Search results for 'Observation Methods' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Rudolf Steiner (1999). The Philosophy of Freedom (the Philosophy of Spiritual Activity): The Basis for a Modern World Conception: Some Results of Introspective Observation Following the Methods of Natural Science. R. Steiner Press.score: 120.0
    This special reprint, featuring the acclaimed translation by Michael Wilson, is being made available again in response to public demand.Are we free, whether we ...
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  2. Yoshiharu Maeno, Kenichi Horie & Yukio Ohsawa (2008). Computational Methods for Discoveries From Integrated Data-Human-Interactive Annealing for Multilateral Observation. In S. Iwata, Y. Oshawa, S. Tsumoto, N. Zhong, Y. Shi & L. Magnani (eds.), Communications and Discoveries From Multidisciplinary Data. Springer. 187--203.score: 120.0
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  3. George Cornewall Lewis (1852/1974). A Treatise on the Methods of Observation and Reasoning in Politics. New York,Arno Press.score: 120.0
  4. G. Chabert, J. Ch Marty, B. Caron, T. Carron, L. Vignollet & C. Ferraris (2006). The Electronic Schoolbag, a CSCW Workspace: Presentation and Evaluation. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (3):403-419.score: 90.0
    This paper describes the Electronic Schoolbag, a digital workspace developed at the University of Savoie (France) and analyses its usages. This online environment is dedicated to the educational world: it offers pupils, students, teachers, school staff, or parents, personal and group workspaces in which individual or collaborative activities can take place. The flexibility of this software, allowing synchronous or asynchronous activities, lies in the “participation model”. This model allows groups themselves to describe and organise their activities. The architecture that permits (...)
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  5. Ingo Brigandt (2003). Gestalt Experiments and Inductive Observations: Konrad Lorenz's Early Epistemological Writings and the Methods of Classical Ethology. Evolution and Cognition 9:157–170.score: 66.0
    Ethology brought some crucial insights and perspectives to the study of behavior, in particular the idea that behavior can be studied within a comparative-evolutionary framework by means of homologizing components of behavioral patterns and by causal analysis of behavior components and their integration. Early ethology is well-known for its extensive use of qualitative observations of animals under their natural conditions. These observations are combined with experiments that try to analyze behavioral patterns and establish specific claims about animal behavior. Nowadays, there (...)
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  6. Anne Giersch & Serge Caparos (2005). Focused Attention is Not Enough to Activate Discontinuities in Lines, but Scrutiny Is. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (3):613-632.score: 60.0
  7. B. Pörksen (2006). Digital Distinctions: An Analytical Method for the Observation of the WWW and the Emerging Worlds of Communication. Constructivist Foundations 2 (1):17-27.score: 60.0
    Purpose: The inspection of the World Wide Web reveals a multitude of speculative, frequently contradictory diagnoses: the dynamic evolution of the media demonstrably correlates with a multitude of competing descriptions. It is the author's attempt and the purpose of this paper to systematize the descriptive approaches from a meta-observer's point of view. Approach: The author takes advantage of a constructivist "philosophy of distinctions" (Heinz von Foerster), employing it as a strategy of presentation and reflection. He starts with some general remarks (...)
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  8. Edoardo Zamuner, Fabio Tamburini & Cristiana de Sanctis (2002). “Identifying Phrasal Connectives in Italian Using Quantitative Methods”. In Stefania Nuccorini (ed.), Phrases and Phraseology – Data and Descriptions. Peter Lang Verlag.score: 54.0
    In recent decades, the analysis of phraseology has made use of the exploration of large corpora as a source of quantitative information about language. This paper intends to present the main lines of work in progress based on this empirical approach to linguistic analysis. In particular, we focus our attention on some problems relating to the morpho-syntactic annotation of corpora. The CORIS/CODIS corpus of contemporary written Italian, developed at CILTA – University of Bologna (Rossini Favretti 2000; Rossini Favretti, Tamburini, De (...)
