Search results for 'Optics History' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. A. Zimmerman (2001). Looking Beyond History: The Optics of German Anthropology and the Critique of Humanism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (3):385-411.score: 102.0
    Late nineteenth-century German anthropology had to compete for intellectual legitimacy with the established academic humanities (Geisteswissenschaften), above all history. Whereas humanists interpreted literary documents to create narratives about great civilizations, anthropologists represented and viewed objects, such as skulls or artifacts, to create what they regarded as natural scientific knowledge about so-called 'natural peoples'-colonized societies of Africa, the Pacific, and the Americas. Anthropologists thus invoked a venerable tradition that presented looking at objects as a more certain source of knowledge than (...)
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  2. Olivier Darrigol (2012). A History of Optics From Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. OUP Oxford.score: 96.0
    This book is a long-term history of optics, from early Greek theories of vision to the nineteenth-century victory of the wave theory of light. It shows how light gradually became the central entity of a domain of physics that no longer referred to the functioning of the eye; it retraces the subsequent competition between medium-based and corpuscular concepts of light; and it details the nineteenth-century flourishing of mechanical ether theories. The author critically exploits and sometimes completes the more (...)
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  3. Katherine H. Tachau (1988). Vision and Certitude in the Age of Ockham: Optics, Epistemology, and the Foundations of Semantics, 1250-1345. E.J. Brill.score: 78.0
    When William of Ockham lectured on Lombard's "Sentences" in 1317-1319, he articulated a new theory of knowledge.
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  4. A. C. Crombie (1990). Expectation, Modelling and Assent in the History of Optics: Part I. Alhazen and the Medieval Tradition. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 21 (4):605-632.score: 78.0
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  5. A. C. Cr̀ombie (1991). Expectation, Modelling and Assent in the History of Optics—II. Kepler and Descartes. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 22 (1):89-115.score: 78.0
  6. G. N. Cantor (1978). The History of'Georgian'Optics. History of Science 16:1-21.score: 78.0
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  7. Allister Crombie (1991). C,«The Mechanistic Hypothesis and the Scientific Study of Vision: Some Optical Ideas as a Background of the Invention of the Microscope» in Historical Aspects of Microscopy, Éds. S. Bradbury & G. l'E. Turner, Cambridge, 1967.-«Expectation, Modelling and Assent in the History of Optics, II: Kepler and Descartes». [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 22 (1).score: 78.0
     
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  8. Igal Galili & Amnon Hazan (2001). The Effect of a History-Based Course in Optics on Students' Views About Science. Science and Education 10 (1-2):7-32.score: 72.0
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  9. Klaus Hentschel (2012). A History of Optics From Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Annals of Science:1-2.score: 72.0
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  10. Gábor Á Zemplén (2014). A History of Optics From Greek Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 27 (4):450-453.score: 72.0
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  11. Jeffrey McDonough (forthcoming). Descartes' Dioptrics and Descartes' Optics. In Nolan Larry (ed.), The Cambridge Descartes Lexicon. Cambridge.score: 54.0
    Descartes’ work on optics spanned his entire career and represents a fascinating area of inquiry from both the perspectives of the history of science and his systematic natural philosophy. The first of these entries offers a brief account of Descartes' seminal work in optics, the Dioptrique, often translated as the Optics or, more literally, as the Dioptrics. The second entry overview of Descartes’ understanding of light, his derivations of the two central laws of geometrical optics, (...)
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  12. J. Worrall (2000). The Scope, Limits, and Distinctiveness of the Method of 'Deduction From the Phenomena': Some Lessons From Newton's 'Demonstrations' in Optics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 51 (1):45-80.score: 42.0
    Having been neglected or maligned for most of this century, Newton's method of 'deduction from the phenomena' has recently attracted renewed attention and support. John Norton, for example, has argued that this method has been applied with notable success in a variety of cases in the history of physics and that this explains why the massive underdetermination of theory by evidence, seemingly entailed by hypothetico-deductive methods, is invisible to working physicists. This paper, through a detailed analysis of Newton's (...)
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  13. Hermann von Helmholtz (1995). Science and Culture: Popular and Philosophical Essays. University of Chicago Press.score: 36.0
    Hermann von Helmholtz was a leading figure of nineteenth-century European intellectual life, remarkable even among the many scientists of the period for the range and depth of his interests. A pioneer of physiology and physics, he was also deeply concerned with the implications of science for philosophy and culture. From the 1850s to the 1890s, Helmholtz delivered more than two dozen popular lectures, seeking to educate the public and to enlighten the leaders of European society and governments about the potential (...)
