Search results for 'Observation Methods' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. G. Chabert, J. Ch Marty, B. Caron, T. Carron, L. Vignollet & C. Ferraris (2006). The Electronic Schoolbag, a CSCW Workspace: Presentation and Evaluation. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (3):403-419.score: 90.0
    This paper describes the Electronic Schoolbag, a digital workspace developed at the University of Savoie (France) and analyses its usages. This online environment is dedicated to the educational world: it offers pupils, students, teachers, school staff, or parents, personal and group workspaces in which individual or collaborative activities can take place. The flexibility of this software, allowing synchronous or asynchronous activities, lies in the “participation model”. This model allows groups themselves to describe and organise their activities. The architecture that permits (...)
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  2. Rudolf Steiner (1999). The Philosophy of Freedom (the Philosophy of Spiritual Activity): The Basis for a Modern World Conception: Some Results of Introspective Observation Following the Methods of Natural Science. R. Steiner Press.score: 72.0
    This special reprint, featuring the acclaimed translation by Michael Wilson, is being made available again in response to public demand.Are we free, whether we ...
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  3. Yoshiharu Maeno, Kenichi Horie & Yukio Ohsawa (2008). Computational Methods for Discoveries From Integrated Data-Human-Interactive Annealing for Multilateral Observation. In. In S. Iwata, Y. Oshawa, S. Tsumoto, N. Zhong, Y. Shi & L. Magnani (eds.), Communications and Discoveries From Multidisciplinary Data. Springer. 187--203.score: 72.0
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  4. George Cornewall Lewis (1852/1974). A Treatise on the Methods of Observation and Reasoning in Politics. New York,Arno Press.score: 72.0
  5. Anne Giersch & Serge Caparos (2005). Focused Attention is Not Enough to Activate Discontinuities in Lines, but Scrutiny Is. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):613-632.score: 60.0
  6. Brenda L. Connors, Richard Rende & Timothy J. Colton (2013). Predicting Individual Differences in Decision-Making Process From Signature Movement Styles: An Illustrative Study of Leaders. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 52.0
    There has been a surge of interest in examining the utility of methods for capturing individual differences in decision-making style. We illustrate the potential offered by Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA), an observational methodology that has been used in business and by the U.S. Department of Defense to record body movements that provide predictive insight into individual differences in decision-making motivations and actions. Twelve military officers participated in an intensive two-hour interview that permitted detailed and fine-grained observation and coding (...)
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  7. Kay E. Weller (2005). Using an OSAE to Learn About Life in Two New Delhi Hutments. Journal of Social Studies Research 29 (2):9-18.score: 48.0
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  8. Edoardo Zamuner, Fabio Tamburini & Cristiana de Sanctis (2002). “Identifying Phrasal Connectives in Italian Using Quantitative Methods”. In Stefania Nuccorini (ed.), Phrases and Phraseology – Data and Descriptions. Peter Lang Verlag.score: 42.0
    In recent decades, the analysis of phraseology has made use of the exploration of large corpora as a source of quantitative information about language. This paper intends to present the main lines of work in progress based on this empirical approach to linguistic analysis. In particular, we focus our attention on some problems relating to the morpho-syntactic annotation of corpora. The CORIS/CODIS corpus of contemporary written Italian, developed at CILTA – University of Bologna (Rossini Favretti 2000; Rossini Favretti, Tamburini, De (...)
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  9. Ingo Brigandt (2003). Gestalt Experiments and Inductive Observations: Konrad Lorenz's Early Epistemological Writings and the Methods of Classical Ethology. Evolution and Cognition 9:157–170.score: 42.0
    Ethology brought some crucial insights and perspectives to the study of behavior, in particular the idea that behavior can be studied within a comparative-evolutionary framework by means of homologizing components of behavioral patterns and by causal analysis of behavior components and their integration. Early ethology is well-known for its extensive use of qualitative observations of animals under their natural conditions. These observations are combined with experiments that try to analyze behavioral patterns and establish specific claims about animal behavior. Nowadays, there (...)
