Search results for 'Observation Methods' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  3
    Jon Williamson (2007). Inductive Influence: Objective Bayesianism has Been Criticised for Not Allowing Learning From Experience: It is Claimed That an Agent Must Give Degree of Belief Formula to the Next Raven Being Black, However Many Other Black Ravens Have Been Observed. I Argue That This Objection Can Be Overcome by Appealing to Objective Bayesian Nets, a Formalism for Representing Objective Bayesian Degrees of Belief. Under This Account, Previous Observations Exert an Inductive Influence on the Next Observation. I Show How This Approach Can Be Used to Capture the Johnson–Carnap Continuum of Inductive Methods, as Well as the Nix–Paris Continuum, and Show How Inductive Influence Can Be Measured. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (4):689-708.
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  2.  1
    Yoshiharu Maeno, Kenichi Horie & Yukio Ohsawa (2008). Computational Methods for Discoveries From Integrated Data-Human-Interactive Annealing for Multilateral Observation. In S. Iwata, Y. Oshawa, S. Tsumoto, N. Zhong, Y. Shi & L. Magnani (eds.), Communications and Discoveries From Multidisciplinary Data. Springer 187--203.
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  3. George Cornewall Lewis (1852). A Treatise on the Methods of Observation and Reasoning in Politics. New York,Arno Press.
  4.  14
    Rudolf Steiner (1999). The Philosophy of Freedom (the Philosophy of Spiritual Activity): The Basis for a Modern World Conception: Some Results of Introspective Observation Following the Methods of Natural Science. R. Steiner Press.
    This special reprint, featuring the acclaimed translation by Michael Wilson, is being made available again in response to public demand.Are we free, whether we ...
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  5.  24
    G. Chabert, J. Ch Marty, B. Caron, T. Carron, L. Vignollet & C. Ferraris (2006). The Electronic Schoolbag, a CSCW Workspace: Presentation and Evaluation. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (3):403-419.
    This paper describes the Electronic Schoolbag, a digital workspace developed at the University of Savoie (France) and analyses its usages. This online environment is dedicated to the educational world: it offers pupils, students, teachers, school staff, or parents, personal and group workspaces in which individual or collaborative activities can take place. The flexibility of this software, allowing synchronous or asynchronous activities, lies in the “participation model”. This model allows groups themselves to describe and organise their activities. The architecture that permits (...)
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  6.  17
    Anne Giersch & Serge Caparos (2005). Focused Attention is Not Enough to Activate Discontinuities in Lines, but Scrutiny Is. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):613-632.
    We distinguish between the roles played by spatial attention and conscious intention in terms of their impact on the processing of segmentation signals, like discontinuities in lines, associated with the act of scrutinizing. We showed previously that the processing of discontinuities in lines can be activated. This is evidenced by an impairment in the detection of a gap between parallel elements when it follows a gap between collinear elements in the same location and orientation. This effect is no longer observed (...)
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  7. Edoardo Zamuner, Fabio Tamburini & Cristiana de Sanctis (2002). “Identifying Phrasal Connectives in Italian Using Quantitative Methods”. In Stefania Nuccorini (ed.), Phrases and Phraseology – Data and Descriptions. Peter Lang Verlag
    In recent decades, the analysis of phraseology has made use of the exploration of large corpora as a source of quantitative information about language. This paper intends to present the main lines of work in progress based on this empirical approach to linguistic analysis. In particular, we focus our attention on some problems relating to the morpho-syntactic annotation of corpora. The CORIS/CODIS corpus of contemporary written Italian, developed at CILTA – University of Bologna (Rossini Favretti 2000; Rossini Favretti, Tamburini, De (...)
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  8.  37
    Antoine Derobertmasure & Arnaud Dehon (2012). Développement de la réflexivité et décodage de l’action : questions de méthodeDevelopment of reflexivity and decoding of the action : questions of methods. Phronesis 1 (2):24-44.
    Abstract In initial teacher training, the micro-teaching activities and retroaction have for goals to develop reflexive practitioners and competent professionals with a high professional identity. The double analyze of the teacher’s action – observation of teacher gestures and analysis of retroaction - requires two complementary methods to make the links between interactive and postactive phase. In this article, the authors describe the different training activities, and explain the research approach with an illustration of a concrete case. En formation (...)
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  9.  16
    Slobodan Perovic, Theory-Ladenness of Observation in the Experimental Context.
