Search results for 'Nuremberg Code' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  18
    Ray Greek, Annalea Pippus & Lawrence Hansen (2012). The Nuremberg Code Subverts Human Health and Safety by Requiring Animal Modeling. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):16-.
    Background: The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations.DiscussionWe review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of (...)
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  2.  3
    Christian Hick (1998). Codes and Morals: Is There a Missing Link? (The Nuremberg Code Revisited). [REVIEW] Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (2):143-154.
    Codes are a well known and popular but weak form of ethical regulation in medical practice. There is, however, a lack of research on the relations between moral judgments and ethical Codes, or on the possibility of morally justifying these Codes. Our analysis begins by showing, given the Nuremberg Code, how a typical reference to natural law has historically served as moral justification. We then indicate, following the analyses of H. T. Engelhardt, Jr., and A. MacIntyre, why such (...)
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  3. Lorraine Code (1998). Lorraine Code. In Alcoff Linda (ed.), Epistemology: The Big Questions. Blackwell 124.
  4. George J. Annas & Michael A. Grodin (1992). The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  5.  99
    J. -C. Guillebaud (2002). Definition of Man: What is Left of the Nuremberg Code? Diogenes 49 (195):7-12.
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  6.  5
    Law No (1983). The Nuremberg Code. In Catherine P. Murphy & Howard Hunter (eds.), Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Allyn and Bacon 263.
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  7.  35
    C. G. Foster (1995). The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (4):247-247.
  8.  4
    George J. Annas & Michael A. Grodin (2008). The Nuremberg Code. In Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.), Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Oxford University Press 136.
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  9.  4
    B. M. Kious (2000). The Nuremberg Code: Its History and Implications. Princeton Journal of Bioethics 4:7-19.
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  10.  2
    George J. Annas Michael A. Grodin (2008). The Nuremberg Code. In Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.), Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Oxford University Press 266-266.
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  11. A. S. Duncan (1981). Nuremberg Code. Trials of War Criminals Before Nuremberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law. In A. S. Duncan, G. R. Dunstan & R. B. Welbourn (eds.), Dictionary of Medical Ethics. Darton, Longman & Todd 130.
     
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  12. A. S. Duncan, G. R. Dunstan & R. B. Welbourn (1981). The Nuremberg Code. In A. S. Duncan, G. R. Dunstan & R. B. Welbourn (eds.), Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. Darton, Longman & Todd 130--2.
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  13. Ray Greek, Annalea Pippus & Lawrence A. Hansen (2012). The Nuremberg Code Subverts Human Health and Safety by Requiring Animal Modeling. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):16.
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  14. Jonathan D. Moreno (1996). “The Only Feasible Means”: The Pentagon's Ambivalent Relationship with the Nuremberg Code. Hastings Center Report 26 (5):11-19.
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  15.  35
    Benjamin Sachs (2011). Going From Principles to Rules in Research Ethics. Bioethics 25 (1):9-20.
    In research ethics there is a canon regarding what ethical rules ought to be followed by investigators vis-à-vis their treatment of subjects and a canon regarding what fundamental ethical principles apply to the endeavor. What I aim to demonstrate here is that several of the rules find no support in the principles. This leaves anyone who would insist that we not abandon those rules in the difficult position of needing to establish that we are nevertheless justified in believing in the (...)
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  16.  4
    Jacqueline A. Laing (2004). Disabled Need Our Protection. Law Society Gazette 101:12.
    The Mental Incapacity Bill not only paves the way for euthanasia, but invites wholesale abuse and homicide, writes Jacqueline Laing. On 19 October 2004, when the Mental Capacity Bill was at its crucial committee stage, the Law Society issued a statement of ‘strong support’, claiming that it empowers patients and in no way introduces euthanasia. Laing argues that the Bill threatens the incapacitated by granting a raft of new third parties power to require that health professionals withhold ‘treatment’, which, after (...)
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  17. Ulf Schmidt (2004). Justice at Nuremberg: Leo Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Justice at Nuremberg traces the history of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial held in 1946-47, as seen through the eyes of the Austrian bliogemigrbliogé psychiatrist Leo Alexander. His investigations helped the United States to prosecute twenty German doctors and three administrators for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The legacy of Nuremberg was profound. In the Nuremberg code--a landmark in the history of modern medical ethics--the judges laid down, for the first time, international guidelines for (...)