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  10. Huib Looren de Jong, Sacha Bem & Maurice Schouten (2004). Theory in Psychology: A Review Essay of Andre Kukla's Methods of Theoretical Psychology. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 17 (2):275 – 295.score: 42.0
    This review essay critically discusses Andre Kukla's Methods of theoretical psychology. It is argued that Kukla mistakenly tries to build his case for theorizing in psychology as a separate discipline on a dubious distinction between theory and observation. He then argues that the demise of empiricism implies a return of some form of rationalism, which entails an autonomous role for theorizing in psychology. Having shown how this theory-observation dichotomy goes back to traditional and largely abandoned ideas in (...)
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  11. Patrick A. Heelan (1982). Hermeneutical Realism and Scientific Observation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:77 - 87.score: 42.0
    Using the methods of hermeneutic phenomenology, and against the background of the principle that the real is what is or can be given in a public way in perception as a state of the World, and of the thesis established elsewhere that acts of perception are always epistemic, contextual, and hermeneutical, the writer proposes that objects of scientific observation are perceptual objects, states of the World described by theoretical scientific terms and, therefore, real. This thesis of Hermeneutical Realism (...)
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  12. Murat Civaner, Ozlem Sarikaya, Sevim Ulupinar Alici & Gulcin Bozkurt (2008). Exposing Nursing Students To the Marketing Methods of Pharmaceutical Companies. Nursing Ethics 15 (3):396-410.score: 42.0
    There is a strong association between reliance on the promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies and a generally less appropriate use of prescription drugs. Pharmaceutical companies direct some of their promotion towards health workers who do not have the authority to prescribe medicines, such as nurses in certain countries. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that exposure to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies has on judgments made by nursing students about health worker—pharmaceutical company relationships. A (...)
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  13. B. Pörksen (2006). Digital Distinctions: An Analytical Method for the Observation of the WWW and the Emerging Worlds of Communication. Constructivist Foundations 2 (1):17-27.score: 40.0
    Purpose: The inspection of the World Wide Web reveals a multitude of speculative, frequently contradictory diagnoses: the dynamic evolution of the media demonstrably correlates with a multitude of competing descriptions. It is the author's attempt and the purpose of this paper to systematize the descriptive approaches from a meta-observer's point of view. Approach: The author takes advantage of a constructivist "philosophy of distinctions" (Heinz von Foerster), employing it as a strategy of presentation and reflection. He starts with some general remarks (...)
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  14. Lorraine Daston & Elizabeth Lunbeck (eds.) (2011). Histories of Scientific Observation. The University of Chicago Press.score: 36.0
    This book makes a compelling case for the significance of the long, surprising, and epistemologically significant history of scientific observation, a history ...
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  15. Nick Bostrom (2002). Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy. Routledge.score: 36.0
    This book breaks new ground by drawing attention to certain kinds of biases that permeate many parts of science and by developing a theory of how to correct for these biases. Follow this link http://www.anthropic-principle.com/ to Nick Bostrom's web page on everything related to observation selection effects, the anthropic principle, self-locating belief, and associated applications and paradoxes in science and philosophy.
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  16. Alexa Miller, Michelle Grohe, Shahram Khoshbin & Joel T. Katz (2013). From the Galleries to the Clinic: Applying Art Museum Lessons to Patient Care. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (4):433-438.score: 36.0
    Increasingly, medical educators integrate art-viewing into curricular interventions that teach clinical observation—often with local art museum educators. How can cross-disciplinary collaborators explicitly connect the skills learned in the art museum with those used at the bedside? One approach is for educators to align their pedagogical approach using similar teaching methods in the separate contexts of the galleries and the clinic. We describe two linked pedagogical exercises—Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) in the museum galleries and observation at the bedside—from (...)
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  17. Susann Wagenknecht (2014). Collaboration in Scientific Practice—-A Social Epistemology of Research Groups. Dissertation, Aarhus Universityscore: 36.0
    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. -/- On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists (...)
     
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  18. Ari Sutinen (2013). Two Project Methods: Preliminary Observations on the Similarities and Differences Between William Heard Kilpatrick's Project Method and John Dewey's Problem-Solving Method. Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (10):1040-1053.score: 34.0
  19. Paul Nelles (2010). Seeing and Writing: The Art of Observation in the Early Jesuit Missions. Intellectual History Review 20 (3):317-333.score: 32.0
    Like other early modern missionaries, the Jesuits made much of their status as eye?witness observers, but the observational methods which missionaries employed in gaining knowledge of non?European cultures have received little consideration. The Jesuit case affords a glimpse of the observational tools and cognitive practices deployed in the overseas missions. Prayer, reading and some kind of writing or annotation constituted the backbone of Jesuit devotional practice, and writing formed a routine component of Jesuit mission life. Notes played an essential (...)