    Focusing on the discovery of weak currents, the current debate on the theory-ladenness of observation in modern physics might be too narrow, as it concerns only the last stage of a complex experimental process and statistical methods required to analyze data. The scope of the debate should be extended to include broader experimental conditions that concern the design of the apparatus and different levels of the detection process. These neglected conditions often decisively delimit experiments long before the last (...)
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  10.  37
    Patrick A. Heelan (1982). Hermeneutical Realism and Scientific Observation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:77 - 87.
    Using the methods of hermeneutic phenomenology, and against the background of the principle that the real is what is or can be given in a public way in perception as a state of the World, and of the thesis established elsewhere that acts of perception are always epistemic, contextual, and hermeneutical, the writer proposes that objects of scientific observation are perceptual objects, states of the World described by theoretical scientific terms and, therefore, real. This thesis of Hermeneutical Realism (...)
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  11.  22
    Ali Moussa (2011). Mathematical Methods in Abū Al-Wafāʾ's Almagest and the Qibla Determinations. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 21 (1):1-56.
    The problem of the Qibla was one of the central issues in the scientific culture of Medieval Islam, and to solve it properly, one needed mathematics and observation. The mathematics consisted of two parts: plane trigonometry and spherical trigonometry . Observation and its instruments were needed to find the geographical coordinates of Mecca and the given location; these coordinates will be the input data in the formulas of the Qibla . In his Almagest , Ab?? al-Waf???? produced a (...)
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  12.  26
    Huib Looren de Jong, Sacha Bem & Maurice Schouten (2004). Theory in Psychology: A Review Essay of Andre Kukla's Methods of Theoretical Psychology. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 17 (2):275 – 295.
    This review essay critically discusses Andre Kukla's Methods of theoretical psychology. It is argued that Kukla mistakenly tries to build his case for theorizing in psychology as a separate discipline on a dubious distinction between theory and observation. He then argues that the demise of empiricism implies a return of some form of rationalism, which entails an autonomous role for theorizing in psychology. Having shown how this theory-observation dichotomy goes back to traditional and largely abandoned ideas in (...)
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  13.  6
    M. Füllsack (2014). The Circular Conditions of Second-Order Science Sporadically Illustrated with Agent-Based Experiments at the Roots of Observation. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):46-54.
    Problem: The inclusion of the observer into scientific observation entails a vicious circle of having to observe the observer as dependent on observation. Second-order science has to clarify how its underlying circularity can be scientifically conceived. Method: Essayistic and conceptual analysis, sporadically illustrated with agent-based experiments. Results: Second-order science - implying science in general - is fundamentally and ineluctably circular. Implications - The circularity of second-order science asks for analytical methods able to cope with phenomena of complex (...)
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  14.  3
    Murat Civaner, Ozlem Sarikaya, Sevim Ulupinar Alici & Gulcin Bozkurt (2008). Exposing Nursing Students To the Marketing Methods of Pharmaceutical Companies. Nursing Ethics 15 (3):396-410.
    There is a strong association between reliance on the promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies and a generally less appropriate use of prescription drugs. Pharmaceutical companies direct some of their promotion towards health workers who do not have the authority to prescribe medicines, such as nurses in certain countries. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that exposure to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies has on judgments made by nursing students about health worker—pharmaceutical company relationships. A (...)
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  15.  2
    Oseni Taiwo Afisi (2016). Is African Science True Science? Reflections on the Methods of African Science. Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions 5 (1):59-75.
    The general character of science and the methodology it employs are in specific terms referred to as observation and experimentation. These two methodologies reflect how science differs from other systematic modes of inquiries. This description characterises, strictly, ‘Western science’ and it is contrasted with the indigenous mode of enquiry that has come under the name, ‘African science’. In contemporary scholarship, ‘African science’ is being condemned to the level of the mysticoreligious or supernaturalist worldview. ‘African science’ is said to be (...)
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  16.  2
    Kay E. Weller (2005). Using an OSAE to Learn About Life in Two New Delhi Hutments. Journal of Social Studies Research 29 (2):9-18.
  17.  49
    Ingo Brigandt (2003). Gestalt Experiments and Inductive Observations: Konrad Lorenz's Early Epistemological Writings and the Methods of Classical Ethology. Evolution and Cognition 9:157–170.
    Ethology brought some crucial insights and perspectives to the study of behavior, in particular the idea that behavior can be studied within a comparative-evolutionary framework by means of homologizing components of behavioral patterns and by causal analysis of behavior components and their integration. Early ethology is well-known for its extensive use of qualitative observations of animals under their natural conditions. These observations are combined with experiments that try to analyze behavioral patterns and establish specific claims about animal behavior. Nowadays, there (...)