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  14. Colin Howson (ed.) (1976). Method and Appraisal in the Physical Sciences: The Critical Background to Modern Science, 1800-1905. Cambridge University Press.score: 36.0
    Lakatos, I. History of science and its rational reconstructions.--Clark, P. Atomism vs. thermodynamics.--Worrall, J. Thomas Young and the "rufutation" of Newtonian optics.--Musgrave, A. Why did oxygen supplant phlogiston?--Zahar, E. Why did Einstein's programme supersede Lorentz's?--Frické, M. The rejection of Avogadro's hypotheses.--Feyerabend, P. On the critique of scientific reason.
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  15. A. Malet (2001). The Power of Images: Mathematics and Metaphysics in Hobbes's Optics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (2):303-333.score: 30.0
    This paper deals with Hobbes's theory of optical images, developed in his optical magnum opus, 'A Minute or First Draught of the Optiques' (1646), and published in abridged version in De homine (1658). The paper suggests that Hobbes's theory of vision and images serves him to ground his philosophy of man on his philosophy of body. Furthermore, since this part of Hobbes's work on optics is the most thoroughly geometrical, it reveals a good deal about the role of mathematics (...)
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  16. Reimund Torge (1998). Der Bau des physikalischen Instituts der Universität Breslau und seine Entwicklung unter Otto Lummer. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 6 (1):174-174.score: 30.0
    After a short introduction into the history of the building of the Physics Institute of the University of Breslau, the development under Otto Lummer is sketched: influenced by the newly founded Technische Hochschule, the building as well as the faculty, were enlarged. The collection of instruments for instruction and research was built up and the cooperation with industry and with guests from abroad strengthened. Young scientists were promoted, making Lummer’s institute into one of the leading ones in optics (...)
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  17. G. N. Cantor (1977). Berkeley, Reid, and the Mathematization of Mid-Eighteenth-Century Optics. Journal of the History of Ideas 38.score: 30.0
    Berkeley's "new theory of vision" and, In particular, His sensationalist solution to the problem of judging distance and magnitude were discussed by many eighteenth-Century authors who faced a variety of problem situations. More specifically, Berkeley's theory fed into the debate over whether the phenomena of vision were susceptible to mathematical analysis or were experientially determined. In this paper a variety of responses to berkeley are examined, Concluding with thomas reid's attempt to distinguish physical optics (which can be analyzed geometrically) (...)
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  18. Olival Freire (2006). Philosophy Enters the Optics Laboratory: Bell's Theorem and its First Experimental Tests (1965–1982). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 37 (4):577-616.score: 24.0
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  19. Albert Atkin, Peirce's Theory of Signs. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 24.0
    Peirce's Sign Theory, or Semiotic, is an account of signification, representation, reference and meaning. Although sign theories have a long history, Peirce's accounts are distinctive and innovative for their breadth and complexity, and for capturing the importance of interpretation to signification. For Peirce, developing a thoroughgoing theory of signs was a central philosophical and intellectual preoccupation. The importance of semiotic for Peirce is wide ranging. As he himself said, “[…] it has never been in my power to study anything,—mathematics, (...)
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  20. Patricia Easton (2009). Teaching & Learning Guide For: What is at Stake in the Cartesian Debates on the Eternal Truths? Philosophy Compass 4 (5):880-884.score: 24.0
    Any study of the 'Scientific Revolution' and particularly Descartes' role in the debates surrounding the conception of nature (atoms and the void v. plenum theory, the role of mathematics and experiment in natural knowledge, the status and derivation of the laws of nature, the eternality and necessity of eternal truths, etc.) should be placed in the philosophical, scientific, theological, and sociological context of its time. Seventeenth-century debates concerning the nature of the eternal truths such as '2 + 2 = 4' (...)
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  21. Anastasios A. Brenner (1990). Holism a Century Ago: The Elaboration of Duhem's Thesis. Synthese 83 (3):325 - 335.score: 24.0
    Duhem first expounds the holistic thesis, according to which an experimental test always involves several hypotheses, in articles dating from the 1890s. Poincaré's analysis of a recent experiment in optics provides the incentive, but Duhem generalizes this analysis and develops a highly original methodological position. He is led to reject inductivism. I will endeavor to show the crucial role history of science comes to play in the development of Duhem's holism.