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  20. Jaap den Hollander (2010). Beyond Historicism: From Leibniz to Luhmann. Journal of the Philosophy of History 4 (2):210-225.score: 30.0
    The phrase 'beyond historicism' is usually associated with Bielefeld historians like Hans Ulrich Wehler and Jürgen Kocka, who attempted to turn the study of history into a social science, but a better candidate would be the sociologist Niklas Luhmann, who happened to teach as well in Bielefeld during the 1970's and 1980's. Luhmann had little affinity with the project of his colleagues from the history department. He took the opposite view that the social sciences suffered from a naive enlightenment view (...)
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  21. Pekka Lahti & Juha-Pekka Pellonpää (2010). On the Complementarity of the Quadrature Observables. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1419-1428.score: 30.0
    In this paper we investigate the coupling properties of pairs of quadrature observables, showing that, apart from the Weyl relation, they share the same coupling properties as the position-momentum pair. In particular, they are complementary. We determine the marginal observables of a covariant phase space observable with respect to an arbitrary rotated reference frame, and observe that these marginal observables are unsharp quadrature observables. The related distributions constitute the Radon transform of a phase space distribution of the covariant phase space (...)
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  22. Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque (2011). Local Perception of Environmental Change in a Semi-Arid Area of Northeast Brazil: A New Approach for the Use of Participatory Methods at the Level of Family Units. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (5):511-531.score: 30.0
    The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural resource use. Through participatory methods, the present study analyzed people’s representations about local environmental change processes in the Brazilian semi-arid (...)
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  23. Andrew Aberdein (2010). Observations on Sick Mathematics. In Bart van Kerkhove, Jean Paul van Bendegem & Jonas de Vuyst (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Mathematical Practice. College Publications. 269--300.score: 30.0
    This paper argues that new light may be shed on mathematical reasoning in its non-pathological forms by careful observation of its pathologies. The first section explores the application to mathematics of recent work on fallacy theory, specifically the concept of an ‘argumentation scheme’: a characteristic pattern under which many similar inferential steps may be subsumed. Fallacies may then be understood as argumentation schemes used inappropriately. The next section demonstrates how some specific mathematical fallacies may be characterized in terms of (...)
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  24. Shana Sieber, Patrícia Medeiros & Ulysses Albuquerque (2011). Local Perception of Environmental Change in a Semi-Arid Area of Northeast Brazil: A New Approach for the Use of Participatory Methods at the Level of Family Units. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (5):511-531.score: 30.0
    The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural resource use. Through participatory methods, the present study analyzed people’s representations about local environmental change processes in the Brazilian semi-arid (...)
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  25. J. H. Woodger (1952). Man or Matter, Introduction to a Spiritual Understanding of Nature on the Basis of Goethe's Method of Training Observation and Thought. By Ernst Lehrs Ph.D. (London: Faber & Faber Ltd. 1951. Pp. 378. Price 30s. Net.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 27 (102):282-.score: 30.0
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  26. Clark Butler (1975). Technological Society and its Counterculture: An Hegelian Analysis. Inquiry 18 (2):195 – 212.score: 30.0
    The paper analyzes the American counterculture of the 1960s and early '70s, from the New Left through the hippies, revolutionaries and Jesus people, to the counterculture's collapse in artistry and the cynicism of Watergate; this evolution is viewed as a re-enactment of Hegel's dialectic of 'active reason' in the Phenomenology of Spirit , from the critique of 'observation' to 'society as a community of animals'. Secondly, an attempt is made to account for this re-enactment in the twentieth century. The (...)
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  27. Simon R. Walters & Rosemary Godbold (forthcoming). Someone Is Watching You: The Ethics of Covert Observation to Explore Adult Behaviour at Children's Sporting Events. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-7.score: 30.0
    Concerns have been expressed about adult behaviour at children’s sporting events in New Zealand. As a consequence, covert observation was identified as the optimal research method to be used in studies designed to record the nature and prevalence of adult sideline behaviour at children’s team sporting events. This paper explores whether the concerns raised by the ethics committee about the use of this controversial method, particularly in relation to the lack of informed consent, the use of deception, and researcher (...)