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  18.  35
    Gregor Betz (2008). Evaluating Dialectical Structures with Bayesian Methods. Synthese 163 (1):25 - 44.
    This paper shows how complex argumentation, analyzed as dialectical structures, can be evaluated within a Bayesian framework by interpreting them as coherence constraints on subjective degrees of belief. A dialectical structure is a set of arguments (premiss-conclusion structure) among which support- and attack-relations hold. This approach addresses the observation that some theses in a debate can be better justified than others and thus fixes a shortcoming of a theory of defeasible reasoning which applies the bivalence principle to argument evaluations (...)
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  19.  30
    Thomas A. Weber (2010). Simple Methods for Evaluating and Comparing Binary Experiments. Theory and Decision 69 (2):257-288.
    We consider a confidence parametrization of binary information sources in terms of appropriate likelihood ratios. This parametrization is used for Bayesian belief updates and for the equivalent comparison of binary experiments. In contrast to the standard parametrization of a binary information source in terms of its specificity and its sensitivity, one of the two confidence parameters is sufficient for a Bayesian belief update conditional on a signal realization. We introduce a confidence-augmented receiver operating characteristic for comparisons of binary experiments for (...)
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  20.  15
    Gregor Betz (2008). Evaluating Dialectical Structures with Bayesian Methods. Synthese 163 (1):25-44.
    This paper shows how complex argumentation, analyzed as dialectical structures, can be evaluated within a Bayesian framework by interpreting them as coherence constraints on subjective degrees of belief. A dialectical structure is a set of arguments (premiss-conclusion structure) among which support- and attack-relations hold. This approach addresses the observation that some theses in a debate can be better justified than others and thus fixes a shortcoming of a theory of defeasible reasoning which applies the bivalence principle to argument evaluations (...)
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  21.  25
    Clark Glymour (1998). What Went Wrong? Reflections on Science by Observation and the Bell Curve. Philosophy of Science 65 (1):1-32.
    The Bell Curve aims to establish a set of causal claims. I argue that the methodology of The Bell Curve is typical of much of contemporary social science and is intrinsically defective. I claim better methods are available for causal inference from observational data, but that those methods would yield no causal conclusions from the data used in the formal analyses in The Bell Curve. Against the laissez-faire social policies advocated in the book, I claim that when combined (...)
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  22. Mel Evans (1988). Participant Observation: The Researcher as Research Tool. In John Eyles & David Marshall Smith (eds.), Qualitative Methods in Human Geography. Barnes & Noble 197--218.
     
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  23.  10
    Alexa Miller, Michelle Grohe, Shahram Khoshbin & Joel T. Katz (2013). From the Galleries to the Clinic: Applying Art Museum Lessons to Patient Care. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (4):433-438.
    Increasingly, medical educators integrate art-viewing into curricular interventions that teach clinical observation—often with local art museum educators. How can cross-disciplinary collaborators explicitly connect the skills learned in the art museum with those used at the bedside? One approach is for educators to align their pedagogical approach using similar teaching methods in the separate contexts of the galleries and the clinic. We describe two linked pedagogical exercises—Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) in the museum galleries and observation at the bedside—from (...)
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  24.  7
    Wesley Shrum, Ricardo Duque & Timothy Brown (2005). Digital Video as Research Practice: Methodology for the Millennium. Journal of Research Practice 1 (1):Article M4.
    This essay has its origin in a project on the globalization of science that rediscovered the wisdom of past research practices through the technology of the future. The main argument of this essay is that a convergence of digital video technologies with practices of social surveillance portends a methodological shift towards a new variety of qualitative methodology. Digital video is changing the way that students of the social world practice their craft, offering not just new ways of presenting but new (...)
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  25.  3
    E. Buchinger (2014). Second-Order Observation in Social Science: Autopoietic Foundations. Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):32-33.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Science: Logic, Strategies, Methods” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Second-order science requires a specific methodology. It thereby reverses the classical observer-observed relation in favor of the observed - i.e., the first-order observers - if the principle of autopoiesis is acknowledged.
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  26.  1
    Paul Nelles (2010). Seeing and Writing: The Art of Observation in the Early Jesuit Missions. Intellectual History Review 20 (3):317-333.
