Search results for 'Nuremberg Code' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ray Greek, Annalea Pippus & Lawrence Hansen (2012). The Nuremberg Code Subverts Human Health and Safety by Requiring Animal Modeling. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):16-.score: 240.0
    Background: The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations.DiscussionWe review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of (...)
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  2. Christian Hick (1998). Codes and Morals: Is There a Missing Link? (The Nuremberg Code Revisited). [REVIEW] Medicine, Healthcare and Philosophy 1 (2):143-154.score: 240.0
    Codes are a well known and popular but weak form of ethical regulation in medical practice. There is, however, a lack of research on the relations between moral judgments and ethical Codes, or on the possibility of morally justifying these Codes. Our analysis begins by showing, given the Nuremberg Code, how a typical reference to natural law has historically served as moral justification. We then indicate, following the analyses of H. T. Engelhardt, Jr., and A. MacIntyre, why such (...)
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  3. Lorraine Code (1998). Lorraine Code. In Alcoff Linda (ed.), Epistemology: The Big Questions. Blackwell. 124.score: 180.0
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  4. C. G. Foster (1995). The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (4):247-247.score: 150.0
  5. J. -C. Guillebaud (2002). Definition of Man: What is Left of the Nuremberg Code? Diogenes 49 (195):7-12.score: 150.0
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  6. B. M. Kious (2000). The Nuremberg Code: Its History and Implications. Princeton Journal of Bioethics 4:7-19.score: 150.0
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  7. George J. Annas Michael A. Grodin (2008). The Nuremberg Code. In Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.), The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford University Press.score: 150.0
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  8. George J. Annas & Michael A. Grodin (2008). The Nuremberg Code. In Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.), The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. Oxford University Press. 136.score: 150.0
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  9. A. S. Duncan (1981). Nuremberg Code. Trials of War Criminals Before Nuremberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law. In A. S. Duncan, G. R. Dunstan & R. B. Welbourn (eds.), Dictionary of Medical Ethics. Darton, Longman & Todd. 130.score: 150.0
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  10. A. S. Duncan, G. R. Dunstan & R. B. Welbourn (1981). The Nuremberg Code. In A. S. Duncan, G. R. Dunstan & R. B. Welbourn (eds.), Dictionary of Medical Ethics. Darton, Longman & Todd. 130--2.score: 150.0
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  11. Jonathan D. Moreno (1996). “The Only Feasible Means”: The Pentagon's Ambivalent Relationship with the Nuremberg Code. Hastings Center Report 26 (5):11-19.score: 150.0
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  12. Law No (1983). The Nuremberg Code. In Catherine P. Murphy & Howard Hunter (eds.), Ethical Problems in the Nurse-Patient Relationship. Allyn and Bacon. 263.score: 150.0
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  13. Benjamin Sachs (2011). Going From Principles to Rules in Research Ethics. Bioethics 25 (1):9-20.score: 90.0
    In research ethics there is a canon regarding what ethical rules ought to be followed by investigators vis-à-vis their treatment of subjects and a canon regarding what fundamental ethical principles apply to the endeavor. What I aim to demonstrate here is that several of the rules find no support in the principles. This leaves anyone who would insist that we not abandon those rules in the difficult position of needing to establish that we are nevertheless justified in believing in the (...)
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  14. Jacqueline A. Laing (2004). Disabled Need Our Protection. Law Society Gazette 101:12.score: 90.0
    The Mental Incapacity Bill not only paves the way for euthanasia, but invites wholesale abuse and homicide, writes Jacqueline Laing. On 19 October 2004, when the Mental Capacity Bill was at its crucial committee stage, the Law Society issued a statement of ‘strong support’, claiming that it empowers patients and in no way introduces euthanasia. Laing argues that the Bill threatens the incapacitated by granting a raft of new third parties power to require that health professionals withhold ‘treatment’, which, after (...)