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  9. Ari Sutinen (2013). Two Project Methods: Preliminary Observations on the Similarities and Differences Between William Heard Kilpatrick's Project Method and John Dewey's Problem-Solving Method. Educational Philosophy and Theory 45 (10):1040-1053.score: 54.0
  10. Patrick A. Heelan (1982). Hermeneutical Realism and Scientific Observation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:77 - 87.score: 54.0
    Using the methods of hermeneutic phenomenology, and against the background of the principle that the real is what is or can be given in a public way in perception as a state of the World, and of the thesis established elsewhere that acts of perception are always epistemic, contextual, and hermeneutical, the writer proposes that objects of scientific observation are perceptual objects, states of the World described by theoretical scientific terms and, therefore, real. This thesis of Hermeneutical Realism (...)
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  11. Huib Looren de Jong, Sacha Bem & Maurice Schouten (2004). Theory in Psychology: A Review Essay of Andre Kukla's Methods of Theoretical Psychology. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 17 (2):275 – 295.score: 54.0
    This review essay critically discusses Andre Kukla's Methods of theoretical psychology. It is argued that Kukla mistakenly tries to build his case for theorizing in psychology as a separate discipline on a dubious distinction between theory and observation. He then argues that the demise of empiricism implies a return of some form of rationalism, which entails an autonomous role for theorizing in psychology. Having shown how this theory-observation dichotomy goes back to traditional and largely abandoned ideas in (...)
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  12. Murat Civaner, Ozlem Sarikaya, Sevim Ulupinar Alici & Gulcin Bozkurt (2008). Exposing Nursing Students To the Marketing Methods of Pharmaceutical Companies. Nursing Ethics 15 (3):396-410.score: 54.0
    There is a strong association between reliance on the promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies and a generally less appropriate use of prescription drugs. Pharmaceutical companies direct some of their promotion towards health workers who do not have the authority to prescribe medicines, such as nurses in certain countries. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that exposure to the marketing methods of pharmaceutical companies has on judgments made by nursing students about health worker—pharmaceutical company relationships. A (...)
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  13. Antoine Derobertmasure & Arnaud Dehon (2012). Développement de la réflexivité et décodage de l'action : questions de méthodeDevelopment of reflexivity and decoding of the action : questions of methods. Phronesis 1 (2):24-44.score: 54.0
    Abstract In initial teacher training, the micro-teaching activities and retroaction have for goals to develop reflexive practitioners and competent professionals with a high professional identity. The double analyze of the teacher’s action – observation of teacher gestures and analysis of retroaction - requires two complementary methods to make the links between interactive and postactive phase. In this article, the authors describe the different training activities, and explain the research approach with an illustration of a concrete case. En formation (...)
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  14. Brenda L. Connors, Richard Rende & Timothy J. Colton (2013). Predicting Individual Differences in Decision-Making Process From Signature Movement Styles: An Illustrative Study of Leaders. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 52.0
    There has been a surge of interest in examining the utility of methods for capturing individual differences in decision-making style. We illustrate the potential offered by Movement Pattern Analysis (MPA), an observational methodology that has been used in business and by the U.S. Department of Defense to record body movements that provide predictive insight into individual differences in decision-making motivations and actions. Twelve military officers participated in an intensive two-hour interview that permitted detailed and fine-grained observation and coding (...)
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  15. J. H. Woodger (1952). Man or Matter, Introduction to a Spiritual Understanding of Nature on the Basis of Goethe's Method of Training Observation and Thought. By Ernst Lehrs Ph.D. (London: Faber & Faber Ltd. 1951. Pp. 378. Price 30s. Net.). [REVIEW] Philosophy 27 (102):282-.score: 50.0
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  16. John Clement (1988). Observed Methods for Generating Analogies in Scientific Problem Solving. Cognitive Science 12 (4):563-586.score: 50.0
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  17. Kay E. Weller (2005). Using an OSAE to Learn About Life in Two New Delhi Hutments. Journal of Social Studies Research 29 (2):9-18.score: 48.0
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  18. Lorraine Daston & Elizabeth Lunbeck (eds.) (2011). Histories of Scientific Observation. The University of Chicago Press.score: 44.0
    This book makes a compelling case for the significance of the long, surprising, and epistemologically significant history of scientific observation, a history ...
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  19. Nick Bostrom (2002). Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy. Routledge.score: 44.0
    This book breaks new ground by drawing attention to certain kinds of biases that permeate many parts of science and by developing a theory of how to correct for these biases. Follow this link http://www.anthropic-principle.com/ to Nick Bostrom's web page on everything related to observation selection effects, the anthropic principle, self-locating belief, and associated applications and paradoxes in science and philosophy.