    Like other early modern missionaries, the Jesuits made much of their status as eye?witness observers, but the observational methods which missionaries employed in gaining knowledge of non?European cultures have received little consideration. The Jesuit case affords a glimpse of the observational tools and cognitive practices deployed in the overseas missions. Prayer, reading and some kind of writing or annotation constituted the backbone of Jesuit devotional practice, and writing formed a routine component of Jesuit mission life. Notes played an essential (...)
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  27. Susann Wagenknecht (2014). Collaboration in Scientific Practice—-A Social Epistemology of Research Groups. Dissertation, Aarhus University
    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. -/- On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists (...)
     
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  28. Jerry A. Fodor (1984). Observation Reconsidered. Philosophy of Science 51 (March):23-43.
    Several arguments are considered which purport to demonstrate the impossibility of theory-neutral observation. The most important of these infers the continuity of observation with theory from the presumed continuity of perception with cognition, a doctrine widely espoused in recent cognitive psychology. An alternative psychological account of the relation between cognition and perception is proposed and its epistemological consequences for the observation/theory distinction are then explored.
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  29.  38
    Nick Bostrom (2002). Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy. Routledge.
    _Anthropic Bias_ explores how to reason when you suspect that your evidence is biased by "observation selection effects"--that is, evidence that has been filtered by the precondition that there be some suitably positioned observer to "have" the evidence. This conundrum--sometimes alluded to as "the anthropic principle," "self-locating belief," or "indexical information"--turns out to be a surprisingly perplexing and intellectually stimulating challenge, one abounding with important implications for many areas in science and philosophy. There are the philosophical thought experiments and (...)
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  30. Christopher Hitchcock & Elliott Sober (2004). Prediction Versus Accommodation and the Risk of Overfitting. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (1):1-34.
    an observation to formulate a theory, it is no surprise that the resulting theory accurately captures that observation. However, when the theory makes a novel prediction—when it predicts an observation that was not used in its formulation—this seems to provide more substantial confirmation of the theory. This paper presents a new approach to the vexed problem of understanding the epistemic difference between prediction and accommodation. In fact, there are several problems that need to be disentangled; in all (...)
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  31. Elizabeth B. Torres, Maria Brincker, Robert W. Isenhower, Polina Yanovich, Kimberly Stigler, John I. Nurnberger, Dimitri N. Metaxas & Jorge V. Jose (2013). Autism: The Micro-Movement Perspective. Frontiers Integrated Neuroscience 7 (32).
    The current assessment of behaviors in the inventories to diagnose autism spectrum disorders (ASD) focus on observation and discrete categorizations. Behaviors require movements, yet measurements of physical movements are seldom included. Their inclusion however, could provide an objective characterization of behavior to help unveil interactions between the peripheral and the central nervous systems. Such interactions are critical for the development and maintenance of spontaneous autonomy, self-regulation and voluntary control. At present, current approaches cannot deal with the heterogeneous, dynamic and (...)
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  32.  49
    Lorraine Daston & Elizabeth Lunbeck (eds.) (2011). Histories of Scientific Observation. The University of Chicago Press.
    This book makes a compelling case for the significance of the long, surprising, and epistemologically significant history of scientific observation, a history ...
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  33. Sean Gryb & Karim Thébault (2012). The Role of Time in Relational Quantum Theories. Foundations of Physics 42 (9):1210-1238.
    We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the full classical dynamics of the system and must therefore be deemed inappropriate. We propose a new strategy for consistently quantizing systems with a relational notion of time that does capture the full classical dynamics of the system and allows for evolution parametrized by an (...)
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  34.  10
    Alexander Gebharter (2016). Uncovering Constitutive Relevance Relations in Mechanisms. Philosophical Studies.
    In this paper I argue that constitutive relevance relations in mechanisms behave like a special kind of causal relation in at least one important respect: Under suitable circumstances constitutive relevance relations produce the Markov factorization. Based on this observation one may wonder whether standard methods for causal discovery could be fruitfully applied to uncover constitutive relevance relations. This paper is intended as a first step into this new area of philosophical research. I investigate to what extent the PC (...)
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  35.  64
    Johan van Benthem, Jelle Gerbrandy & Barteld Kooi (2009). Dynamic Update with Probabilities. Studia Logica 93 (1):67-96.
    Current dynamic-epistemic logics model different types of information change in multi-agent scenarios. We generalize these logics to a probabilistic setting, obtaining a calculus for multi-agent update with three natural slots: prior probability on states, occurrence probabilities in the relevant process taking place, and observation probabilities of events. To match this update mechanism, we present a complete dynamic logic of information change with a probabilistic character. The completeness proof follows a compositional methodology that applies to a much larger class of (...)