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  28. John Clement (1988). Observed Methods for Generating Analogies in Scientific Problem Solving. Cognitive Science 12 (4):563-586.score: 30.0
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  29. W. Holmes Finch (2012). Distribution of Variables by Method of Outlier Detection. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 30.0
    The presence of outliers can very problematic in data analysis, leading statisticians to develop a wide variety of methods for identifying them in both the univariate and multivariate contexts. In case of the latter, perhaps the most popular approach has been Mahalanobis distance, where large values suggest an observation that is unusual as compared to the center of the data. However, researchers have identified problems with the application of this metric such that its utility may be limited in (...)
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  30. Sophie Vandenbroucke, Geert Crombez, Dimitri Van Ryckeghem, Marcel Brass, Stefaan Van Damme & Liesbet Goubert (2013). Vicarious Pain While Observing Another in Pain: An Experimental Approach. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 30.0
    Objective: This study aimed at developing an experimental paradigm to assess vicarious pain experiences. We further explored the putative moderating role of observer’s characteristics such as hypervigilance for pain and dispositional empathy. Methods: Two experiments are reported using a similar procedure. Undergraduate students were selected based upon whether they reported vicarious pain in daily life, and categorized into a pain responder group or a comparison group. Participants were presented a series of videos showing hands being pricked whilst receiving occasionally (...)
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  31. Greg Frost-Arnold, The Limits of Scientific Explanation and the No-Miracles Argument.score: 24.0
    There are certain explanations that scientists do not accept, even though such explanations do not conflict with observation, logic, or other scientific theories. I argue that a common version of the no-miracles argument (NMA) for scientific realism relies upon just such an explanation. First, scientists (usually) do not accept explanations whose explanans neither generates novel predictions nor unifies apparently disparate phenomena. Second, scientific realism (as it appears in the NMA) is an explanans that makes no new predictions, and fails (...)
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  32. Jake H. Davis & Evan Thompson (2013). From the Five Aggregates to Phenomenal Consciousness: Toward a Cross-Cultural Cognitive Science. In Steven M. Emmanuel (ed.), A Companion to Buddhist Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons.score: 24.0
    Buddhism originated and developed in an Indian cultural context that featured many first-person practices for producing and exploring states of consciousness through the systematic training of attention. In contrast, the dominant methods of investigating the mind in Western cognitive science have emphasized third-person observation of the brain and behavior. In this chapter, we explore how these two different projects might prove mutually beneficial. We lay the groundwork for a cross-cultural cognitive science by using one traditional Buddhist model of (...)
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  33. Paul Tappenden (2011). Evidence and Uncertainty in Everett's Multiverse. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (1):99-123.score: 24.0
    How does it come about then, that great scientists such as Einstein, Schrödinger and De Broglie are nevertheless dissatisfied with the situation? Of course, all these objections are levelled not against the correctness of the formulae, but against their interpretation. [...] The lesson to be learned from what I have told of the origin of quantum mechanics is that probable refinements of mathematical methods will not suffice to produce a satisfactory theory, but that somewhere in our doctrine is hidden (...)
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  34. Christopher Hitchcock & Elliott Sober (2004). Prediction Versus Accommodation and the Risk of Overfitting. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (1):1-34.score: 24.0
    an observation to formulate a theory, it is no surprise that the resulting theory accurately captures that observation. However, when the theory makes a novel prediction—when it predicts an observation that was not used in its formulation—this seems to provide more substantial confirmation of the theory. This paper presents a new approach to the vexed problem of understanding the epistemic difference between prediction and accommodation. In fact, there are several problems that need to be disentangled; in all (...)
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  35. Miriam Solomon (2011). Just a Paradigm: Evidence-Based Medicine in Epistemological Context. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):451-466.score: 24.0
    Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) developed from the work of clinical epidemiologists at McMaster University and Oxford University in the 1970s and 1980s and self-consciously presented itself as a "new paradigm" called "evidence-based medicine" in the early 1990s. The techniques of the randomized controlled trial, systematic review and meta-analysis have produced an extensive and powerful body of research. They have also generated a critical literature that raises general concerns about its methods. This paper is a systematic review of the critical literature. (...)