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  20. Paul Nelles (2010). Seeing and Writing: The Art of Observation in the Early Jesuit Missions. Intellectual History Review 20 (3):317-333.score: 44.0
    Like other early modern missionaries, the Jesuits made much of their status as eye?witness observers, but the observational methods which missionaries employed in gaining knowledge of non?European cultures have received little consideration. The Jesuit case affords a glimpse of the observational tools and cognitive practices deployed in the overseas missions. Prayer, reading and some kind of writing or annotation constituted the backbone of Jesuit devotional practice, and writing formed a routine component of Jesuit mission life. Notes played an essential (...)
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  21. Dorrit Billman & Evan Heit (1988). Observational Learning From Internal Feedback: A Simulation of an Adaptive Learning Method. Cognitive Science 12 (4):587-625.score: 40.0
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  22. T. R. Martland (1978). Five Observations in Search of a Method to Justify Religious Activity. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (2):253-261.score: 40.0
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  23. Suhail A. R. Doi, Jan J. Barendregt & Adedayo A. Onitilo (2013). Methods for the Bias Adjustment of Meta-Analyses of Published Observational Studies. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):653-657.score: 40.0
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  24. Herbert E. Hendry & Allan M. Hart (1978). Some Observations on a Method of McKinsey. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19 (3):395-396.score: 40.0
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  25. J. J. Lipner (1978). An Analysis of Ka $\Underset{\Raise0.3em\Hbox{$\Underset{\Raise0.3em\Hbox{\Smash{\Scriptscriptstyle\Cdot}$}}{T}$}}{T} " />Ha 6.4 and 5, with Some Observations on Upanishadic Method. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 5 (3).score: 40.0
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  26. Tomáš Havránek (1975). Statistical Quantifiers in Observational Calculi: An Application in GUHA-Methods. Theory and Decision 6 (2):213-230.score: 40.0
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  27. Carl G. Hempel (1950). Review: Sigismond Zawirski, Observations Sur la Methode des Sciences de la Nature. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 14 (4):248-248.score: 40.0
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  28. Leon Henkin (1959). Review: Andrzej Mostowski, Quelques Observations sur l'Usage des Methodes non Finitistes dans la Meta- Mathematiques. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 24 (3):234-235.score: 40.0
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  29. Rodney Jonklaas (1968). Some Observations From Modern Methods of Harvesting Xancus Pyrum Linnaeus. In Peter Koestenbaum (ed.), Proceedings. [San Jose? Calif.. 1--919.score: 40.0
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  30. J. J. Lipner (1978). An Analysis of Ka $$\Underset{\Raise0.3em\Hbox{$\Smash{\Scriptscriptstyle\Cdot}$}}{T}$$ Ha 6.4 and 5, with Some Observations on Upanishadic Method. [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 5 (3):243-253.score: 40.0
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  31. Arnaud Mayrargue (2010). De la méthode d'observer exactement sur mer la hauteur des astres. Revue d'Histoire des Sciences 1:67-91.score: 40.0
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  32. S. S. Sivakumar (forthcoming). Is the Method All Madness? Comments From a Participant-Observer Economist. Social Research.score: 40.0
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  33. Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque (2011). Local Perception of Environmental Change in a Semi-Arid Area of Northeast Brazil: A New Approach for the Use of Participatory Methods at the Level of Family Units. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (5):511-531.score: 38.0
    The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural resource use. Through participatory methods, the present study analyzed people’s representations about local environmental change processes in the Brazilian semi-arid (...)
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  34. Shana Sieber, Patrícia Medeiros & Ulysses Albuquerque (2011). Local Perception of Environmental Change in a Semi-Arid Area of Northeast Brazil: A New Approach for the Use of Participatory Methods at the Level of Family Units. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (5):511-531.score: 38.0
    The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series of complex factors involving local issues, creating a need for further scientific studies on the social-environmental dynamics of natural resource use. Through participatory methods, the present study analyzed people’s representations about local environmental change processes in the Brazilian semi-arid (...)