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  36. Paul Tappenden (2011). Evidence and Uncertainty in Everett's Multiverse. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (1):99-123.
    How does it come about then, that great scientists such as Einstein, Schrödinger and De Broglie are nevertheless dissatisfied with the situation? Of course, all these objections are levelled not against the correctness of the formulae, but against their interpretation. [...] The lesson to be learned from what I have told of the origin of quantum mechanics is that probable refinements of mathematical methods will not suffice to produce a satisfactory theory, but that somewhere in our doctrine is hidden (...)
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  37. William F. Brewer & Bruce L. Lambert (2001). The Theory-Ladenness of Observation and the Theory-Ladenness of the Rest of the Scientific Process. Philosophy of Science 3 (September):S176-S186.
    We use evidence from cognitive psychology and the history of science to examine the issue of the theory-ladenness of perceptual observation. This evidence shows that perception is theory-laden, but that it is only strongly theory-laden when the perceptual evidence is ambiguous or degraded, or when it requires a difficult perceptual judgment. We argue that debates about the theory-ladenness issue have focused too narrowly on the issue of perceptual experience, and that a full account of the scientific process requires an (...)
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  38.  8
    Mazen J. Al Shobaki & Samy S. Abu Naser (2016). The Reality of Modern Methods Applied in Process of Performance Assessments of Employees in the Municipalities in Gaza Strip. International Journal of Advanced Scientific Research 1 (7):14-23.
    The research aims to identify the reality of modern methods applied in the process of performance assessments of employees in the municipalities of Gaza-strip, Complete Census method of community study was used, (571) questionnaires were distributed to all members of the community study, (524) questionnaires were recovery with rate of (91.76%). The most important findings of the study: There were statistically significant relationship differences between the applications of modern methods in the performance assessments of employees in the municipalities (...)
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  39. Antoine Derobertmasure & Arnaud Dehon (2012). Développement de la réflexivité et décodage de l'action : questions de méthode. Phronesis 1 (2):24-44.
    Abstract In initial teacher training, the micro-teaching activities and retroaction have for goals to develop reflexive practitioners and competent professionals with a high professional identity. The double analyze of the teacher’s action – observation of teacher gestures and analysis of retroaction - requires two complementary methods to make the links between interactive and postactive phase. In this article, the authors describe the different training activities, and explain the research approach with an illustration of a concrete case. -/- En (...)
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  40.  9
    Bert Molewijk, Maarten Verkerk, Henk Milius & Guy Widdershoven (2008). Implementing Moral Case Deliberation in a Psychiatric Hospital: Process and Outcome. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (1):43-56.
    Background Clinical moral case deliberation consists of the systematic reflection on a concrete moral case␣by health care professionals. This paper presents the study of a 4-year moral deliberation project.Objectives The objectives of this paper are to: (a) describe the practice and the theoretical background of moral deliberation, (b) describe the moral deliberation project, (c) present the outcomes of␣the evaluation of the moral case deliberation sessions, and (d) present the implementation process.Methods The implementation process is both monitored and supported by (...)
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  41. Jake H. Davis & Evan Thompson (2013). From the Five Aggregates to Phenomenal Consciousness: Toward a Cross-Cultural Cognitive Science. In Steven M. Emmanuel (ed.), A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons
    Buddhism originated and developed in an Indian cultural context that featured many first-person practices for producing and exploring states of consciousness through the systematic training of attention. In contrast, the dominant methods of investigating the mind in Western cognitive science have emphasized third-person observation of the brain and behavior. In this chapter, we explore how these two different projects might prove mutually beneficial. We lay the groundwork for a cross-cultural cognitive science by using one traditional Buddhist model of (...)
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  42.  99
    Emily Cross & Luca Ticini (2012). Neuroaesthetics and Beyond: New Horizons in Applying the Science of the Brain to the Art of Dance. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (1):5-16.
    Throughout history, dance has maintained a critical presence across all human cultures, defying barriers of class, race, and status. How dance has synergistically co-evolved with humans has fueled a rich debate on the function of art and the essence of aesthetic experience, engaging numerous artists, historians, philosophers, and scientists. While dance shares many features with other art forms, one attribute unique to dance is that it is most commonly expressed with the human body. Because of this, social scientists and neuroscientists (...)
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  43.  8
    Valeriy Balan & Inna Tymchenko (2016). Формування стратегії розвитку підприємства на основі динамічного space-аналізу. Схід 4:5-16.
