Search results for 'Organism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Annette Dufner (2013). Potentiality Arguments and the Definition of “Human Organism”. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (1):33-34.score: 24.0
    Bettina Schöne-Seifert and Marco Stier present a host of detailed and intriguing arguments to the effect that potentiality arguments have to be viewed as outdated due to developments in stem cell research, in particular the possibility of re-setting the development potential of differentiated cells, such as skin cells. However, their argument leaves them without an explanation of the intuitive difference between skin cells and human beings, which seems to be based on the assumption that a skin cell is merely part (...)
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  2. Charles T. Wolfe (2014). The Organism as Ontological Go-Between. Hybridity, Boundaries and Degrees of Reality in its Conceptual History. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 1:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.shps.score: 24.0
    The organism is neither a discovery like the circulation of the blood or the glycogenic function of the liver, nor a particular biological theory like epigenesis or preformationism. It is rather a concept which plays a series of roles – sometimes overt, sometimes masked – throughout the history of biology, and frequently in very normative ways, also shifting between the biological and the social. Indeed, it has often been presented as a key-concept in life science and the ‘theorization’ of (...)
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  3. Matthew H. Haber (2014). In Defense of the Organism. Biology and Philosophy 29 (6):885-895.score: 24.0
    Thomas Pradeu’s The Limits of the Self provides a precise account of biological identity developed from the central concepts of immunology. Yet the central concepts most relevant to this task are themselves deemed inadequate, suffering from ambiguity and imprecision. Pradeu seeks to remedy this by proposing a new guiding theory for immunology, the continuity theory. From this, an account of biological identity is provided in terms of uniqueness and individuality, ultimately leading to a defense of the heterogeneous organism as (...)
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  4. Sebastian Rand (2011). Organism, Normativity, Plasticity: Canguilhem, Kant, Malabou. Continental Philosophy Review 44 (4):341-357.score: 21.0
    Some of Catherine Malabou’s recent work has developed her conception of plasticity (originally deployed in a reading of Hegelian Aufhebung ) in relation to neuroscience. This development clarifies and advances her attempt to bring contemporary theory into dialogue with the natural sciences, while indirectly indicating her engagement with the French tradition in philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, especially the work of Georges Canguilhem. I argue that we can see her development of plasticity as an answer to some specific (...)
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  5. Hans Driesch (1908/1979). The Science and Philosophy of the Organism. Ams Press.score: 21.0
  6. Dorothy Mary Emmet (1966/1981). Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism. Greenwood Press.score: 21.0
  7. M. Kirti Singh (2009). The Philosophy of Organism: A Comparative Study of A.N. Whitehead. Akansha Pub. House.score: 21.0
     
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  8. M. Kirti Singh (2009). The Philosophy of Organism: A Comparative Study of A. Akansha Pub. House.score: 21.0
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  9. David Morris (2008). The Time and Place of the Organism: Merleau-Ponty's Philosophy in Embryo. Alter: revue de phénoménologie 16:69-86.score: 21.0
    Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy attempts to locate meaning-sense-within being. Space and time are thus ingredient in sense. This is apparent in his earlier studies of structure, fields, expression and the body schema, and the linkage of space, time and sense becomes thematic in Merleau-Ponty’s later thinking about institution, chiasm and reversibility. But the space-time-sense linkage is also apparent in his studies of embryogenesis. The paper shows this by reconstructing Merleau-Ponty’s critical analysis of Driesch’s embryology (in the nature lectures) to demonstrate how, for (...)
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  10. Enrico Pasini (2011). Both Mechanistic and Teleological. The Genesis of Leibniz's Concept of Organism, with Special Regard to His Du Rapport General de Toutes Choses. In Hubertus Busche & Stephan Hessbrüggen-Walter (eds.), Departure to Modern Europe -- Philosophy Between 1400 and 1700. Meiner. 1216-1235.score: 21.0
     
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  11. Massimo Pigliucci (2004). Studying the Plasticity of Phenotypic Integration in a Model Organism. In M. Pigliucci K. Preston (ed.), The Evolutionary Biology of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    How to use a model organism to study phenotypic integration and constraints on evolution.
