Search results for 'Number Ratio Result Social Phil' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John T. Sanders (1988). Why the Numbers Should Sometimes Count. Philosophy and Public Affairs 17 (1):3-14.
    John Taurek has argued that, where choices must be made between alternatives that affect different numbers of people, the numbers are not, by themselves, morally relevant. This is because we "must" take "losses-to" the persons into account (and these don't sum), but "must not" consider "losses-of" persons (because we must not treat persons like objects). I argue that the numbers are always ethically relevant, and that they may sometimes be the decisive consideration.
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  2.  1
    J. E. Lycett & R. I. M. Dunbar (2000). Mobile Phones as Lekking Devices Among Human Males. Human Nature 11 (1):93-104.
    This study investigated the use of mobile telephones by males and females in a public bar frequented by professional people. We found that, unlike women, men who possess mobile telephones more often publicly display them, and that these displays were related to the number of men in a social group, but not the number of women. This result was not due simply to a greater number of males who have telephones: we found an increase with (...)
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  3. Phil Nicholls (1989). Reviews : Roy Porter and Andrew Wear (Eds), Problems and Methods in the History of Medicine, Beckenham: Croom Helm, 1987, £30.00, Ix + 262 Pp. Social History of Medicine: The Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine, Volume I, Number I, April 1988, Oxford: Oxford University Press, £35.00 (£12.00) P.A. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 2 (3):403-407.
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  4.  1
    Bill Martin (1993). [Book Review] Matrix and Line, Derrida and the Possibilities of Postmodern Social Theory. [REVIEW] Social Theory and Practice 19:93-109.
    Matrix and line develops a social theory using the work of Jacques Derrida as its philosophical basis. In particular, notions of differance, writing, textuality, margin, dissemination, gramme, and others are integrated into the project of formulating a new language of politics. At the same time, the study is focused on the politics in/of language. ;The question of language is at the heart of this study. In the central chapter I argue that, although Habermas is correct to orient social (...)
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  5.  23
    Jacob Brower & Vijay Mahajan (2013). Driven to Be Good: A Stakeholder Theory Perspective on the Drivers of Corporate Social Performance. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):313-331.
    Despite growing evidence of the benefits to a firm of improving corporate social performance (CSP), many firms vary significantly in terms of their CSP activities. This research investigates how the characteristics of the stakeholder landscape influence a firm’s CSP breadth. Using stakeholder theory, we specifically propose that several factors increase the salience and impact of stakeholders’ demands on the firm and that, in response to these factors, a firm’s CSP will have greater breadth. A firm’s CSP breadth is operationalized (...)
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  6.  75
    Thomas Eberle (2010). The Phenomenological Life-World Analysis and the Methodology of the Social Sciences. Human Studies 33 (2):123-139.
    This Alfred Schutz Memorial Lecture discusses the relationship between the phenomenological life-world analysis and the methodology of the social sciences, which was the central motive of Schutz’s work. I have set two major goals in this lecture. The first is to scrutinize the postulate of adequacy, as this postulate is the most crucial of Schutz’s methodological postulates. Max Weber devised the postulate ‘adequacy of meaning’ in analogy to the postulate of ‘causal adequacy’ (a concept used in jurisprudence) and regarded (...)
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  7.  2
    Santi Phithakkitnukoon & Ram Dantu (2011). Mobile Social Group Sizes and Scaling Ratio. AI and Society 26 (1):71-85.
    Social data mining has become an emerging area of research in information and communication technology fields. The scope of social data mining has expanded significantly in the recent years with the advance of telecommunication technologies and the rapidly increasing accessibility of computing resources and mobile devices. People increasingly engage in and rely on phone communications for both personal and business purposes. Hence, mobile phones become an indispensable part of life for many people. In this article, we perform (...) data mining on mobile social networking by presenting a simple but efficient method to define social closeness and social grouping, which are then used to identify social sizes and scaling ratio of close to “8”. We conclude that social mobile network is a subset of the face-to-face social network, and both groupings are not necessary the same, hence the scaling ratios are distinct. Mobile social data mining. (shrink)
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  8. John O'Neill & Martin O'Neill (2012). Social Justice and the Future of Flood Insurance. Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    What would be a fair model for flood insurance? Catastrophic flooding has become increasingly frequent in the UK and, with climate change, is likely to become even more frequent in the future. With the UK's current flood insurance regime ending in 2013, we argues that: -/- - there is an overwhelming case for rejecting a free market in flood insurance after 2013; - this market-based approach threatens to leave many thousands of properties uninsurable, leading to extensive social blight; - (...)