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  22. Ian Mueller (2006). Physics and Astronomy: Aristotle's Physics II.2.193b22–194a12. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 16 (2):175-206.score: 24.0
    In the first part of chapter 2 of book II of the Physics Aristotle addresses the issue of the difference between mathematics and physics. In the course of his discussion he says some things about astronomy and the ‘ ‘ more physical branches of mathematics”. In this paper I discuss historical issues concerning the text, translation, and interpretation of the passage, focusing on two cruxes, ( I ) the first reference to astronomy at 193b25–26 and ( II ) the reference (...)
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  23. Jan Westerhoff (2010). Twelve Examples of Illusion. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Tibetan Buddhist writings frequently state that many of the things we perceive in the world are in fact illusory, as illusory as echoes or mirages. In Twelve Examples of Illusion , Jan Westerhoff offers an engaging look at a dozen illusions--including magic tricks, dreams, rainbows, and reflections in a mirror--showing how these phenomena can give us insight into reality. For instance, he offers a fascinating discussion of optical illusions, such as the wheel of fire (the "wheel" seen when a torch (...)
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  24. A. Mark Smith (2006). Seeing and Being Seen in the Later Medieval World: Optics, Theology, and Religious Life (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (3):473-474.score: 24.0
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  25. Alan E. Shapiro (1974). Light, Pressure, and Rectilinear Propagation: Descartes' Celestial Optics and Newton's Hydrostatics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 5 (3):239-296.score: 24.0
  26. Raz Chen-Morris (2005). Shadows of Instruction: Optics and Classical Authorities in Kepler's Somnium. Journal of the History of Ideas 66 (2):223-243.score: 24.0
  27. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1996). The Standard Model of Quantum Measurement Theory: History and Applications. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (7):875-893.score: 24.0
    The standard model of the quantum theory of measurement is based on an interaction Hamiltonian in which the observable to be measured is multiplied by some observable of a probe system. This simple Ansatz has proved extremely fruitful in the development of the foundations of quantum mechanics. While the ensuing type of models has often been argued to be rather artificial, recent advances in quantum optics have demonstrated their principal and practical feasibility. A brief historical review of the standard (...)
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  28. Ofer Gal & Raz Chen-Morris (2010). Baroque Optics and the Disappearance of the Observer: From Kepler's Optics to Descartes' Doubt. Journal of the History of Ideas 71 (2):191-217.score: 24.0
  29. Margaret J. Osler (1971). John Pecham and the Science of Optics. Journal of the History of Philosophy 9 (4):510-510.score: 24.0
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  30. Antoni Malet (1997). Isaac Barrow on the Mathematization of Nature: Theological Voluntarism and the Rise of Geometrical Optics. Journal of the History of Ideas 58 (2):265-287.score: 24.0
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  31. Tom Sorell (ed.) (1996). The Cambridge Companion to Hobbes. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    It was as a political thinker that Thomas Hobbes first came to prominence, and it is as a political theorist that he is most studied today. Yet the range of his writings extends well beyond morals and politics. Hobbes had distinctive views in metaphysics and epistemology, and wrote about such subjects as history, law, and religion. He also produced full-scale treatises in physics, optics, and geometry. All of these areas are covered in this Companion, most in considerable detail. (...)
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  32. Stanislaus J. Sherman Dundon (1981). The Development of Newtonian Optics in England. Journal of the History of Philosophy 19 (1):116-118.score: 24.0
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  33. Jed Z. Buchwald (2002). Notas Sobre Conocimiento Inarticulado, Experimentacion Y Traduccion. Theoria 17 (2):243-263.score: 24.0
    Debate among scientists is frequently hampered by intense difficulties in communicating and translating their viewpoints. This well-known fact illustrates the role of unarticulated core knowledge in the activities of sientific communities. But it has been little noticed that the issue afficts not just written science, but especially traditions of experimental activity and their products, including instruments and techniques. The question is addressed on the basis of examples from the history of optics and electromagnetism - Fresnel and Brewster, Maxwell (...)
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  34. O. Gal (1996). Producing Knowledge in the Workshop: Hooke's 'Inflection' From Optics to Planetary Motion. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (2):181-205.score: 24.0
  35. Thomas Hobbes (1994). The Correspondence: Volume I: 1622-1659. Clarendon Press.score: 24.0
    Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) is one of the most important figures in the history of European philosophy. Although best known for his political theory, he also wrote about theology, metaphysics, physics, optics, mathematics, psychology, and literary criticism. All of these interests are reflected in his correspondence. Some small groups of his letters have been printed in the past (often in inaccurate transcriptions), but this edition is the first complete collection of his correspondence, nearly half of which has never been (...)