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  12. Marshall Abrams (2009). Fitness “Kinematics”: Biological Function, Altruism, and Organism–Environment Development. Biology and Philosophy 24 (4):487-504.score: 18.0
    It’s recently been argued that biological fitness can’t change over the course of an organism’s life as a result of organisms’ behaviors. However, some characterizations of biological function and biological altruism tacitly or explicitly assume that an effect of a trait can change an organism’s fitness. In the first part of the paper, I explain that the core idea of changing fitness can be understood in terms of conditional probabilities defined over sequences of events in an organism’s (...)
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  13. Gerard A. J. M. Jagers op Akkerhuis (2010). Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death. Foundations of Science 15 (3):245-262.score: 18.0
    Despite hundreds of definitions, no consensus exists on a definition of life or on the closely related and problematic definitions of the organism and death. These problems retard practical and theoretical development in, for example, exobiology, artificial life, biology and evolution. This paper suggests improving this situation by basing definitions on a theory of a generalized particle hierarchy. This theory uses the common denominator of the “operator” for a unified ranking of both particles and organisms, from elementary particles to (...)
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  14. Thomas Pradeu, What is an Organism?score: 18.0
    The question ‘What is an organism?’, formerly considered as essential in biology, has now been increasingly replaced by a larger question, ‘What is a biological individual?’. On the grounds that i) individuation is theory-dependent, and ii) physiology does not offer a theory, biologists and philosophers of biology have claimed that it is the theory of evolution by natural selection which tells us what counts as a biological individual. Here I show that one physiological field, immunology, offers a theory, which (...)
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  15. Timo Jarvilehto (2000). Feeling as Knowing--Part I: Emotion as Reorganization of the Organism-Environment System. Consciousness and Emotion 1 (2):245-257.score: 18.0
    The theoretical approach described in a series of articles (Jarvilehto, 1998a,b,c, 1999, 2000) is developed further in relation to the problems of emotion, consciousness, and brain activity. The approach starts with the claim that many conceptual confusions in psychology are due to the postulate that the organism and the environment are two interacting systems (”Two systems theory”). The gist of the approach is the idea that the organism and environment form a unitary system which is the basis of (...)
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  16. Jack A. Wilson (2000). Ontological Butchery: Organism Concepts and Biological Generalizations. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):311.score: 18.0
    Biology lacks a central organism concept that unambiguously marks the distinction between organism and non-organism because the most important questions about organisms do not depend on this concept. I argue that the two main ways to discover useful biological generalizations about multicellular organization--the study of homology within multicellular lineages and of convergent evolution across lineages in which multicellularity has been independently established--do not require what would have to be a stipulative sharpening of an organism concept.
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  17. S. Matthew Liao (2010). Twinning, Inorganic Replacement, and the Organism View. Ratio 23 (1):59-72.score: 18.0
    In explicating his version of the Organism View, Eric Olson argues that you begin to exist only after twinning is no longer possible and that you cannot survive a process of inorganic replacement. Assuming the correctness of the Organism View, but pace Olson, I argue in this paper that the Organism View does not require that you believe either proposition. The claim I shall make about twinning helps to advance a debate that currently divides defenders of the (...)
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  18. Thomas Pradeu (2010). The Organism in Developmental Systems Theory. Biological Theory 5 (3):216-222.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I address the question of what the Developmental Systems Theory (DST) aims at explaining. I distinguish two lines of thought in DST, one which deals specifically with development, and tries to explain the development of the individual organism, and the other which presents itself as a reconceptualization of evolution, and tries to explain the evolution of populations of developmental systems (organism-environment units). I emphasize that, despite the claiming of the contrary by DST proponents, there are (...)