     
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  18.  2
    Olena Grebeniuk (2013). Main Challenges and Prospects of Improving Ukrainian Legislation on Criminal Liability for Crimes Related to Drug Testing in the Context of European Integration. Jurisprudence 20 (3):1249-1270.
    The proposed article provides an overview of European and North American states’ legislation, which regulates the procedure for pre-clinical research, clinical trials and state registration of medicinal products, as well as responsibility for its violation, analysis of the problems and prospects of adaptation of the national legislation to European legal space, particularly in the field of criminal and legal regulation of relations in the sphere of pre-clinical trials, clinical trials and state registration of medicine. The emphasis is put on the (...)
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  19.  30
    Hans-Martin Sass (1983). Reichsrundschreiben 1931: Pre-Nuremberg German Regulations Concerning New Therapy and Human Experimentation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):99-112.
    This is the first re-publication and first English translation of regulations concerning Human Experimentation which were binding law prior to and during the Third Reich, 1931 to 1945. The introduction briefly describes the duties of the Reichsgesundheitsamt, which formulated these regulations. It then outlines the basic concept of the Richtlinien for protecting subjects and patients on the one hand and for encouraging New Therapy and Human Experimentation on the other hand. Major issues, like personal responsibility of (...)
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  20.  8
    Jacqueline A. Laing (2005). The Mental Capacity Bill 2004: Human Rights Concerns. Family Law Journal 35:137-143.
    The Mental Capacity Bill endangers the vulnerable by inviting human rights abuse. It is perhaps these grave deficiencies that prompted the warnings of the 23rd Report of the Joint Committee on Human Rights highlighting the failure of the legislation to supply adequate safeguards against Articles 2, 3 and 8 incompatibilities. Further, the fact that it is the mentally incapacitated as a class that are thought ripe for these and other kinds of intervention, highlights the Article 14 discrimination inherent in this (...)
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  21.  58
    Loretta M. Kopelman (2004). Minimal Risk as an International Ethical Standard in Research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):351 – 378.
    Classifying research proposals by risk of harm is fundamental to the approval process and the most pivotal risk category in most regulations is that of “minimal risk.” If studies have no more than a minimal risk, for example, a nearly worldwide consensus exists that review boards may sometimes: (1) expedite review, (2) waive or modify some or all elements of informed consent, or (3) enroll vulnerable subjects including healthy children, incapacitated persons and prisoners even if studies do not hold out (...)
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  22.  5
    S. R. Benatar & P. A. Singer (2010). Responsibilities in International Research: A New Look Revisited. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (4):194-197.
    Following promulgation of the Nuremberg code in 1947, the ethics of research on human subjects has been a challenging and often contentious topic of debate. Escalation in the use of research participants in low-income countries over recent decades , has intensified the debate on the ethics of international research and led to increasing attention both to exploitation of vulnerable subjects and to considerations of how the 10:90 gap in health and medical research could be narrowed. In 2000, prompted (...)
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  23.  39
    Hope Ferdowsian (2011). Human and Animal Research Guidelines: Aligning Ethical Constructs with New Scientific Developments. Bioethics 25 (8):472-478.
    Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of (...)
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  24.  17
    Fabrice Jotterand, Shawn M. McClintock, Archie A. Alexander & Mustafa M. Husain (2010). Ethics and Informed Consent of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD). Neuroethics 3 (1):13-22.
    Since the Nuremberg trials (1947–1949), informed consent has become central for ethical practice in patient care and biomedical research. Codes of ethics emanating from the Nuremberg Code (1947) recognize the importance of protecting patients and research subjects from abuses, manipulation and deception. Informed consent empowers individuals to autonomously and voluntarily accept or reject participation in either clinical treatment or research. In some cases, however, the underlying mental or physical condition of the individual may alter his or (...)
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  25.  7
    Kathleen Cranley Glass & Marc Speyer-Ofenberg (1996). Incompetent Persons as Research Subjects and the Ethics of Minimal Risk. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (3):362.
    The voluntary and informed consent of subjects has been the central focus of concern in research reviews, overshadowing the importance of all other considerations. The Nuremberg Code, with its rights-based protection of the subject's autonomy above all else, made it difficult to justify research with no intended benefit when subjects are incompetent to make a valid informed choice to participate. Subsequent codes providing for research with incompetent subjects followed the lead of Nuremberg, substituting the informed authorization of (...)
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  26.  5
    Lainie Friedman Ross (2004). Informed Consent in Pediatric Research. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (4):346-358.