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  35. Simon R. Walters & Rosemary Godbold (forthcoming). Someone Is Watching You: The Ethics of Covert Observation to Explore Adult Behaviour at Children's Sporting Events. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-7.score: 38.0
    Concerns have been expressed about adult behaviour at children’s sporting events in New Zealand. As a consequence, covert observation was identified as the optimal research method to be used in studies designed to record the nature and prevalence of adult sideline behaviour at children’s team sporting events. This paper explores whether the concerns raised by the ethics committee about the use of this controversial method, particularly in relation to the lack of informed consent, the use of deception, and researcher (...)
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  36. Gregor Betz (2008). Evaluating Dialectical Structures with Bayesian Methods. Synthese 163 (1):25 - 44.score: 36.0
    This paper shows how complex argumentation, analyzed as dialectical structures, can be evaluated within a Bayesian framework by interpreting them as coherence constraints on subjective degrees of belief. A dialectical structure is a set of arguments (premiss-conclusion structure) among which support- and attack-relations hold. This approach addresses the observation that some theses in a debate can be better justified than others and thus fixes a shortcoming of a theory of defeasible reasoning which applies the bivalence principle to argument evaluations (...)
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  37. Alexa Miller, Michelle Grohe, Shahram Khoshbin & Joel T. Katz (2013). From the Galleries to the Clinic: Applying Art Museum Lessons to Patient Care. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 34 (4):433-438.score: 36.0
    Increasingly, medical educators integrate art-viewing into curricular interventions that teach clinical observation—often with local art museum educators. How can cross-disciplinary collaborators explicitly connect the skills learned in the art museum with those used at the bedside? One approach is for educators to align their pedagogical approach using similar teaching methods in the separate contexts of the galleries and the clinic. We describe two linked pedagogical exercises—Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) in the museum galleries and observation at the bedside—from (...)
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  38. Mel Evans (1988). Participant Observation: The Researcher as Research Tool. In John Eyles & David Marshall Smith (eds.), Qualitative Methods in Human Geography. Barnes & Noble. 197--218.score: 36.0
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  39. Susann Wagenknecht (2014). Collaboration in Scientific Practice—-A Social Epistemology of Research Groups. Dissertation, Aarhus Universityscore: 36.0
    This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. -/- On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists (...)
     
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  40. Thomas A. Weber (2010). Simple Methods for Evaluating and Comparing Binary Experiments. Theory and Decision 69 (2):257-288.score: 36.0
    We consider a confidence parametrization of binary information sources in terms of appropriate likelihood ratios. This parametrization is used for Bayesian belief updates and for the equivalent comparison of binary experiments. In contrast to the standard parametrization of a binary information source in terms of its specificity and its sensitivity, one of the two confidence parameters is sufficient for a Bayesian belief update conditional on a signal realization. We introduce a confidence-augmented receiver operating characteristic for comparisons of binary experiments for (...)
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  41. Pekka Lahti & Juha-Pekka Pellonpää (2010). On the Complementarity of the Quadrature Observables. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1419-1428.score: 34.0
    In this paper we investigate the coupling properties of pairs of quadrature observables, showing that, apart from the Weyl relation, they share the same coupling properties as the position-momentum pair. In particular, they are complementary. We determine the marginal observables of a covariant phase space observable with respect to an arbitrary rotated reference frame, and observe that these marginal observables are unsharp quadrature observables. The related distributions constitute the Radon transform of a phase space distribution of the covariant phase space (...)
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  42. Andrew Aberdein (2010). Observations on Sick Mathematics. In Bart van Kerkhove, Jean Paul van Bendegem & Jonas de Vuyst (eds.), Philosophical Perspectives on Mathematical Practice. College Publications. 269--300.score: 34.0
    This paper argues that new light may be shed on mathematical reasoning in its non-pathological forms by careful observation of its pathologies. The first section explores the application to mathematics of recent work on fallacy theory, specifically the concept of an ‘argumentation scheme’: a characteristic pattern under which many similar inferential steps may be subsumed. Fallacies may then be understood as argumentation schemes used inappropriately. The next section demonstrates how some specific mathematical fallacies may be characterized in terms of (...)
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  43. Antoine Derobertmasure & Arnaud Dehon (2012). Développement de la réflexivité et décodage de l'action : questions de méthode. Phronesis 1 (2):24-44.score: 34.0
    Abstract In initial teacher training, the micro-teaching activities and retroaction have for goals to develop reflexive practitioners and competent professionals with a high professional identity. The double analyze of the teacher’s action – observation of teacher gestures and analysis of retroaction - requires two complementary methods to make the links between interactive and postactive phase. In this article, the authors describe the different training activities, and explain the research approach with an illustration of a concrete case. -/- En (...)