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  36. Klaus Hentschel (2002). Why Not One More Imponderable? John William Draper's Tithonic Rays. Foundations of Chemistry 4 (1):5-59.score: 24.0
    This paper reconstructs what may have led the American professorof chemistry andnatural philosophy John William Draper to introduce a new kind ofradiation, whichhe dubbed `Tithonic rays''. After presenting his and earlierempirical findings onthe chemical action of light in Section 3, I analyze his pertinentpapers in Section 4with the aim of identifying the various types of argumentshe raised infavor of this new actinic entity (or more precisely, this newnatural kind of raybesides optical, thermal and perhaps also phosphorogenic rays).From a modernperspective, all (...)
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  37. Donald Kunze (forthcoming). Delirious History and Optical Mnemonics in Vico and Camillo. Semiotics:436-446.score: 24.0
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  38. Stuart Peterfreund (forthcoming). Scientific Models in Optics: From Metaphor to Metonymy and Back. Journal of the History of Ideas.score: 24.0
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  39. A. I. Sabra (1966). Ibn Al-Haytham's Criticisms of Ptolemy's Optics. Journal of the History of Philosophy 4 (2):145-149.score: 24.0
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  40. F. Abeles (1964). Instrumental Optics. History of Science. R. Taton. New York, Basic Books 3:144-154.score: 24.0
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  41. Geoffrey N. Cantor (1990). Physical Optics. In R. C. Olby, G. N. Cantor, J. R. R. Christie & M. J. S. Hodge (eds.), Companion to the History of Modern Science. Routledge. 627--638.score: 24.0
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  42. R. W. Home (1985). Optics After Newton: Theories of Light in Britain and Ireland 1704-1840 by G. N. Cantor, and Brewster and Wheatstone on Vision, Ed. By Nicholas J. Wade. [REVIEW] History of Science 23:207-211.score: 24.0
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  43. Donald Kunze (forthcoming). The Cone of Vision: Delirious History and Optical Mnemonics in Vico and Camillo. Semiotics.score: 24.0
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  44. Noel Malcolm & Jacqueline Stedall (2004). John Pell (1611-1685) and His Correspondence with Sir Charles Cavendish: The Mental World of an Early Modern Mathematician. [REVIEW] OUP Oxford.score: 24.0
    The mathematician John Pell was a member of that golden generation of scientists Boyle, Wren, Hooke, and others which came together in the early Royal Society. Although he left a huge body of manuscript materials, he has remained an extraordinarily neglected figure, whose papers have never been properly explored. This book, the first ever full-length study of Pell, presents an in-depth account of his life and mathematical thinking, based on a detailed study of his manuscripts. It not only restores to (...)
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  45. Roshdi Rashed (1989). Problems of the Transmission of Greek Scientific Thought Into Arabic: Examples From Mathematics and Optics. History of Science 27 (76):199-209.score: 24.0
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  46. Friedrich Steinle (2002). Science and His Habilitation in History and Philosophy of Science. He is the Author of Numerous Articles and a Book, Newton's Manuskript 'De Graviatione'(Stuttgart 1991), on Newton's Mechanical and Optical Con-Cepts. In More Recent Work, Including His Forthcoming Book Explorative Experimente: Ampère, Faraday Und Die Urpünge der Elektrodynamik (Stuttgart. [REVIEW] Perspectives on Science 10 (4).score: 24.0
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  47. J. H. van‘T. Hoff (2001). A Proposal for Extending the Currently Employed Structural Formulae in Chemistry Into Space, Together With a Related Remark on the Relationship Between Optical Activating Power and Chemical Constitution of Organic Compounds.; a Paper on the History of the First Publication of the Pamphlet in Dutch is by PJ Ramberg and GJ Somsen. Annals of Science 58:51.score: 24.0
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  48. Rienk Vermij (2012). Instruments and the Making of a Philosopher. Spinoza's Career in Optics. Intellectual History Review 23 (1):65-81.score: 24.0
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  49. Richard S. Westfall (1968). The Science of Optics in the Seventeenth Century. History of Science 6:150.score: 24.0
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  50. Laura Georgescu & Madalina Giurgea (2012). Redefining the Role of Experiment in Bacon's Natural History: How Baconian Was Descartes Before Emerging From His Cocoon? Early Science and Medicine 17 (1-2):1-2.score: 22.0
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