    The first principle of the Nuremberg Code requires the informed consent of the subject. Proxy consent was not addressed until the Declaration of Helsinki. U.S. policies regarding consent for the participation of children in research would not be finalized for almost two more decades in subpart D of the federal regulations that govern the participation of subjects in research. In October 2000, the Children's Health Act was passed. Title X required the Secretary of the Department of Health and (...)
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  27.  9
    Vera Hassner Sharav (2003). Children in Clinical Research: A Conflict of Moral Values. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (1):12 – 59.
    This paper examines the culture, the dynamics and the financial underpinnings that determine how medical research is being conducted on children in the United States. Children have increasingly become the subject of experiments that offer them no potential direct benefit but expose them to risks of harm and pain. A wide range of such experiments will be examined, including a lethal heartburn drug test, the experimental insertion of a pacemaker, an invasive insulin infusion experiment, and a fenfluramine "violence prediction" experiment. (...)
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  28.  5
    Jean-Noel Vergnes, Christine Marchal-Sixou, Cathy Nabet, Delphine Maret & Olivier Hamel (2010). Ethics in Systematic Reviews. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):771-774.
    Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic (...)
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  29.  18
    Adil E. Shamoo & Jonathan D. Moreno (2004). Ethics of Research Involving Mandatory Drug Testing of High School Athletes in Oregon. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):25 – 31.
    There is consensus that children have questionable decisional capacity and, therefore, in general a parent or a guardian must give permission to enroll a child in a research study. Moreover, freedom from duress and coercion, the cardinal rule in research involving adults, is even more important for children. This principle is embodied prominently in the Nuremberg Code (1947) and is embodied in various federal human research protection regulations. In a program named "SATURN" (Student Athletic Testing Using Random Notification), (...)
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  30.  8
    Seetharaman Hariharan, Ramesh Jonnalagadda, Errol Walrond & Harley Moseley (2006). Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Healthcare Ethics and Law Among Doctors and Nurses in Barbados. BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-9.
    Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed to all levels of staff at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados (a (...)
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  31.  17
    Shawn Fabrice Jotterand, Archie M. McClintock, Mustafa A. Alexander & M. Husain (2010). Ethics and Informed Consent of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (Vns) for Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression (Trd). Neuroethics 3 (1).
    Since the Nuremberg trials (1947–1949), informed consent has become central for ethical practice in patient care and biomedical research. Codes of ethics emanating from the Nuremberg Code (1947) recognize the importance of protecting patients and research subjects from abuses, manipulation and deception. Informed consent empowers individuals to autonomously and voluntarily accept or reject participation in either clinical treatment or research. In some cases, however, the underlying mental or physical condition of the individual may alter his or her (...)
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  32.  8
    Jacqueline A. Laing (2004). Mental Capacity Bill - A Threat to the Vulnerable. New Law Journal 154:1165.
    Helga Kuhse suggested in 1985 at a session of the World Federation of Right to Die Societies in Nice, that once dehydration to death became legal and routine in hospitals, people would, on seeing the horror of it, seek the lethal injection. The strategy of legalising passive euthanasia is itself flawed. Laing argues that the Mental Capacity Bill threatens the vulnerable by inviting breaches of arts 2,3,5,8, and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Most at risk are the (...)
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  33.  6
    Jane L. Hutton & Richard E. Ashcroft (2000). Some Popular Versions of Uninformed Consent. Health Care Analysis 8 (1):41-53.
    A patient's informed consent is required by the Nuremberg code, and its successors, before she can be entered into a clinical trial. However, concern has been expressed by both patients and professionals about the beneficial or detrimental effect on the patient of asking for her consent. We examine advantages and drawbacks of popular variations on consent, which might reduce the stress on patients at the point of illness. Both informed and uninformed responses to particular trials, and trials in (...)
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  34.  7
    D. B. Resnik (2009). Re-Consenting Human Subjects: Ethical, Legal and Practical Issues. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (11):656-657.
    Informed consent is one of the foundational ethical and legal requirements of research with human subjects. The Nuremberg Code, the Helsinki Declaration, the Belmont Report, the Common Rule and many other laws and codes require that research subjects make a voluntary, informed choice to participate in research.12345 Informed consent is based on the moral principle of respect for autonomy, which holds that rational individuals have a right to make decisions and take actions that reflect their values and preferences. (...)
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  35.  1
    P. Rogero-Anaya, J. L. Carpintero-Avellaneda & B. Vila-Blasco (1994). Ethics and Research in Nursing. Nursing Ethics 1 (4):216-223.
