Search results for 'Observation' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. William F. Brewer & Bruce L. Lambert (2001). The Theory-Ladenness of Observation and the Theory-Ladenness of the Rest of the Scientific Process. Philosophy of Science 3 (September):S176-S186.score: 24.0
    We use evidence from cognitive psychology and the history of science to examine the issue of the theory-ladenness of perceptual observation. This evidence shows that perception is theory-laden, but that it is only strongly theory-laden when the perceptual evidence is ambiguous or degraded, or when it requires a difficult perceptual judgment. We argue that debates about the theory-ladenness issue have focused too narrowly on the issue of perceptual experience, and that a full account of the scientific process requires an (...)
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  2. Jerry A. Fodor (1984). Observation Reconsidered. Philosophy of Science 51 (March):23-43.score: 24.0
    Several arguments are considered which purport to demonstrate the impossibility of theory-neutral observation. The most important of these infers the continuity of observation with theory from the presumed continuity of perception with cognition, a doctrine widely espoused in recent cognitive psychology. An alternative psychological account of the relation between cognition and perception is proposed and its epistemological consequences for the observation/theory distinction are then explored.
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  3. Anna Estany (2001). The Thesis of Theory-Laden Observation in the Light of Cognitive Psychology. Philosophy of Science 68 (2):203-217.score: 24.0
    The aim of this paper is to analyze a philosophical question (neutrality vs. theory-ladenness of observation) taking into consideration the empirical results of Cognitive Psychology (theories of perception). This is an important debate because the objectivity of science is at stake. In the Philosophy of Science there are two main positions with regard to observation, those of C. Hempel and N. R. Hanson. In the Philosophy of Mind there are also two important contrasting positions, those of J. Fodor (...)
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  4. Harold I. Brown (1987). Observation And Objectivity. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    This book develops an explanation for the roles of observation and theory in scientific endeavor that occupies the middle ground between empiricism and rationalism, and captures the strengths of both approaches. Brown argues that philosophical theories have the same epistemological status as scientific theories and constructs an epistemological theory that provides an account of the role that theory and instruments play in scientific observation. His theory of perception yields a new analysis of objectivity that combines the traditional view (...)
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  5. Alexey Alyushin (2010). Time Scales of Observation and Ontological Levels of Reality. Axiomathes 20 (4):439-460.score: 24.0
    My goal is to conceive how the reality would look like for hypothetical creatures that supposedly perceive on time scales much faster or much slower than that of us humans. To attain the goal, I propose modelling in two steps. At step one, we have to single out a unified parameter that sets time scale of perception. Changing substantially the value of the parameter would mean changing scale. I argue that the required parameter is duration of discrete perceptive frames, or (...)
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  6. Lorraine Daston & Elizabeth Lunbeck (eds.) (2011). Histories of Scientific Observation. The University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    This book makes a compelling case for the significance of the long, surprising, and epistemologically significant history of scientific observation, a history ...
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  7. Harold Langsam (2002). Externalism, Self-Knowledge, and Inner Observation. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (1):42-61.score: 24.0
    There is a continuing debate as to whether externalism about mental content is compatible with certain commonly accepted views about the nature of self-knowledge. Both sides to this debate seem to agree that externalism is _not compatible with the traditional view that self-knowledge is acquired by means of observation. In this paper, I argue that externalism is compatible with this traditional view of self-knowledge, and that, in fact, we have good reason to believe that the self-knowledge at issue is (...)
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  8. Josep Corbí (2011). Observation, Character, and A Purely First-Person Point of View. Acta Analytica 26 (4):311-328.score: 24.0
    In Values and the Reflective Point of View (2006), Robert Dunn defends a certain expressivist view about evaluative beliefs from which some implications about self-knowledge are explicitly derived. He thus distinguishes between an observational and a deliberative attitude towards oneself, so that the latter involves a purely first-person point of view that gives rise to an especially authoritative, but wholly non-observational, kind of self-knowledge. Even though I sympathize with many aspects of Dunn's approach to evaluative beliefs and also with his (...)