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  9.  3
    Martin Bulmer (2001). Social Measurement: What Stands in its Way? Social Research 68.
    Measurement is any process by which a value is assigned to the level or state of some quality of an object of study. This value is given numerical form, and measurement therefore involves the expression of information in quantities rather than by verbal statement. It provides a powerful means of reducing qualitative data to more condensed form for summarization, manipulation and analysis. The classical distinctions made by S S S Stevens between nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio measurement are a (...)
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  10. Guy Madison, Ulrika Aasa, John Wallert & Michael A. Woodley (2014). Feminist Activist Women Are Masculinized in Terms of Digit-Ratio and Social Dominance: A Possible Explanation for the Feminist Paradox. Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  11. R. Ragland (1980). On Playing Dice with the Universe-Problems in the Use of Random Number Tables in Social-Science Research. Journal of Thought 15 (1):93-98.
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  12. Alfred W. Steinhauser (1941). An Evaluation of the Social Teachings Found in a Selected Number of High School Textbooks. Washington, D.C.,The Catholic University of America.
     
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  13.  5
    R. I. M. Dunbar & M. Spoors (1995). Social Networks, Support Cliques, and Kinship. Human Nature 6 (3):273-290.
    Data on the number of adults that an individual contacts at least once a month in a set of British populations yield estimates of network sizes that correspond closely to those of the typical “sympathy group” size in humans. Men and women do not differ in their total network size, but women have more females and more kin in their networks than men do. Kin account for a significantly higher proportion of network members than would be expected by chance. (...)
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  14.  30
    P. J. J. Phillips (2011). Book Review: Phil Hutchinson, Rupert Read, and Wes Sharrock: There is No Such Thing as a Social Science: In Defence of Peter Winch. Directions in Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis Farnham, UK: Ashgate Press, 2008. 156 Pp. {Pound}50.00 (Hardcover). [REVIEW] Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):295-297.
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  15.  17
    Hubert M. Blalock (1986). Multiple Causation, Indirect Measurement and Generalizability in the Social Sciences. Synthese 68 (1):13-36.
    The fact that causal laws in the social sciences are most realistically expressed as both multivariate and stochastic has a number of very important implications for indirect measurement and generalizability. It becomes difficult to link theoretical definitions of general constructs in a one-to-one relationship to research operations, with the result that there is conceptual slippage in both experimental and nonexperimental research. It is argued that problems of this nature can be approached by developing specific multivariate causal models (...)
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  16.  7
    Hubert M. Blalock Jr (1986). Multiple Causation, Indirect Measurement and Generalizability in the Social Sciences. Synthese 68 (1):13 - 36.
    The fact that causal laws in the social sciences are most realistically expressed as both multivariate and stochastic has a number of very important implications for indirect measurement and generalizability. It becomes difficult to link theoretical definitions of general constructs in a one-to-one relationship to research operations, with the result that there is conceptual slippage in both experimental and nonexperimental research. It is argued that problems of this nature can be approached by developing specific multivariate causal models (...)
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  17.  5
    Jim I. Unah (2008). The Obligatory Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 7:43-48.
    The ongoing discourse on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) recognises two positions canvassed extensively in literature. These positions have crystallised in the agency theory and the stakeholder theory. The agency theory holds the proposition to be true that the social responsibility of business is profit maximisationand that the duty of the business executive or manager is to produce result for his employer(s) namely, the board of directors and the shareholders. The stakeholder theory, on the other hand, avers that (...)
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  18.  2
    Adrian Desmond (1984). Robert E. Grant: The Social Predicament of a Pre-Darwinian Transmutationist. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 17 (2):189 - 223.
    Wakley in 1846 called Grant “at once the most eloquent, the most accomplished, the most self-sacrificing, and the most unrewarded man in the profession.”128 I have shown some of the reasons why this was so, and I have suggested that his Lamarckism was one of a number of factors that served to alienate him from the conservative scientific community in the 1830's and 1840's. I have further shown the need for a fundamental rethinking of Grant's position in the history (...)
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  19. Alexander Pruss, Functionalism and the Number of Minds Alexander R. Pruss January 27, 2004.
    I argue that standard functionalism leads to absurd conclusions as to the number of minds that would exist in the universe if persons were duplicated. Rather than yielding the conclusion that making a molecule-by-molecule copy of a material person would result in two persons, it leads to the conclusion that three persons, or perhaps only one person, would result. This is absurd and standard functionalism should be abandoned. Social varieties of functionalism fare no better, though there (...)