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  19. John Protevi, The Organism as the Judgment of God: Aristotle, Kant and Deleuze on Nature (That is, on Biology, Theology and Politics).score: 18.0
    God has been called many things, but perhaps nothing so strange as the name of “lobster” which he receives in A Thousand Plateaus.1 Is this simple profanation a pendant to the gleeful anti-clericalism of Deleuze2, for whom there is no insult so wretched as that of “priest”?3 Certainly, on one level. But it is also a clue to Deleuze’s ability to use a traditional concern of theology, the name of God, to intervene in the most basic questions of Western philosophy, (...)
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  20. Thomas R. Alley (1985). Organism-Environment Mutuality Epistemics, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Synthese 65 (3):411 - 444.score: 18.0
    The concept of an ecological niche (econiche) has been used in a variety of ways, some of which are incompatible with a relational or functional interpretation of the term. This essay seeks to standardize usage by limiting the concept to functional relations between organisms and their surroundings, and to revise the concept to include epistemic relations. For most organisms, epistemics are a vital aspect of their functional relationships to their surroundings and, hence, a major determinant of their econiche. Rejecting the (...)
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  21. Manfred D. Laubichler & Gunter P. Wagner (2000). Organism and Character Decomposition: Steps Towards an Integrative Theory of Biology. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):300.score: 18.0
    In this paper we argue that an operational organism concept can help to overcome the structural deficiency of mathematical models in biology. In our opinion, the structural deficiency of mathematical models lies mainly in our inability to identify functionally relevant biological characters in biological systems, and not so much in a lack of adequate mathematical representations of biological processes. We argue that the problem of character identification in biological systems is linked to the question of a properly formulated (...) concept. Lastly, we demonstrate how a decomposition of an organism into independent characters in the context of a specific biological process--such as adaptation by means of natural selection--depends on the dynamical properties and invariance conditions of the equations that describe this process. (shrink)
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  22. S. Matthew Liao (2006). The Organism View Defended. The Monist 89 (3):334-350.score: 18.0
    What are you and I essentially? When do you and I come into and go out of existence? A common response is that we are essentially organisms, that is, we come into existence as organisms and go out of existence when we cease to be organisms. Jeff McMahan has put forward two arguments against the Organism View: the case of dicephalus and a special case of hemispheric commissurotomy. In this paper, I defend the Organism View against these two (...)
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  23. Trevor Pearce (2010). From 'Circumstances' to 'Environment': Herbert Spencer and the Origins of the Idea of Organism–Environment Interaction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 41 (3):241-252.score: 18.0
    The word ‘environment’ has a history. Before the mid-nineteenth century, the idea of a singular, abstract entity—the organism—interacting with another singular, abstract entity—the environment—was virtually unknown. In this paper I trace how the idea of a plurality of external conditions or circumstances was replaced by the idea of a singular environment. The central figure behind this shift, at least in Anglo-American intellectual life, was the philosopher Herbert Spencer. I examine Spencer’s work from 1840 to 1855, demonstrating that he was (...)
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  24. Daniel K. Palmer (2004). On the Organism-Environment Distinction in Psychology. Behavior and Philosophy 32 (2):317 - 347.score: 18.0
    Most psychology begins with a distinction between organism and environment, where the two are implicitly (and sometimes explicitly) conceptualized as flipsides of a skin-severed space. This paper examines that conceptualization. Dewey and Bentley's (1949) account of firm naming is used to show that psychologists have, in general, (1) employed the skin as a morphological criterion for distinguishing organisms from backgrounds, and (2) equated background with environment. This two-step procedure, which in this article is named the morphological conception of (...), is shown to inform the writings of the well-known psychologist B. F. Skinner. A review of difficulties with the morphological conception is followed with a review and preliminary integration of four attempts at an alternative conception of organism, and thus environment. Together, these four attempts converge on an analysis of living systems as transdermal (through and across skin) processes only within which organism and environment are distinguishable as complementary phases. The notion of a biological total process, or bioprocess, is employed to clarify this alternative analysis, in which an organism is an ongoing organization rather than a skin-bound body. (shrink)
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  25. Richard E. Michod (2005). On the Transfer of Fitness From the Cell to the Multicellular Organism. Biology and Philosophy 20 (5):967-987.score: 18.0
    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic components: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness components drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ–soma specialization and the emergence of individuality at the cell group (or organism) level are also consequences of trade-offs between the two basic (...)