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  9. Nick Bostrom (2002). Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy. Routledge.score: 24.0
    This book breaks new ground by drawing attention to certain kinds of biases that permeate many parts of science and by developing a theory of how to correct for these biases. Follow this link http://www.anthropic-principle.com/ to Nick Bostrom's web page on everything related to observation selection effects, the anthropic principle, self-locating belief, and associated applications and paradoxes in science and philosophy.
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  10. Miklavž Vospernik (2004). Measurement and the Verificationist Theory/Observation Distinction. Acta Analytica 19 (33):95-117.score: 24.0
    In the following article, we propose to show that following the general verificationist epistemic programme (its demand that the truth of our judgments be verifiable), the analysis of measurement on the one hand, and the classical positivist analysis of common-sense observation on the other, do not lead to same conclusions. This is especially important, because the differences in conclusions concern the positivist theory/observation distinction. In particular, the analysis of measurement does not fully support this distinction. This fact might (...)
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  11. Ioannis Votsis (forthcoming). Perception and Observation Unladened. Philosophical Studies:1-23.score: 24.0
    Let us call ‘veridicalism’ the view that perceptual beliefs and observational reports are largely truthful. This paper aims to make a case for veridicalism by, among other things, examining in detail and ultimately deflating in import what many consider to be the view’s greatest threat, the so-called ‘theory-ladenness’ of perception and/or observation. In what follows, it is argued that to the extent that theoretical factors influence the formation of perceptual beliefs and observational reports, as theory-ladenness demands, that influence is (...)
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  12. Brigitte Falkenburg (2012). Pragmatic Unification, Observation and Realism in Astroparticle Physics. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (2):327-345.score: 24.0
    Astroparticle physics is a recent sub-discipline of physics that emerged from early cosmic ray studies, astrophysics, and particle physics. Its theoretical foundations range from quantum field theory to general relativity, but the underlying “standard models” of cosmology and particle physics are far from being unified. The paper explores the pragmatic strategies employed in astroparticle physics in order to unify a disunified research field, the concept of observation involved in these strategies, and their relations to scientific realism.
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  13. Robert Nola (1990). Some Observations on a Popperian Experiment Concerning Observation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 21 (2):329-346.score: 24.0
    Summary In several places Popper describes a little experiment in which an audience is given the non-specific command ‚Observe!‘ He draws a number of conclusions from this experiment, in particular that observation takes place in the presence of theoretical problems, questions, hypotheses or points of view. The paper argues that while Popper's experiment is instructive, it hardly supports the strong conclusions he draws about the theory-dominance of observation in science. In particular, it is argued that talk of principles (...)
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  14. Magda Osman (2008). Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving. Cognitive Science 32 (1):162-183.score: 24.0
    The present study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based and conventional action-based learning conditions. The findings show that goal specificity affects the accuracy of problem solving in the same way, both when the learning (...)
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  15. Giorgio Marchetti (2000). Observation Levels and Units of Time: A Critical Analysis of the Main Assumption of the Theory of the Artificial. [REVIEW] AI and Society 14 (3-4):331-347.score: 24.0
    Negrotti's theory of the artificial is based on the fundamental assumption that the human being cannot select more than one observation level per unit of time. Since this assumption has important consequences for the theory of knowledge — knowledge cannot be synthesised but only further differentiated — its plausibility is tested against two aspects that characterise any theory of knowledge: knowledge production and knowledge application. The way in which the human being produces and applies knowledge is analysed, and a (...)
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  16. Paulo S. Boggio Olivia M. Lapenta, Ludovico Minati, Felipe Fregni (2013). Je Pense Donc Je Fais: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Brain Oscillations Associated with Motor Imagery and Movement Observation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Motor system neural networks are activated during movement imagery, observation and execution, with a neural signature characterized by suppression of the Mu rhythm. In order to investigate the origin of this neurophysiological marker, we tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modifies Mu rhythm oscillations during tasks involving observation and imagery of biological and non-biological movements. We applied tDCS (anodal, cathodal and sham) in 21 male participants (mean age 23.8+3.06), over the left M1 with a current of 2mA (...)