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  36. Emily Cross & Luca Ticini (2012). Neuroaesthetics and Beyond: New Horizons in Applying the Science of the Brain to the Art of Dance. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (1):5-16.score: 24.0
    Throughout history, dance has maintained a critical presence across all human cultures, defying barriers of class, race, and status. How dance has synergistically co-evolved with humans has fueled a rich debate on the function of art and the essence of aesthetic experience, engaging numerous artists, historians, philosophers, and scientists. While dance shares many features with other art forms, one attribute unique to dance is that it is most commonly expressed with the human body. Because of this, social scientists and neuroscientists (...)
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  37. Michael J. Shaffer (2007). Bealer on the Autonomy of Philosophical and Scientific Knowledge. Metaphilosophy 38 (1):44–54.score: 24.0
    In a series of influential articles, George Bealer argues for the autonomy of philosophical knowledge on the basis that philosophically known truths must be necessary truths. The main point of his argument is that the truths investigated by the sciences are contingent truths to be discovered a posteriori by observation, while the truths of philosophy are necessary truths to be discovered a priori by intuition. The project of assimilating philosophy to the sciences is supposed to be rendered illegitimate by (...)
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  38. Uljana Feest & Thomas Sturm (2011). What (Good) is Historical Epistemology? Editors' Introduction. Erkenntnis 75 (3):285-302.score: 24.0
    We provide an overview of three ways in which the expression “Historical epistemology” (HE) is often understood: (1) HE as a study of the history of higher-order epistemic concepts such as objectivity, observation, experimentation, or probability; (2) HE as a study of the historical trajectories of the objects of research, such as the electron, DNA, or phlogiston; (3) HE as the long-term study of scientific developments. After laying out various ways in which these agendas touch on current debates within (...)
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  39. David Kirsh, Richard Caballero & Shannon Cuykendall (2012). When Doing the Wrong Thing is Right. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Cognitive Science Society.score: 24.0
    We designed an experiment to explore the learning effectiveness of three different ways of practicing dance movements. To our surprise we found that partial modeling, called marking in the dance world, is a better method than practicing the complete phrase, called practicing full-out; and both marking and full-out are better methods than practicing by repeated mental simulation. We suggest that marking is a form of practicing a dance phrase aspect-by-aspect. Our results also suggest that prior work on learning by (...)
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  40. Johan van Benthem, Jelle Gerbrandy & Barteld Kooi (2009). Dynamic Update with Probabilities. Studia Logica 93 (1):67-96.score: 24.0
    Current dynamic-epistemic logics model different types of information change in multi-agent scenarios. We generalize these logics to a probabilistic setting, obtaining a calculus for multi-agent update with three natural slots: prior probability on states, occurrence probabilities in the relevant process taking place, and observation probabilities of events. To match this update mechanism, we present a complete dynamic logic of information change with a probabilistic character. The completeness proof follows a compositional methodology that applies to a much larger class of (...)
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  41. L. S. Schulman & Bernard Gaveau (2001). Coarse Grains: The Emergence of Space and Order. Foundations of Physics 31 (4):713-731.score: 24.0
    The emergence of macroscopic variables can be effected through coarse graining. Despite practical and fundamental benefits conveyed by this partitioning of state space, the apparently subjective nature of the selection of coarse grains has been considered problematic. We provide objective selection methods, deriving from the existence of relatively slow dynamical time scales. Using a framework for nonequilibrium statistical mechanics developed by us, we show the emergence of both spatial variables and order parameters. Although significant objective criteria are introduced in (...)
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  42. Christian G. Huber & Johannes Huber (2009). Epistemological Considerations on Neuroimaging – a Crucial Prerequisite for Neuroethics. Bioethics 23 (6):340-348.score: 24.0
    Purpose: Whereas ethical considerations on imaging techniques and interpretations of neuroimaging results flourish, there is not much work on their preconditions. In this paper, therefore, we discuss epistemological considerations on neuroimaging and their implications for neuroethics. Results: Neuroimaging uses indirect methods to generate data about surrogate parameters for mental processes, and there are many determinants influencing the results, including current hypotheses and the state of knowledge. This leads to an interdependence between hypotheses and data. Additionally, different levels of description (...)