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  44. W. Holmes Finch (2012). Distribution of Variables by Method of Outlier Detection. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 34.0
    The presence of outliers can very problematic in data analysis, leading statisticians to develop a wide variety of methods for identifying them in both the univariate and multivariate contexts. In case of the latter, perhaps the most popular approach has been Mahalanobis distance, where large values suggest an observation that is unusual as compared to the center of the data. However, researchers have identified problems with the application of this metric such that its utility may be limited in (...)
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  45. [deleted]Sophie Vandenbroucke, Geert Crombez, Dimitri Van Ryckeghem, Marcel Brass, Stefaan Van Damme & Liesbet Goubert (2013). Vicarious Pain While Observing Another in Pain: An Experimental Approach. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 34.0
    Objective: This study aimed at developing an experimental paradigm to assess vicarious pain experiences. We further explored the putative moderating role of observer’s characteristics such as hypervigilance for pain and dispositional empathy. Methods: Two experiments are reported using a similar procedure. Undergraduate students were selected based upon whether they reported vicarious pain in daily life, and categorized into a pain responder group or a comparison group. Participants were presented a series of videos showing hands being pricked whilst receiving occasionally (...)
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  46. T. Froese, C. Gould & A. Barrett (2011). Re-Viewing From Within: A Commentary on First- and Second-Person Methods in the Science of Consciousness. Constructivist Foundations 6 (2):254-269.score: 30.0
    Context: There is a growing recognition in consciousness science of the need for rigorous methods for obtaining accurate and detailed phenomenological reports of lived experience, i.e., descriptions of experience provided by the subject living them in the “first-person.” Problem: At the moment although introspection and debriefing interviews are sometimes used to guide the design of scientific studies of the mind, explicit description and evaluation of these methods and their results rarely appear in formal scientific discourse. Method: The recent (...)
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  47. Mazviita Chirimuuta, Psychophysical Methods and the Evasion of Introspection.score: 30.0
    While introspective methods went out of favour with the decline of Titchener’s analytic school, many important questions concern the rehabilitation of introspection in contemporary psychology. Hatfield (2005) rightly points out that introspective methods should not be confused with analytic ones, and goes on to describe their “ineliminable role” in perceptual psychology. Here I argue that certain methodological conventions within psychophysics reflect a continued uncertainty over appropriate use of subjects’ perceptual observations and the reliability of their introspective judgements. My (...)
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  48. Julie Zahle (2012). Practical Knowledge and Participant Observation. Inquiry 55 (1):50 - 65.score: 30.0
    Abstract An important strand of theories of practice stress that individuals' practical knowledge, i.e., their ability to act in appropriate and/or effective ways, is mainly tacit. This means that the social scientist cannot find out about this knowledge by simply asking the individuals she studies to articulate how it is appropriate and/or effective to act in various circumstances. In this paper, I pursue the proposal that the method of participant observation may be used to find out about individuals' practical (...)
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  49. Jutta Schickore (2001). Ever-Present Impediments: Exploring Instruments and Methods of Microscopy. Perspectives on Science 9 (2):126-146.score: 30.0
    : This article analyzes the transformation of epistemological and methodological discourses in German microscopy. It is argued that the expansion of microscopy in the early decades of the nineteenth century was pivotal for the emergence of intricate methodologies that characterized the instruments and methods of microscopy in new ways. Close examination of these means of investigation showed them to be intrinsically imperfect. The flaws of the instrument, the faults of the observer's eyes and the obstructive power of the objects (...)
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  50. Mardi J. Horowitz (2012). Self-Identity Theory and Research Methods. Journal of Research Practice 8 (2):Article - M14.score: 30.0
    Identity disturbances are common in clinical conditions and personality measures need to extend to assessment of coherence in underlying levels of self-coherence. The problem has been difficult to solve because self-organization is a complex unconscious set of mind/brain processes embedded in social roles and values. Theory helps us address this problem and suggests methods and limitations of interpretation that involve self-reports of subjects, observers who rate subjects, and narrative analyses of verbal communications from subjects.
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