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  26. José-Leonel Torres & Lynn Trainor (2008). On Organism: Environment Buffers and Their Ecological Significance. Biology and Philosophy 23 (3):403-416.score: 18.0
    We consider, from a physical perspective, the case where the interface between an organism and its environment becomes large enough that it acts as a buffer regulating their matter and energy exchanges. We illustrate the physiological and evolutionary role of buffers through the example of lungfish estivation. Then we ponder the relevance of buffers of this kind to the quest for a general definition of concepts like niche construction, the extended phenotype, and related ones, whose meaning is conveyed at (...)
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  27. Paolo Palladino (2011). Miranda's Story: Molecules, Populations and the Mortal Organism. History of the Human Sciences 24 (5):0952695111415935.score: 18.0
    Biomedicine is today transforming the human condition, but how such transformation is to be understood is a matter of debate. I seek to contribute to the debate by focusing on recent developments within a relatively novel subfield of gerontology which is engaged in the bio-molecular and bio-demographic characterization of the processes associated with the development of the organism from birth to death. I argue that these developments aid understanding of the conceptual difficulties confronting neo-Darwinian biological thought and poststructuralist social (...)
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  28. Timo Jarvilehto (1999). The Theory of the Organism-Environment System: III. Role of Efferent Influences on Receptors in the Formation of Knowledge. Philosophical Explorations.score: 18.0
    The present article is an attempt to give - in the frame of the theory of the organism-environment system (Jarvilehto 1998a) - a new interpretation to the role of efferent influences on receptor activity and to the functions of senses in the formation of knowledge. It is argued, on the basis of experimental evidence and theoretical considerations, that the senses are not transmitters of environmental information, but they create a direct connection between the organism and the environment, which (...)
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  29. Robert C. Richardson (2000). The Organism in Development. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):321.score: 18.0
    Developmental biology has resurfaced in recent years, often without a clearly central role for the organism. The organism is pulled in divergent directions: on the one hand, there is an important body of work that emphasizes the role of the gene in development, as executing and controlling embryological change; on the other hand, there are more theoretical approaches under which the organism disappears as little more than an instance for testing biological generalizations. I press here for the (...)
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  30. Andy Gardner (2013). Ultimate Explanations Concern the Adaptive Rationale for Organism Design. Biology and Philosophy 28 (5):787-791.score: 18.0
    My understanding is that proximate explanations concern adaptive mechanism and that ultimate explanations concern adaptive rationale. Viewed in this light, the two kinds of explanation are quite distinct, but they interact in a complementary way to give a full understanding of biological adaptations. In contrast, Laland et al. (2013)—following a literal reading of Mayr (Science 134:1501–1506, 1961)—have characterized ultimate explanations as concerning any and all mechanisms that have operated over the course of an organism’s evolutionary history. This has unfortunate (...)
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  31. Daniel J. Nicholson (2014). The Return of the Organism as a Fundamental Explanatory Concept in Biology. Philosophy Compass 9 (5):347-359.score: 18.0
    Although it may seem like a truism to assert that biology is the science that studies organisms, during the second half of the twentieth century the organism category disappeared from biological theory. Over the past decade, however, biology has begun to witness the return of the organism as a fundamental explanatory concept. There are three major causes: (a) the realization that the Modern Synthesis does not provide a fully satisfactory understanding of evolution; (b) the growing awareness of the (...)
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  32. J.-L. Torres, O. Pérez-Maqueo, M. Equihua & L. Torres (2009). Quantitative Assessment of Organism–Environment Couplings. Biology and Philosophy 24 (1):107-117.score: 18.0
    The evolutionary implications of environmental change due to organismic action remain a controversial issue, after a decades—long debate on the subject. Much of this debate has been conducted in qualitative fashion, despite the availability of mathematical models for organism–environment interactions, and for gene frequencies when allele fitness can be related to exploitation of a particular environmental resource. In this article we focus on representative models dealing with niche construction, ecosystem engineering, the Gaia Hypothesis and community interactions of Lotka–Volterra type, (...)