     
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  20.  21
    Andrew R. Bailey, Samantha Brennan, Will Kymlicka, Jacob Levy, Alex Sager & Clark Wolf (eds.) (2008). The Broadview Anthology of Social and Political Thought: Volume 2: The Twentieth Century and Beyond. Broadview Press.
    This comprehensive volume contains much of the important work in political and social philosophy from ancient times until the end of the nineteenth century. The anthology offers both depth and breadth in its selection of material by central figures, while also representing other currents of political thought. Thucydides, Seneca, and Cicero are included along with Plato and Aristotle; Al-Farabi, Marsilius of Padua, and de Pizan take their place alongside Augustine and Aquinas; Astell and Constant are presented in the company (...)
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  21.  19
    Andrew R. Bailey, Samantha Brennan, Will Kymlicka, Jacob Levy, Alex Sager & Clark Wolf (eds.) (2008). The Broadview Anthology of Social and Political Thought: Volume 1: From Plato to Nietzsche. Broadview Press.
    This comprehensive volume contains much of the important work in political and social philosophy from ancient times until the end of the nineteenth century. The anthology offers both depth and breadth in its selection of material by central figures, while also representing other currents of political thought. Thucydides, Seneca, and Cicero are included along with Plato and Aristotle; Al-Farabi, Marsilius of Padua, and de Pizan take their place alongside Augustine and Aquinas; Astell and Constant are presented in the company (...)
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  22. Geoffrey Walford (ed.) (2015). Academies, Free Schools and Social Justice. Routledge.
    Academies were introduced by Labour in 2000 and first opened their doors in 2002, but during Labour’s time in power the nature of the Academies changed. At first they were designed to replace existing failing schools but, by 2004, the expectation had widened to provide for entirely new schools where there was a demand for new places. From 2010, under the coalition government, two new types of Academy were introduced. While the original Academies were based on the idea of closing (...)
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  23.  61
    Lawrence A. Scaff (1993). Life Contra Ratio: Music and Social Theory. Sociological Theory 11 (2):234-240.
  24.  8
    T. M. Fogarty (1982). A Limited Possibility Result for Social Choice Under Majority Voting. Theory and Decision 14 (4):361-372.
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  25.  33
    Carolyn Wilde (2010). There is No Such Thing as Social Science: In Defence of Peter Winch – by Phil Hutchinson, Rupert Read and Wes Sharrock. Philosophical Investigations 33 (2):191-199.
  26.  6
    William Demopoulos’Anthology (1995). Der Arithmetik and His Earlier Exoteric Book Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik. We May Describe the Two Central Results of the Recent Re-Evaluation of His Work in the Following Way: Let Frege Arithmetic Be the Result of Adjoining to Full Axiomatic Second-Order Logic a Suitable Formalization of the Statement That the Fs and the Gs Have the Same Number If and Only If the Fs and the Gs Are. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 1 (3):317-326.
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  27.  4
    [author unknown] (1991). Prepared Testimony and Statement for the Record of Marc Rotenberg Director, Washington Office, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility on the Use of the Social Security Number as a National Identifier Before the Subcommittee on Social Secu Rity, Committee on Ways and Means, U.S House of Representatives February 27, 1991. Acm Sigcas Computers and Society 21 (2-4):13-19.
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  28.  1
    Paul M. Bronstein (1984). A Confound in the Application of Fixed-Ratio Schedules to the Social Behavior of Male Siamese Fighting Fish. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (5):484-487.
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  29.  4
    J. S. Minas (1958). Book Review:Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. Volume 1, Number 1 Arne Naess. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 25 (4):309-.
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  30.  1
    V. Gavalas, K. Rontos & N. Nagopoulos (2015). Sex Ratio at Birth in Twenty-First Century Greece: The Role of Ethnic and Social Groups. Journal of Biosocial Science 47 (3):363-375.
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  31. Christian Agrillo, Laura Piffer, Angelo Bisazza & Brian Butterworth (2015). Ratio Dependence in Small Number Discrimination is Affected by the Experimental Procedure. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  32. David Edge (1983). Is There Too Much Sociology of Science?The Social Basis of Scientific DiscoveriesAugustine BranniganFrames of Meaning: The Social Construction of Extraordinary ScienceH. M. Collins T. J. PinchThe Manufacture of Knowledge: An Essay on the Constructivist and Contextual Nature of ScienceKarin D. Knorr-CetinaEssays in the Sociology of PerceptionMary DouglasSciences and Cultures: Anthropological and Historical Studies of the SciencesEverett Mendelsohn Yehuda ElkanaPhilosophy of the Social Sciences, June 1981, Volume 11, Number 2. [REVIEW] Isis 74 (2):250-256.