    Considering the importance of research in the development of nursing, we examine the ethical principles governing nurses' investigative activity, as well as the different codes regulating biomedical investigation with human beings, amongst which are the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Human Rights, and the Declaration of Helsinki. From the perspective of the central points of the article reference is made to different codes proposed by international nursing associations, as well as reviewing the Deontological Code of Spanish Nursing. (...)
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  36.  2
    Barbara MacKinnon (1996). How Important Is Consent for Controlled Clinical Trials? Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 5 (2):221.
    The Nuremberg Code of ethical principles for experiments involving human beings has as its first requirement that “the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.” Since the time of the trials that supplied its motivation the principles have been amplified and detail and distinctions have been added. For example, the Declaration of Helsinki, adopted by the World Medical Association in 1964, again laid down general principles related to voluntariness, balance of risk and benefit, and scientific soundness. (...)
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  37.  11
    Patrick M. Erwin (2011). Corporate Codes of Conduct: The Effects of Code Content and Quality on Ethical Performance. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):535 - 548.
    Corporate codes of conduct are a practical corporate social responsibility (CSR) instrument commonly used to govern employee behavior and establish a socially responsible organizational culture. The effectiveness of these codes has been widely discussed on theoretical grounds and empirically tested in numerous previous reports that directly compare companies with and without codes of conduct. Empirical research has yielded inconsistent results that may be explained by multiple ancillary factors, including the quality of code content and implementation, which are excluded (...)
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  38.  14
    Thomas R. Wotruba, Lawrence B. Chonko & Terry W. Loe (2001). The Impact of Ethics Code Familiarity on Manager Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics 33 (1):59 - 69.
    Codes of ethics exist in many, if not the majority, of all large U.S. companies today. But how the impact of these written codes affect managerial attitudes and behavior is still not clearly documented or explained. This study takes a step in that direction by proposing that attention should shift from the codes themselves as the sources of ethical behavior to the persons whose behavior is the focus of these codes. In particular, this study investigates the role of code (...)
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  39.  11
    Lawrence B. Chonko, Thomas R. Wotruba & Terry W. Loe (2003). Ethics Code Familiarity and Usefulness: Views on Idealist and Relativist Managers Under Varying Conditions of Turbulence. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 42 (3):237 - 252.
    The purpose of this present research is to expand upon the foundation that codes of ethics are more useful guides to managers in their behavior and decision-making when managers are more familiar with code content and intentions. We explore whether the impact of code familiarity on code usefulness differs: (a) under varying conditions of turbulence and (b) between persons with relativist versus idealist personal values. Data have been collected from a sample of 1700 executives in member companies (...)
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  40.  28
    Avshalom M. Adam & Dalia Rachman-moore (2004). The Methods Used to Implement an Ethical Code of Conduct and Employee Attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics 54 (3):225 - 244.
    In the process of implementing an ethical code of conduct, a business organization uses formal methods. Of these, training, courses and means of enforcement are common and are also suitable for self-regulation. The USA is encouraging business corporations to self regulate with the Federal Sentencing Guidelines (FSG). The Guidelines prescribe similar formal methods and specify that, unless such methods are used, the process of implementation will be considered ineffective, and the business will therefore not be considered to have complied (...)
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  41.  23
    Joseph A. McKinney & Carlos W. Moore (2008). International Bribery: Does a Written Code of Ethics Make a Difference in Perceptions of Business Professionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 79 (1/2):103 - 111.
    This article analyzes the attitudes of United States business professionals toward the issue of international bribery, and in particular, whether or not having a written code of ethics has an effect on these attitudes. A vignette relating to international bribery from a widely used survey instrument was employed in a nationwide survey of business professionals to gather information on ethical attitudes of respondents. Data were also collected on gender of respondents, whether or not respondents were self-employed, whether or not (...)
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  42.  79
    Nancy L. Jones (2007). A Code of Ethics for the Life Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (1):25-43.
    The activities of the life sciences are essential to provide solutions for the future, for both individuals and society. Society has demanded growing accountability from the scientific community as implications of life science research rise in influence and there are concerns about the credibility, integrity and motives of science. While the scientific community has responded to concerns about its integrity in part by initiating training in research integrity and the responsible conduct of research, this approach is minimal. The scientific community (...)
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  43.  7
    Bärbel Dorbeck-Jung & Clare Shelley-Egan (2013). Meta-Regulation and Nanotechnologies: The Challenge of Responsibilisation Within the European Commission's Code of Conduct for Responsible Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies Research. [REVIEW] NanoEthics 7 (1):55-68.