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  15. Ulf Schmidt (2004). Justice at Nuremberg: Leo Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 72.0
    Justice at Nuremberg traces the history of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial held in 1946-47, as seen through the eyes of the Austrian bliogemigrbliogé psychiatrist Leo Alexander. His investigations helped the United States to prosecute twenty German doctors and three administrators for war crimes and crimes against humanity. The legacy of Nuremberg was profound. In the Nuremberg code--a landmark in the history of modern medical ethics--the judges laid down, for the first time, international guidelines for permissible (...)
     
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  16. Olena Grebeniuk (2013). Main Challenges and Prospects of Improving Ukrainian Legislation on Criminal Liability for Crimes Related to Drug Testing in the Context of European Integration. Jurisprudence 20 (3):1249-1270.score: 66.0
    The proposed article provides an overview of European and North American states’ legislation, which regulates the procedure for pre-clinical research, clinical trials and state registration of medicinal products, as well as responsibility for its violation, analysis of the problems and prospects of adaptation of the national legislation to European legal space, particularly in the field of criminal and legal regulation of relations in the sphere of pre-clinical trials, clinical trials and state registration of medicine. The emphasis is put on the (...)
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  17. Hans-Martin Sass (1983). Reichsrundschreiben 1931: Pre-Nuremberg German Regulations Concerning New Therapy and Human Experimentation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 8 (2):99-112.score: 60.0
    This is the first re-publication and first English translation of regulations concerning Human Experimentation which were binding law prior to and during the Third Reich, 1931 to 1945. The introduction briefly describes the duties of the Reichsgesundheitsamt, which formulated these regulations. It then outlines the basic concept of the Richtlinien for protecting subjects and patients on the one hand and for encouraging New Therapy and Human Experimentation on the other hand. Major issues, like personal responsibility of the physician or researcher, (...)
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  18. Jacqueline A. Laing (2005). The Mental Capacity Bill 2004: Human Rights Concerns. Family Law Journal 35:137-143.score: 60.0
    The Mental Capacity Bill endangers the vulnerable by inviting human rights abuse. It is perhaps these grave deficiencies that prompted the warnings of the 23rd Report of the Joint Committee on Human Rights highlighting the failure of the legislation to supply adequate safeguards against Articles 2, 3 and 8 incompatibilities. Further, the fact that it is the mentally incapacitated as a class that are thought ripe for these and other kinds of intervention, highlights the Article 14 discrimination inherent in this (...)
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  19. Hope Ferdowsian (2011). Human and Animal Research Guidelines: Aligning Ethical Constructs with New Scientific Developments. Bioethics 25 (8):472-478.score: 30.0
    Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of (...)
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  20. Adil E. Shamoo & Jonathan D. Moreno (2004). Ethics of Research Involving Mandatory Drug Testing of High School Athletes in Oregon. American Journal of Bioethics 4 (1):25 – 31.score: 30.0
    There is consensus that children have questionable decisional capacity and, therefore, in general a parent or a guardian must give permission to enroll a child in a research study. Moreover, freedom from duress and coercion, the cardinal rule in research involving adults, is even more important for children. This principle is embodied prominently in the Nuremberg Code (1947) and is embodied in various federal human research protection regulations. In a program named "SATURN" (Student Athletic Testing Using Random Notification), (...)
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  21. Shawn Fabrice Jotterand, Archie M. McClintock, Mustafa A. Alexander & M. Husain (2010). Ethics and Informed Consent of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (Vns) for Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression (Trd). Neuroethics 3 (1).score: 30.0
    Since the Nuremberg trials (1947–1949), informed consent has become central for ethical practice in patient care and biomedical research. Codes of ethics emanating from the Nuremberg Code (1947) recognize the importance of protecting patients and research subjects from abuses, manipulation and deception. Informed consent empowers individuals to autonomously and voluntarily accept or reject participation in either clinical treatment or research. In some cases, however, the underlying mental or physical condition of the individual may alter his or her (...)