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  33. Thomas F. Gieryn (1987). Journal of Social Issues, Volume 42, Number 1. Fifty Years of Psychology and Social IssuesBenjamin Harris Rhoda K. Unger Ross Stagner. [REVIEW] Isis 78 (1):109-110.
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  34. Harry J. Jerison (1993). Number Our Days: Quantifying Social Evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):712.
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  35. John Shotter (1994). 84 History of the Human Sciences Vol. 7 No. 1 3 This Development in Social Psychology Can Be Seen Both Here (Gergen, 1985) and in a Large Number of Subsequent Publications and Collections, Too Numerous to Cite, in Which Gergen has Played a Major Role. That He is Not Alone Can Be Seen in the Work Of. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 7 (1).
     
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  36. Jonathan Birch (2014). Gene Mobility and the Concept of Relatedness. Biology and Philosophy 29 (4):445-476.
    Cooperation is rife in the microbial world, yet our best current theories of the evolution of cooperation were developed with multicellular animals in mind. Hamilton’s theory of inclusive fitness is an important case in point: applying the theory in a microbial setting is far from straightforward, as social evolution in microbes has a number of distinctive features that the theory was never intended to capture. In this article, I focus on the conceptual challenges posed by the project of (...)
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  37. Paul Bloom (2001). Précis of How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1095-1103.
    Normal children learn tens of thousands of words, and do so quickly and efficiently, often in highly impoverished environments. In How Children Learn the Meanings of Words, I argue that word learning is the product of certain cognitive and linguistic abilities that include the ability to acquire concepts, an appreciation of syntactic cues to meaning, and a rich understanding of the mental states of other people. These capacities are powerful, early emerging, and to some extent uniquely human, but they are (...)
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  38.  5
    Timothy J. Oakberg (forthcoming). There Should Not Be Shame in Sharing Responsibility: An Alternative to May’s Social Existentialist Vision. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-18.
    Some of the greatest harms perpetrated by human beings—mass murders, for example—are directly caused by a small number of individuals, yet the full force of the transgressions would not obtain without the indirect contributions of many others. To combat such evils, Larry May argues that we ought to cultivate a sense of shared responsibility within communities. More specifically, we ought to develop a propensity to feel ashamed of ourselves when we choose to be associated with others who transgress. Grant (...)
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  39.  12
    Linda J. Graham (2008). Child-Rearing Inc.: On the Perils of Political Paralysis Down Under. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (6):739-746.
    In his 2007 PESA keynote address, Paul Smeyers discussed the increasing regulation of child-rearing through government intervention and the generation of 'experts', citing particular examples from Europe where cases of childhood obesity and parental neglect have stirred public opinion and political debate. In his paper ('Child-Rearing: On government intervention and the discourse of experts', this issue), Smeyers touches on a number of tensions before concluding that child-rearing qualifies as a practice in which liberal governments should be reluctant to intervene. (...)
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  40.  5
    Shogo Okada, Yoichi Kobayashi, Satoshi Ishibashi & Toyoaki Nishida (2010). Incremental Learning of Gestures for Human–Robot Interaction. AI and Society 25 (2):155-168.
    For a robot to cohabit with people, it should be able to learn people’s nonverbal social behavior from experience. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning method for recognizing gestures used in interaction and communication. Our method enables robots to learn gestures incrementally during human–robot interaction in an unsupervised manner. It allows the user to leave the number and types of gestures undefined prior to the learning. The proposed method (HB-SOINN) is based on a self-organizing incremental (...)
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  41.  13
    Yilmaz Hatipkarasulu & James H. Gill (2004). Identification of Shareholder Ethics and Responsibilities in Online Reverse Auctions for Construction Projects. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (2):283-288.
    The increasing number of companies providing internet services and auction tools helped popularize the online reverse auction trend for purchasing commodities and services in the last decade. As a result, a number of owners, both public and private, accepted the online reverse auctions as the bidding technique for their construction projects. Owners, while trying to minimize their costs for construction projects, are also required to address their ethical responsibilities to the shareholders. In the case of online reverse (...)
