissertation, University of Aucklandscore: 81.0
    An investigation into the assessment of the moral components which were developed by John Wilson, is reported. Tests fox the classroom measurement of two components were developed. The components were; PHIL(CC), the claiming of concern for other persons as an overriding, universal, and prescriptive principle in moral decision making; and; GIG, knowledge of factual information which is relevant in making moral decisions which subjects face. The test development exercise was undertaken at a time when public interest in moral education (...)
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  49. Oleg Fedosiuk (2012). Criminal Legislation Against Illegal Income and Corruption: Between Good Intentions and Legitimacy. Jurisprudence 19 (3):1215-1233.score: 81.0
    Recently (2010–2011) new criminal legislation to combat illegal income and corruption was passed and publicly discussed in Lithuania. Within the list of the new legal measures, special attention should be paid to criminalisation of illicit enrichment, establishment of a model of extended property confiscation, reinforcement of responsibility for corruption-related offenses, a provision that not only property but also personal benefits may constitute a bribe. It can be seen from the explanatory letters attached to the draft laws and the political debate (...)
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  50. P. Hejl (2011). The Individual in Radical Constructivism. Some Critical Remarks From an Evolutionary Perspective. Constructivist Foundations 6 (2):227-234.score: 81.0
    Context: Ernst von Glasersfeld’s radical constructivism (RC) develops two positions that are, for the founder of RC, necessarily linked: (1) all accessible realities are perceived realities, (2) perceived realities are “constructed” by “individuals.” Purpose: Von Glasersfeld refers quite often to the theory of evolution. Despite this frequent referring, he uses an evolutionary approach primarily when discussing the viability of constructs. Furthermore, although this use of evolutionary thinking is already restricted, it plays an even smaller part in the reception of RC. (...)
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