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  22. Vera Hassner Sharav (2003). Children in Clinical Research: A Conflict of Moral Values. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (1):12 – 59.score: 30.0
    This paper examines the culture, the dynamics and the financial underpinnings that determine how medical research is being conducted on children in the United States. Children have increasingly become the subject of experiments that offer them no potential direct benefit but expose them to risks of harm and pain. A wide range of such experiments will be examined, including a lethal heartburn drug test, the experimental insertion of a pacemaker, an invasive insulin infusion experiment, and a fenfluramine "violence prediction" experiment. (...)
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  23. Seetharaman Hariharan, Ramesh Jonnalagadda, Errol Walrond & Harley Moseley (2006). Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice of Healthcare Ethics and Law Among Doctors and Nurses in Barbados. BMC Medical Ethics 7 (1):1-9.score: 30.0
    Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed to all levels of staff at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados (a (...)
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  24. Loretta M. Kopelman (2004). Minimal Risk as an International Ethical Standard in Research. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 29 (3):351 – 378.score: 30.0
    Classifying research proposals by risk of harm is fundamental to the approval process and the most pivotal risk category in most regulations is that of “minimal risk.” If studies have no more than a minimal risk, for example, a nearly worldwide consensus exists that review boards may sometimes: (1) expedite review, (2) waive or modify some or all elements of informed consent, or (3) enroll vulnerable subjects including healthy children, incapacitated persons and prisoners even if studies do not hold out (...)
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  25. Jane L. Hutton & Richard E. Ashcroft (2000). Some Popular Versions of Uninformed Consent. Health Care Analysis 8 (1):41-53.score: 30.0
    A patient's informed consent is required by the Nuremberg code, and its successors, before she can be entered into a clinical trial. However, concern has been expressed by both patients and professionals about the beneficial or detrimental effect on the patient of asking for her consent. We examine advantages and drawbacks of popular variations on consent, which might reduce the stress on patients at the point of illness. Both informed and uninformed responses to particular trials, and trials in (...)
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  26. Jacqueline A. Laing (2004). Mental Capacity Bill - A Threat to the Vulnerable. New Law Journal 154:1165.score: 30.0
    Helga Kuhse suggested in 1985 at a session of the World Federation of Right to Die Societies in Nice, that once dehydration to death became legal and routine in hospitals, people would, on seeing the horror of it, seek the lethal injection. The strategy of legalising passive euthanasia is itself flawed. Laing argues that the Mental Capacity Bill threatens the vulnerable by inviting breaches of arts 2,3,5,8, and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Most at risk are the (...)
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  27. Jean-Noel Vergnes, Christine Marchal-Sixou, Cathy Nabet, Delphine Maret & Olivier Hamel (2010). Ethics in Systematic Reviews. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):771-774.score: 30.0
    Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic (...)
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  28. Fabrice Jotterand, Shawn M. McClintock, Archie A. Alexander & Mustafa M. Husain (2010). Ethics and Informed Consent of Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) for Patients with Treatment-Resistant Depression (TRD). Neuroethics 3 (1):13-22.score: 30.0
    Since the Nuremberg trials (1947–1949), informed consent has become central for ethical practice in patient care and biomedical research. Codes of ethics emanating from the Nuremberg Code (1947) recognize the importance of protecting patients and research subjects from abuses, manipulation and deception. Informed consent empowers individuals to autonomously and voluntarily accept or reject participation in either clinical treatment or research. In some cases, however, the underlying mental or physical condition of the individual may alter his or her (...)
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  29. Andreas Frewer (2010). Human Rights From the Nuremberg Doctors Trial to the Geneva Declaration. Persons and Institutions in Medical Ethics and History. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 13 (3):259-268.score: 30.0
    The “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” and the “Geneva Declaration” by the World Medical Association, both in 1948, were preceded by the foundation of the United Nations in New York (1945), the World Medical Association in London (1946) and the World Health Organization in Geneva (1948). After the end of World War II the community of nations strove to achieve and sustain their primary goals of peace and security, as well as their basic premise, namely the health of human beings. (...)