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  42.  2
    Darryl W. Coulthard (2010). Catching Gender-Identity Production in Flight: Making the Commonplace Visible. Journal of Research Practice 5 (2):Article M5.
    The purpose of this article is to develop and illustrate an approach for making the commonplace visible in a natural, as opposed to manipulated, social setting. The key research task was to find a way of capturing the ongoing production or enactment of the self that provides some insight into the way in which it is produced in a routine, matter of fact way. The article takes a number of steps to develop a research approach to the task. (...)
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  43.  1
    Nanna Mik-Meyer (2006). Identities and Organisations. Evaluating the Personality Traits of Clients in Two Danish Rehabilitation Organizations. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 8 (1):32-48.
    This article explores how the guidelines for personality assessments in two Danish rehabilitation organizations influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis shows how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client types pertaining to that organization. The rehabilitation organizations’ local history, legislation, along with the (...)
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  44.  11
    Katie Steele, Helen M. Regan, Mark Colyvan & Mark A. Burgman (2007). Right Decisions or Happy Decision-Makers? Social Epistemology 21 (4):349 – 368.
    Group decisions raise a number of substantial philosophical and methodological issues. We focus on the goal of the group decision exercise itself. We ask: What should be counted as a good group decision-making result? The right decision might not be accessible to, or please, any of the group members. Conversely, a popular decision can fail to be the correct decision. In this paper we discuss what it means for a decision to be "right" and what components are required (...)
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  45.  74
    Larry Laudan & Harry Saunders, Re-Thinking the Criminal Standard of Proof: Seeking Consensus About the Utilities of Trial Outcomes.
    For more than a half-century, evidence scholars have been exploring whether the criminal standard of proof can be grounded in decision theory. Such grounding would require the emergence of a social consensus about the utilities to be assigned to the four outcomes at trial. Significant disagreement remains, even among legal scholars, about the relative desirability of those outcomes and even about the formalisms for manipulating their respective utilities. We attempt to diagnose the principal reasons for this dissensus and to (...)
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  46.  3
    Odireleng Jankey & Tirelo Modie-Moroka (2011). The Daily Grind of the Forgotten Heroines: Experiences of HIV/AIDS Informal Caregivers in Botswana. Ethics and Social Welfare 5 (2):217-224.
    With the increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS and the escalating costs of health care, there is an increasing demand for informal caregiving in the community. Currently, much emphasis is placed on individuals who are living with HIV/AIDS (in terms of the provision of social, psychological and economic support), but very little attention has been paid to the well-being and quality of life of informal caregivers. Lack of support and care for caregivers may have a negative impact (...)
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  47.  9
    Laura Silva-Castañeda (2012). A Forest of Evidence: Third-Party Certification and Multiple Forms of Proof—a Case Study of Oil Palm Plantations in Indonesia. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):361-370.
    In recent years, new forms of transnational regulation have emerged, filling the void created by the failure of governments and international institutions to effectively regulate transnational corporations. Among the variety of initiatives addressing social and environmental problems, a growing number of certification systems have appeared in various sectors, particularly agrifood. Most initiatives rely on independent third-party certification to verify compliance with a standard, as it is seen as the most credible route for certification. The effects of third-party audits, (...)
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  48.  34
    Michel Foucault (1982). The Subject and Power. Critical Inquiry 8 (4):777-795.
    I would like to suggest another way to go further toward a new economy of power relations, a way which is more empirical, more directly related to our present situation, and which implies more relations between theory and practice. It consists of taking the forms of resistance against different forms of power as a starting point. To use another metaphor, t consists of using this resistance as a chemical catalyst so as to bring to light power relations, locate their position, (...)
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  49.  63
    Annette Dufner (2015). Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the ‘Implicit Price’ of Readily Available Body Parts. HEC Forum 27 (4):347-359.
    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area—often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health (...)
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  50.  15
    Jamie Terence Kelly (2012). Framing Democracy: A Behavioral Approach to Democratic Theory. Princeton University Press.
    The past thirty years have seen a surge of empirical research into political decision making and the influence of framing effects--the phenomenon that occurs when different but equivalent presentations of a decision problem elicit different judgments or preferences. During the same period, political philosophers have become increasingly interested in democratic theory, particularly in deliberative theories of democracy. Unfortunately, the empirical and philosophical studies of democracy have largely proceeded in isolation from each other. As a result, philosophical treatments of democracy (...)
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