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  17. C. J. Olsson & Peter Lundström (2013). Using Action Observation to Study Superior Motor Performance: A Pilot fMRI Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:819.score: 24.0
    The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to 1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and 2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure regional blood (...)
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  18. Simon R. Walters & Rosemary Godbold (forthcoming). Someone Is Watching You: The Ethics of Covert Observation to Explore Adult Behaviour at Children's Sporting Events. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-7.score: 24.0
    Concerns have been expressed about adult behaviour at children’s sporting events in New Zealand. As a consequence, covert observation was identified as the optimal research method to be used in studies designed to record the nature and prevalence of adult sideline behaviour at children’s team sporting events. This paper explores whether the concerns raised by the ethics committee about the use of this controversial method, particularly in relation to the lack of informed consent, the use of deception, and researcher (...)
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  19. Steven L. Small Nira Mashal, Ana Solodkin, Anthony Steven Dick, E. Elinor Chen (2012). A Network Model of Observation and Imitation of Speech. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Much evidence has now accumulated demonstrating and quantifying the extent of shared regional brain activation for observation and execution of speech. However, the nature of the actual networks that implement these functions, i.e., both the brain regions and the connections among them, and the similarities and differences across these networks has not been elucidated. The current study aims to characterize formally a network for observation and imitation of syllables in the healthy adult brain and to compare their structure (...)
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  20. Dora Linsey Canizales, Julien Ia Voisin, Pierre-Emmanuel Michon, Marc-André Roy & Philip L. Jackson (2013). The Influence of Visual Perspective on the Somatosensory Steady-State Response During Pain Observation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:849.score: 24.0
    The observation and evaluation of other's pain activate part of the neuronal network involved in the actual experience of pain, including those regions subserving the sensori-discriminative dimension of pain. This was largely interpreted as evidence showing that part of the painful experience can be shared vicariously. Here, we investigated the effect of the visual perspective from which other people’s pain is seen on the cortical response to continuous 25 Hz non-painful somatosensory stimulation (somatosensory steady-state response: SSSR). Based on the (...)
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  21. A. Guillot C. Collet, F. Di Rienzo, N. El Hoyek (2013). Autonomic Nervous System Correlates in Movement Observation and Motor Imagery. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature offering a better understanding on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) correlates in motor imagery (MI) and movement observation. These are two high brain functions involving sensori-motor coupling, mediated by memory systems. How observing or mentally rehearsing a movement affect ANS activity has not been extensively investigated. The links between cognitive functions and ANS responses are not so obvious. We first describe the organization of the (...)
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  22. Angelika Lingnau Luca Turella, Moritz F. Wurm, Raffaele Tucciarelli (2013). Expertise in Action Observation: Recent Neuroimaging Findings and Future Perspectives. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Expertise in action observation: recent neuroimaging findings and future perspectives.
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  23. Lisa Aziz-Zadeh Sook-Lei Liew, Tong Sheng, John L. Margetis (2013). Both Novelty and Expertise Increase Action Observation Network Activity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON), is modulated by one’s expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal) on AON activation. fMRI was used (...)
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  24. Anthony L. Brueckner (2003). Self-Knowledge Via Inner Observation of External Objects? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (1):118-122.score: 22.0
    Harold Langsam has recently presented a novel observational account of self-knowledge. I critically discuss this account and argue that it fails to provide a uniform understanding of how we are able to know the contents of our own thoughts.
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  25. Michael Knapp & Warren Ewens (2005). Direct Observation and Unambiguous Inference. Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):925-926.score: 22.0
    In science, it sometimes occurs that an event is directly observed, and on other occasions that it is not directly observed but one can make the unambiguous inference that it has occurred. Is there any difference concerning the analysis of data arising from these two situations? In this note we show that there is such a difference in one case arising frequently in genetics. The difference derives from the fact that the ability to make the unambiguous inference arises only from (...)