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  30. P. Rogero-Anaya, J. L. Carpintero-Avellaneda & B. Vila-Blasco (1994). Ethics and Research in Nursing. Nursing Ethics 1 (4):216-223.score: 30.0
    Considering the importance of research in the development of nursing, we examine the ethical principles governing nurses' investigative activity, as well as the different codes regulating biomedical investigation with human beings, amongst which are the Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Human Rights, and the Declaration of Helsinki. From the perspective of the central points of the article reference is made to different codes proposed by international nursing associations, as well as reviewing the Deontological Code of Spanish Nursing. (...)
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  31. Nancy L. Jones (2007). A Code of Ethics for the Life Sciences. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (1):25-43.score: 24.0
    The activities of the life sciences are essential to provide solutions for the future, for both individuals and society. Society has demanded growing accountability from the scientific community as implications of life science research rise in influence and there are concerns about the credibility, integrity and motives of science. While the scientific community has responded to concerns about its integrity in part by initiating training in research integrity and the responsible conduct of research, this approach is minimal. The scientific community (...)
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  32. Michael Davis (2007). Eighteen Rules for Writing a Code of Professional Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):171-189.score: 24.0
    Most professional societies, scientific associations, and the like that undertake to write a code of ethics do so using other codes as models but without much (practical) guidance about how to do the work. The existing literature on codes is much more concerned with content than procedure. This paper adds to guidance already in the literature what I learned from participating in the writing of an important code of ethics. The guidance is given in the form of “rules” (...)
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  33. Michael Davis (2003). What Can We Learn by Looking for the First Code of Professional Ethics? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (5):433-454.score: 24.0
    The first code of professional ethics must: (1)be a code of ethics; (2) apply to members of a profession; (3) apply to allmembers of that profession; and (4) apply only to members of that profession. The value of these criteria depends on how we define “code”, “ethics”, and “profession”, terms the literature on professions has defined in many ways. This paper applies one set of definitions of “code”, “ethics”, and “profession” to a part of what we (...)
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  34. Yi-Hui Huang (2001). Should a Public Relations Code of Ethics Be Enforced? Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):259 - 270.score: 24.0
    Whether or not a public relations code of ethics should be enforced, among others, has become one of the most widely controversial topics, especially after the Hill and Knowlton case in 1992. I take the position that ethical codes should be enforced and address this issue from eight aspects: (a) Is a code of ethics an absolute prerequisite of professionalism? (b) Should problems of rhetoric per se in a code of ethics become a rationale against code (...)
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  35. Gary R. Rothwell & J. Norman Baldwin (2007). Ethical Climate Theory, Whistle-Blowing, and the Code of Silence in Police Agencies in the State of Georgia. Journal of Business Ethics 70 (4):341 - 361.score: 24.0
    This article reports the findings from a study that investigates the relationship between ethical climates and police whistle-blowing on five forms of misconduct in the State of Georgia. The results indicate that a friendship or team climate generally explains willingness to blow the whistle, but not the actual frequency of blowing the whistle. Instead, supervisory status, a control variable investigated in previous studies, is the most consistent predictor of both willingness to blow the whistle and frequency of blowing the whistle. (...)
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  36. Ulrich E. Stegmann (2004). The Arbitrariness of the Genetic Code. Biology and Philosophy 19 (2):205-222.score: 24.0
    The genetic code has been regarded as arbitrary in the sense that the codon-amino acid assignments could be different than they actually are. This general idea has been spelled out differently by previous, often rather implicit accounts of arbitrariness. They have drawn on the frozen accident theory, on evolutionary contingency, on alternative causal pathways, and on the absence of direct stereochemical interactions between codons and amino acids. It has also been suggested that the arbitrariness of the genetic code (...)
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  37. Richard A. Spinello (2001). Code and Moral Values in Cyberspace. Ethics and Information Technology 3 (2):137-150.score: 24.0
    This essay is a critique of LarryLessig's book, Code and other Laws ofCyberspace (Basic Books, 1999). Itsummarizes Lessig's theory of the fourmodalities of regulation in cyberspace: code,law, markets, and norms. It applies thistheory to the topics of privacy and speech,illustrating how code can undermine basicrights or liberties. The review raisesquestions about the role of ethics in thismodel, and it argues that ethical principlesmust be given a privileged position in anytheory that purports to deal with the shapingof behavior (...)