    Development strategy of using modern portfolio theory focused on the short term. However, macroeconomic uncertainty and geopolitical environment makes their use ineffective. And challenge is to provide a reasonable balance between the short and long term profitability. Another issue, which is to some extent related to the previous observation is the absence in most matrices strategic recommendations for non-standard "behavior" of business units with dynamic analysis. This applies to the use of a relatively new tool matrix approach to development (...)
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  44. Alex Hankey (2014). Complexity Biology-Based Information Structures Can Explain Subjectivity, Objective Reduction of Wave Packets, and Non-Computability. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 10 (1):237-250.
    Background: how mind functions is subject to continuing scientific discussion. A simplistic approach says that, since no convincing way has been found to model subjective experience, mind cannot exist. A second holds that, since mind cannot be described by classical physics, it must be described by quantum physics. Another perspective concerns mind's hypothesized ability to interact with the world of quanta: it should be responsible for reduction of quantum wave packets; physics producing 'Objective Reduction' is postulated to form the basis (...)
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  45.  69
    Nicolaas P. Landsman, Between Classical and Quantum.
    The relationship between classical and quantum theory is of central importance to the philosophy of physics, and any interpretation of quantum mechanics has to clarify it. Our discussion of this relationship is partly historical and conceptual, but mostly technical and mathematically rigorous, including over 500 references. For example, we sketch how certain intuitive ideas of the founders of quantum theory have fared in the light of current mathematical knowledge. One such idea that has certainly stood the test of time is (...)
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  46.  6
    David Watson & Luciano Floridi (forthcoming). Crowdsourced Science: Sociotechnical Epistemology in the E-Research Paradigm. Synthese:1-24.
    Recent years have seen a surge in online collaboration between experts and amateurs on scientific research. In this article, we analyse the epistemological implications of these crowdsourced projects, with a focus on Zooniverse, the world’s largest citizen science web portal. We use quantitative methods to evaluate the platform’s success in producing large volumes of observation statements and high impact scientific discoveries relative to more conventional means of data processing. Through empirical evidence, Bayesian reasoning, and conceptual analysis, we show (...)
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  47.  6
    Uskali Mäki (2016). Philosophy of Interdisciplinarity. What? Why? How? European Journal for Philosophy of Science 6 (3):327-342.
    Compared to the massive literature from other disciplinary perspectives on interdisciplinarity, philosophy of science is only slowly beginning to pay systematic attention to this powerful trend in contemporary science. The paper provides some metaphilosophical reflections on the emerging “Philosophy of Interdisciplinarity”. What? I propose a conception of PhID that has the qualities of being broad and neutral as well as stemming from within the agenda of philosophy of science. It will investigate features of science that reveal themselves when scientific disciplines (...)
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  48.  62
    Uljana Feest & Thomas Sturm (2011). What (Good) is Historical Epistemology? Editors' Introduction. Erkenntnis 75 (3):285-302.
    We provide an overview of three ways in which the expression “Historical epistemology” (HE) is often understood: (1) HE as a study of the history of higher-order epistemic concepts such as objectivity, observation, experimentation, or probability; (2) HE as a study of the historical trajectories of the objects of research, such as the electron, DNA, or phlogiston; (3) HE as the long-term study of scientific developments. After laying out various ways in which these agendas touch on current debates within (...)
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  49.  53
    D. W. Robertson (1996). Ethical Theory, Ethnography, and Differences Between Doctors and Nurses in Approaches to Patient Care. Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (5):292-299.
    OBJECTIVES: To study empirically whether ethical theory (from the mainstream principles-based, virtue-based, and feminist schools) usefully describes the approaches doctors and nurses take in everyday patient care. DESIGN: Ethnographic methods: participant observation and interviews, the transcripts of which were analysed to identify themes in ethical approaches. SETTING: A British old-age psychiatry ward. PARTICIPANTS: The more than 20 doctors and nurses on the ward. RESULTS: Doctors and nurses on the ward differed in their conceptions of the principles of beneficence (...)
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  50. Miriam Solomon (2011). Just a Paradigm: Evidence-Based Medicine in Epistemological Context. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):451-466.
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) developed from the work of clinical epidemiologists at McMaster University and Oxford University in the 1970s and 1980s and self-consciously presented itself as a "new paradigm" called "evidence-based medicine" in the early 1990s. The techniques of the randomized controlled trial, systematic review and meta-analysis have produced an extensive and powerful body of research. They have also generated a critical literature that raises general concerns about its methods. This paper is a systematic review of the critical literature. (...)
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