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  26. P. G. Cassematis & R. Wortley (2013). Prediction of Whistleblowing or Non-Reporting Observation: The Role of Personal and Situational Factors. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 117 (3):615-634.score: 22.0
    This study examined whether it was possible to classify Australian public sector employees as either whistleblowers or non-reporting observers using personal and situational variables. The personal variables were demography (gender, public sector tenure, organisational tenure and age), work attitudes (job satisfaction, trust in management, whistleblowing propensity) and employee behaviour (organisational citizenship behaviour). The situational variables were perceived personal victimisation, fear of reprisals and perceived wrongdoing seriousness. These variables were used as predictors in a series of binary logistic regressions. It was (...)
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  27. Robert N. McCauley & J. Henrich (2006). Susceptibility to the Muller-Lyer Illusion, Theory-Neutral Observation, and the Diachronic Penetrability of the Visual Input System. Philosophical Psychology 19 (1):79-101.score: 21.0
    Jerry Fodor has consistently cited the persistence of illusions--especially the M.
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  28. Simon W. Blackburn (1992). Theory, Observation, and Drama. Mind and Language 7 (1-2):187-203.score: 21.0
  29. Observation Reconsidered (1984). Philosophy of Science Association Observation Reconsidered. Philosophy of Science 51 (1):23-43.score: 21.0
    Several arguments are considered which purport to demonstrate the impossibility of theory-neutral observation. The most important of these infers the continuity of observation with theory from the presumed continuity of perception with cognition, a doctrine widely espoused in recent cognitive psychology. An alternative psychological account of the relation between cognition and perception is proposed and its epistemological consequences for the observation/theory distinction are then explored.
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  30. Godfrey N. A. Vesey (1963). Knowledge Without Observation. Philosophical Review 72 (April):198-212.score: 21.0
  31. Daniel J. Gilman (1991). The Neurobiology of Observation. Philosophy of Science 58 (3):496-502.score: 21.0
    Paul Churchland has recently argued that empirical evidence strongly suggests that perception is penetrable to the beliefs or theories held by individual perceivers (1988). While there has been much discussion of the sorts of psychological cases he presents, little has been said about his arguments from neurology. I offer a critical examination of his claim that certain efferents in the brain are evidence against perceptual encapsulation. I argue that his neurological evidence is inadequate to his philosophical goals, both by itself (...)
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  32. Louise Anthony (1993). Conceptual Connection and the Observation/ Theory Distinction. In Holism: A Consumer Update. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 135-161.score: 21.0
    Fodor and LePore's reconstruction of the semantic holism debate in terms of "atomism" and "anatomism" is inadequate: it fails to highlight the important issue of how intentional contents are individuated, and excludes or obscures several possible positions on the metaphysics of content. One such position, "weak sociabilism" is important because it addresses concerns of Fodor and LePore's molecularist critics about conditions for possession of concepts, without abandoning atomism about content individuation. Properties like DEMOCRACY may be "theoretical" in the following sense: (...)
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  33. Michael E. Malone (1978). Is Scientific Observation Seeing As? Philosophical Investigations 1 (4):23-38.score: 21.0
  34. Josep E. Corbí (2011). Observation, Character, and A Purely First-Person Point of View. Acta Analytica 26 (4):311-328.score: 21.0
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  35. James Bogen (2002). Experiment and Observation. In Peter K. Machamer & Michael Silberstein (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge: Blackwell. 128--148.score: 21.0
  36. Werner Ulrich (2006). The Art of Observation: Understanding Pattern Languages. Journal of Research Practice 2 (1):Article R1.score: 21.0
    Review of "The Timeless Way of Building." Book by Christopher Alexander.