    This paper focuses on the contribution of meta-regulation in responding to the regulatory needs of a field beset by significant uncertainties concerning risks, benefits and development trajectories and characterised by fast development. Meta-regulation allows regulators to address problems when they lack the resources or information needed to develop sound “discretion-limiting rules”; meta-regulators exploit the information advantages of those actors to be regulated by leveraging them into the task of regulating itself. The contribution of meta-regulation to the governance of nanotechnologies is (...)
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  44.  10
    Detlev Nitsch, Mark Baetz & Julia Christensen Hughes (2005). Why Code of Conduct Violations Go Unreported: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Intervention and Future Research. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):327 - 341.
    . The ability to enforce the provisions of a code of conduct influences whether the code is effective in shaping behavior. Enforcement relies in part on the willingness of organization members to report violations of the code, but research from the business and educational environment suggests that fewer than half of those who observe code violations follow their organizations procedures for reporting them. Based on a review of the literature in the business and educational environments, and (...)
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  45.  17
    Robin S. Snell & Neil C. Herndon (2004). Hong Kong's Code of Ethics Initiative: Some Differences Between Theory and Practice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 51 (1):75-89.
    Although detailed studies of code adoption and impact have already been conducted in Hong Kong, there has as yet been no critical analysis of why there has been a gap between the normative and positive factors underlying codes of ethics in Hong Kong. The purpose of this paper is to consider why Hong Kong companies adopting codes of ethics have failed to adhere closely to the best practice prescriptions for code adoption when it would likely be in their (...)
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  46.  37
    Gary R. Rothwell & J. Norman Baldwin (2007). Ethical Climate Theory, Whistle-Blowing, and the Code of Silence in Police Agencies in the State of Georgia. Journal of Business Ethics 70 (4):341 - 361.
    This article reports the findings from a study that investigates the relationship between ethical climates and police whistle-blowing on five forms of misconduct in the State of Georgia. The results indicate that a friendship or team climate generally explains willingness to blow the whistle, but not the actual frequency of blowing the whistle. Instead, supervisory status, a control variable investigated in previous studies, is the most consistent predictor of both willingness to blow the whistle and frequency of blowing the whistle. (...)
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  47.  29
    Ulrich E. Stegmann (2004). The Arbitrariness of the Genetic Code. Biology and Philosophy 19 (2):205-222.
    The genetic code has been regarded as arbitrary in the sense that the codon-amino acid assignments could be different than they actually are. This general idea has been spelled out differently by previous, often rather implicit accounts of arbitrariness. They have drawn on the frozen accident theory, on evolutionary contingency, on alternative causal pathways, and on the absence of direct stereochemical interactions between codons and amino acids. It has also been suggested that the arbitrariness of the genetic code (...)
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  48.  9
    Ingo Winkler (2011). The Representation of Social Actors in Corporate Codes of Ethics. How Code Language Positions Internal Actors. Journal of Business Ethics 101 (4):653-665.
    This article understands codes of ethics as written documents that represent social actors in specific ways through the use of language. It presents an empirical study that investigated the codes of ethics of the German Dax30 companies. The study adopted a critical discourse analysis-approach in order to reveal how the code-texts produce a particular understanding of the various internal social groups for the readers. Language is regarded as social practice that functions at creating particular understandings of individuals and groups, (...)
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  49.  15
    Sven Helin & Johan Sandström (2008). Codes, Ethics and Cross-Cultural Differences: Stories From the Implementation of a Corporate Code of Ethics in a MNC Subsidiary. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):281 - 291.
    In this article, we focus on the cross-cultural aspects of the implementation of an American company's code of ethics into its Swedish subsidiary. We identify the cross-cultural stories that the receivers in the subsidiary use when trying to explain the parent's code and conceptualize these stories as part of an emerging narrative of national belonging and differences. The receivers resisted the code by amplifying the importance of national identity. Rather than stimulating a discussion on ethics that might (...)
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  50.  78
    Michael Davis (2007). Eighteen Rules for Writing a Code of Professional Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):171-189.
    Most professional societies, scientific associations, and the like that undertake to write a code of ethics do so using other codes as models but without much (practical) guidance about how to do the work. The existing literature on codes is much more concerned with content than procedure. This paper adds to guidance already in the literature what I learned from participating in the writing of an important code of ethics. The guidance is given in the form of “rules” (...)
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