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  43. Yam San Chee (2014). Interrogating the Learning Sciences as a Design Science: Leveraging Insights From Chinese Philosophy and Chinese Medicine. Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (1):89-103.score: 24.0
    Design research has been positioned as an important methodological contribution of the learning sciences. Despite the publication of a handbook on the subject, the practice of design research in education remains an eclectic collection of specific approaches implemented by different researchers and research groups. In this paper, I examine the learning sciences as a design science to identify its fundamental goals, methods, affiliations, and assumptions. I argue that inherent tensions arise when attempting to practice design research as an analytic (...)
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  44. Sean Gryb & Karim Thébault (2012). The Role of Time in Relational Quantum Theories. Foundations of Physics 42 (9):1210-1238.score: 24.0
    We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the full classical dynamics of the system and must therefore be deemed inappropriate. We propose a new strategy for consistently quantizing systems with a relational notion of time that does capture the full classical dynamics of the system and allows for evolution parametrized by an (...)
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  45. Yaakov Zik (2001). Science and Instruments: The Telescope as a Scientific Instrument at the Beginning of the Seventeenth Century. Perspectives on Science 9 (3):259-284.score: 24.0
    : Scientific observation is determined by the human sensory system, which generally relies on instruments that serve as mediators between the world and the senses. Instruments came in the shape of Heron's Dioptra, Levi Ben Gerson's Cross-staff, Egnatio Danti's Torqvetto Astronomico, Tycho's Quadrant, Galileo's Geometric Military Compass, or Kepler's Ecliptic Instrument. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, however, it was unclear how an instrument such as the telescope could be employed to acquire new information and expand knowledge about (...)
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  46. Giuseppe Longo & Pierre-Emmanuel Tendero (2007). The Differential Method and the Causal Incompleteness of Programming Theory in Molecular Biology. Foundations of Science 12 (4):337-366.score: 24.0
    The “DNA is a program” metaphor is still widely used in Molecular Biology and its popularization. There are good historical reasons for the use of such a metaphor or theoretical model. Yet we argue that both the metaphor and the model are essentially inadequate also from the point of view of Physics and Computer Science. Relevant work has already been done, in Biology, criticizing the programming paradigm. We will refer to empirical evidence and theoretical writings in Biology, although our arguments (...)
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  47. Francesco Guala (2000). Artefacts in Experimental Economics: Preference Reversals and the Becker–Degroot–Marschak Mechanism. Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):47-75.score: 24.0
    Controversies in economics often fizzle out unresolved. One reason is that, despite their professed empiricism, economists find it hard to agree on the interpretation of the relevant empirical evidence. In this paper I will present an example of a controversial issue first raised and then solved by recourse to laboratory experimentation. A major theme of this paper, then, concerns the methodological advantages of controlled experiments. The second theme is the nature of experimental artefacts and of the methods devised to (...)
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  48. Anne Beaulieu (2004). Mediating Ethnography: Objectivity and the Making of Ethnographies of the Internet. Social Epistemology 18 (2 & 3):139 – 163.score: 24.0
    This paper aims to contribute to current discussions about methods in anthropological (especially ethnographic) research on the cultures of the internet. It does so by considering how technology has been presented in turn as an epistemological boon and bane in methodological discourse around virtual or online ethnography, and cyberanthropology. It maps these discussions with regards to intellectual traditions and ambitions of ethnographic research and social science, and considers how these views of technology relate to modernist discourse about the value (...)
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  49. Edward Hackett & Diana Rhoten (2009). The Snowbird Charrette: Integrative Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Environmental Research Design. Minerva 47 (4):407-440.score: 24.0
    The integration of ideas, methods, and data from diverse disciplines has been a transformative force in science and higher education, attracting policy interventions, program innovations, financial resources, and talented people. Much energy has been invested in producing a new generation of scientists trained to work fluidly across disciplines, sectors, and research problems, yet the success of such investments has been difficult to measure. Using the Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training (IGERT) program of the U.S. National Science Foundation as (...)
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  50. K. McGee (2005). Enactive Cognitive Science. Part 1: History and Research Themes. Constructivist Foundations 1 (1):19--34.score: 24.0
    Purpose: This paper is a brief introduction to enactive cognitive science: a description of some of the main research concerns; some examples of how such concerns have been realized in actual research; some of its research methods and proposed explanatory mechanisms and models; some of the potential as both a theoretical and applied science; and several of the major open research questions. Findings: Enactive cognitive science is an approach to the study of mind that seeks to explain how the (...)
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