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  37. Stanford H. Simon & Basil Jackson (1968). Effect of a Relevant Versus Irrelevant Observation Stimulus on Concept-Identification Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (1p1):125.score: 21.0
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  38. J. G. Beebe-Center, L. C. Mead, K. S. Wagoner & A. C. Hoffman (1945). Visual Acuity and Distance of Observation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 35 (6):473.score: 21.0
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  39. Alvin G. Goldstein (1957). Judgments of Visual Velocity as a Function of Length of Observation Time. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (6):457.score: 21.0
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  40. Edwin Martin Jr (1973). The Intentionality of Observation. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3 (September):121-129.score: 21.0
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  41. Ricarda I. Schubotz Anne-Marike Schiffer (2011). Caudate Nucleus Signals for Breaches of Expectation in a Movement Observation Paradigm. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 21.0
    The striatum has been established as a carrier of reward related prediction errors. This prediction error signal concerns the difference between how much reward was predicted and how much reward is gained. However, it remains to be established whether general breaches of expectation, i.e. perceptual prediction errors, are also implemented in the striatum. The current study used functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the role of caudate nucleus in breaches of expectation. Importantly, breaches were not related to the occurrence (...)
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  42. Joe Causer, Sheree A. McCormick & Paul S. Holmes (2013). Congruency of Gaze Metrics in Action, Imagery and Action Observation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  43. Douglas Hollan (2005). Setting a New Standard: The Person‐Centered Interviewing and Observation of Robert I. Levy. Ethos 33 (4):459-466.score: 21.0
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  44. Louis Marinoff (1993). Three Pseudo-Paradoxes in ?Quantum? Decision Theory: Apparent Effects of Observation on Probability and Utility. Theory and Decision 35 (1):55-73.score: 21.0
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  45. Martin Bulmer (ed.) (1982). Social Research Ethics: An Examination of the Merits of Covert Participant Observation. Holmes & Meier Publishers.score: 21.0
  46. Arthur S. Reber & Richard B. Millward (1968). Event Observation in Probability Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (2):317.score: 21.0
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  47. Mike Stannett (forthcoming). Motion and Observation in a Single-Particle Universe. Synthese:1-11.score: 20.0
    We outline an argument that a single-particle universe (a universe containing precisely one pointlike particle) can be described mathematically, in which observation can be considered meaningful despite the a priori impossibility of distinguishing between an observer and the observed. Moreover, we argue, such a universe can be observationally similar to the world we see around us. It is arguably impossible, therefore, to determine by experimental observation of the physical world whether the universe we inhabit contains one particle or (...)
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  48. Stefan Vogt, Franck Di Rienzo, Christian Collet, Allan Collins & Aymeric Guillot (2013). Multiple Roles of Motor Imagery During Action Observation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:807.score: 20.0
    Over the last 20 years, the topics of action observation (AO) and motor imagery (MI) have been largely studied in isolation from each other, despite the early integrative account by Jeannerod (1994, 2001). Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate enhanced cortical activity when AO and MI are performed concurrently ('AO+MI'), compared to either AO or MI performed in isolation. These results indicate the potentially beneficial effects of AO+MI, and they also demonstrate that the underlying neurocognitive processes are partly shared. We separately (...)
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  49. Amanda M. Rymal Diane M. Ste-Marie, Kelly A. Vertes, Barbi Law (2012). Learner-Controlled Self-Observation is Advantageous for Motor Skill Acquisition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 20.0
    There were two main objectives of this research. First, we wanted to examine whether video feedback of the self (self-observation) was more effective for motor skill learning when the choice to view the video was provided to the learner (learner-controlled; LC) as opposed to an experimenter-controlled (EC) delivery. Secondly, we explored whether there were differences in the self-regulatory processes of self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation, as well as perceived choice between the LC and EC conditions. Two groups (LC and EC) (...)
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  50. Darren Bradley (2009). Multiple Universes and Observation Selection Effects. American Philosophical Quarterly 46 (1):72.score: 18.0
    The fine-tuning argument can be used to support the Many Universe hypothesis. The Inverse Gambler’s Fallacy objection seeks to undercut the support for the Many Universe hypothesis. The objection is that although the evidence that there is life somewhere confirms Many Universes, the specific evidence that there is life in this universe does not. I will argue that the Inverse Gambler’s Fallacy is not committed by the fine-tuning argument. The key issue is the procedure by which the universe with life (...)
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