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  38. Olubunmi A. Ogunrin, Temidayo O. Ogundiran & Clement Adebamowo (2013). Development and Pilot Testing of an Online Module for Ethics Education Based on the Nigerian National Code for Health Research Ethics. BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):1-.score: 24.0
    Background: The formulation and implementation of national ethical regulations to protect research participants is fundamental to ethical conduct of research. Ethics education and capacity are inadequate in developing African countries. This study was designed to develop a module for online training in research ethics based on the Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics and assess its ease of use and reliability among biomedical researchers in Nigeria.MethodologyThis was a three-phased evaluation study. Phase one involved development of an online training (...)
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  39. Michael Salter (1999). Neo-Fascist Legal Theory on Trial: An Interpretation of Carl Schmitt's Defence at Nuremberg From the Perspective of Franz Neumann's Critical Theory of Law. Res Publica 5 (2):161-193.score: 24.0
    This article addresses, from a Frankfurt School perspective on law identified with Franz Neumann and more recently Habermas, the attack upon the principles of war criminality formulated at the Nuremberg trials by the increasingly influential legal and political theory of Carl Schmitt. It also considers the contradictions within certain of the defence arguments that Schmitt himself resorted to when interrogated as a possible war crimes defendant at Nuremberg. The overall argument is that a distinctly internal, or “immanent”, form (...)
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  40. Joseph A. McKinney & Carlos W. Moore (2008). International Bribery: Does a Written Code of Ethics Make a Difference in Perceptions of Business Professionals. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 79 (1/2):103 - 111.score: 24.0
    This article analyzes the attitudes of United States business professionals toward the issue of international bribery, and in particular, whether or not having a written code of ethics has an effect on these attitudes. A vignette relating to international bribery from a widely used survey instrument was employed in a nationwide survey of business professionals to gather information on ethical attitudes of respondents. Data were also collected on gender of respondents, whether or not respondents were self-employed, whether or not (...)
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  41. Avshalom M. Adam & Dalia Rachman-moore (2004). The Methods Used to Implement an Ethical Code of Conduct and Employee Attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics 54 (3):225 - 244.score: 24.0
    In the process of implementing an ethical code of conduct, a business organization uses formal methods. Of these, training, courses and means of enforcement are common and are also suitable for self-regulation. The USA is encouraging business corporations to self regulate with the Federal Sentencing Guidelines (FSG). The Guidelines prescribe similar formal methods and specify that, unless such methods are used, the process of implementation will be considered ineffective, and the business will therefore not be considered to have complied (...)
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  42. Carla Masciocchi Messikomer & Carol Cabrey Cirka (2010). Constructing a Code of Ethics: An Experiential Case of a National Professional Organization. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):55 - 71.score: 24.0
    This paper documents the development and implementation of an ethically valid code of ethics in a newly formed national professional organization. It describes the experience and challenges faced by the National Association of Senior Move Managers (NASMM) and its leaders as they worked to establish ethics as an organizing framework early in its evolution. Designed by the investigators and supported by the NASMM Board, the process took place over a 2 year period and more than 130 people participated. It (...)
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  43. Robin S. Snell & Neil C. Herndon (2004). Hong Kong's Code of Ethics Initiative: Some Differences Between Theory and Practice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 51 (1):75-89.score: 24.0
    Although detailed studies of code adoption and impact have already been conducted in Hong Kong, there has as yet been no critical analysis of why there has been a gap between the normative and positive factors underlying codes of ethics in Hong Kong. The purpose of this paper is to consider why Hong Kong companies adopting codes of ethics have failed to adhere closely to the best practice prescriptions for code adoption when it would likely be in their (...)
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  44. Sven Helin & Johan Sandström (2008). Codes, Ethics and Cross-Cultural Differences: Stories From the Implementation of a Corporate Code of Ethics in a MNC Subsidiary. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 82 (2):281 - 291.score: 24.0
    In this article, we focus on the cross-cultural aspects of the implementation of an American company's code of ethics into its Swedish subsidiary. We identify the cross-cultural stories that the receivers in the subsidiary use when trying to explain the parent's code and conceptualize these stories as part of an emerging narrative of national belonging and differences. The receivers resisted the code by amplifying the importance of national identity. Rather than stimulating a discussion on ethics that might (...)
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  45. Simone J. van Zolingen & Hakan Honders (2010). Metaphors and the Application of a Corporate Code of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 92 (3):385-400.score: 24.0
    This article researches how a corporate code of ethics (CCE) implemented in local government X has influenced the behavior of its employees, middle managers, and managers. Metaphors from the existing and desired CCE elicited by these three groups provided information on how to improve the effectiveness of the CCE. This method proved to be very fruitful. It appeared that continuous systematic attention needed to be paid to the CCE after the CCE had been implemented, particularly by management. Initiatives from (...)
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  46. Marcela Espinosa-Pike (1999). Business Ethics and Accounting Information. An Analysis of the Spanish Code of Best Practice. Journal of Business Ethics 22 (3):249 - 259.score: 24.0
    The main purpose of this article is to analyse one aspect of Spanish business ethics: the role of the transparency and quality of the economic and financial information given to meet the demands and requirements of shareholders. To that end we concentrate firstly on analysing the Spanish capital market and the situation of shareholders prior to the publication in February 1988 of the Code of Best Practice for Spanish Companies, drawn up by a Special Committee created at the request (...)
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  47. John D. Neill, O. Scott Stovall & Darryl L. Jinkerson (2005). A Critical Analysis of the Accounting Industry's Voluntary Code of Conduct. Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):101 - 108.score: 24.0
    The public accounting industry’s voluntary code of conduct in the United States is the American Institute of CPA’s Code of Professional Conduct. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the accounting industry’s current code is limited in its ability to serve the public interest in three respects. Specifically, the code is input-based, requires no third-party attestation of compliance with the code, and contains no public reporting process of code compliance/noncompliance at the accounting firm level. (...)
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  48. M. Joseph Sirgy, J. S. Johar & Tao Gao (2006). Toward a Code of Ethics for Marketing Educators. Journal of Business Ethics 63 (1):1 - 20.score: 24.0
    This paper builds on previous work by Sirgy, M. J. (1999), Journal of Business Ethics 19, 193–206, dealing with issues of code of conduct of marketing educators. Sirgy developed a discussion document outlining a semblance of what might be construed as a code of ethics for marketing educators. The discussion document was debated and accompanied by three commentaries (Ferrell, O. C.: 1999, Journal of Business Ethics 19, 225–228; Kurtz, D. L.: 1999, Journal of Business Ethics 19, (...)
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  49. Daniel Walter Skubik & Bruce W. Stening (2009). What's in a Credo? A Critique of the Academy of Management's Code of Ethical Conduct and Code of Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 85 (4):515 - 525.score: 24.0
    The Academy of Management formally adopted a Code of Ethical Conduct in 1990. During the subsequent 15 years, almost nothing had been published about it and its value as a formal document meant to guide professional practice. Rather surprisingly then, in December 2005 an entirely new Code of Ethics was introduced by the Academy’s Board, to take effect in February 2006. Why was a new code promulgated? More broadly, what do the contents of these codes, the processes (...)
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  50. Scott R. Colwell, Michael J. Zyphur & Marshall Schminke (2011). When Does Ethical Code Enforcement Matter in the Inter-Organizational Context? The Moderating Role of Switching Costs. Journal of Business Ethics 104 (1):47-58.score: 24.0
    Drawing on signaling theory, we suggest that a supplier’s enforcement of ethical codes sends signals about the supplier that affect a buyer’s decision to continue their commitment to the supplier. We then draw on side-bet theory to hypothesize how switching costs influence the importance of a supplier’s enforcement of ethical codes in predicting a buyer’s continuance commitment to a supplier. We empirically test our model with data from 158 purchasing managers across three manufacturing industries. Results confirm the connection between ethical (...)
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