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  33. Eric Katz (1985). Organism, Community, and the "Substitution Problem". Environmental Ethics 7 (3):241-256.score: 18.0
    Holistic accounts of the natural environment in environmental ethics fail to stress the distinction between the concepts of comnlunity and organism. Aldo Leopold’s “Land Ethic” adds to this confusion, for it can be interpreted as promoting either a community or an organic model of nature. The difference between the two concepts lies in the degree of autonomy possessed by constituent entities within the holistic system. Members within a community are autonomous, while the parts of an organism are not. (...)
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  34. Andrew Reynolds (2008). Amoebae as Exemplary Cells: The Protean Nature of an Elementary Organism. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 41 (2):307 - 337.score: 18.0
    In the nineteenth century protozoology and early cell biology intersected through the nexus of Darwin's theory of evolution. As single-celled organisms, amoebae offered an attractive focus of study for researchers seeking evolutionary relationships between the cells of humans and other animals, and their primitive appearance made them a favourite model for the ancient ancestor of all living things. Their resemblance to human and other metazoan cells made them popular objects of study among morphologists, physiologists, and even those investigating animal behaviour. (...)
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  35. Bart F. Kennedy (1977). John Locke and Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism. Philosophy Today 21 (4):389-404.score: 18.0
    The article elucidates and defends whitehead's claim that john locke anticipated the main positions of the philosophy of organism. It is argued that the major philosophical categories of locke's epistemology and whitehead's process philosophy perform similar functions. The functional parallels between the mind and the actual entity, Simple ideas and objectified actual entities, Mental operations and concrescence, Ideas and objects, And power and the ontological principle are delineated and examined. The conclusion extends a necessary caveat in assessing the philosophy (...)
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  36. James A. Marcum & Geert M. N. Verschuuren (1986). Hemostatic Regulation and Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism. Acta Biotheoretica 35 (1-2).score: 18.0
    Biology as a scientific discipline has relied heavily upon advances in chemistry and physics. An inherent danger in this relationship is the reduction of living phenomena to physico-chemical terms. Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism is utilized to examine current methodologies within biology and to evaluate their appropriateness for future research. Hemostatic regulation is employed to illustrate the applications of organistic concepts to biological research. It is concluded that understanding of living entities and their properties as well as possibly life itself (...)
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  37. Trevor Pearce (2014). The Origins and Development of the Idea of Organism-Environment Interaction. In Gillian Barker, Eric Desjardins & Trevor Pearce (eds.), Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences. Springer.score: 18.0
    The idea of organism-environment interaction, at least in its modern form, dates only to the mid-nineteenth century. After sketching the origins of the organism-environment dichotomy in the work of Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer, I will chart its metaphysical and methodological influence on later scientists and philosophers such as Conwy Lloyd Morgan and John Dewey. In biology and psychology, the environment was seen as a causal agent, highlighting questions of organismic variation and plasticity. In philosophy, organism-environment interaction (...)
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  38. Liz Stillwaggon Swan & Louis J. Goldberg (2010). How Is Meaning Grounded in the Organism? Biosemiotics 3 (2):131-146.score: 18.0
    In this paper we address the interrelated questions of why and how certain features of an organism’s environment become meaningful to it. We make the case that knowing the biology is essential to understanding the foundation of meaning-making in organisms. We employ Miguel Nicolelis et al’s seminal research on the mammalian somatosensory system to enrich our own concept of brain-objects as the neurobiological intermediary between the environment and the consequent organismic behavior. In the final section, we explain how brain-objects (...)
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  39. Yu Liu (2001). From Christian Platonism to Organism. International Philosophical Quarterly 41 (4):439-451.score: 18.0
    The essay studies the Chinese connections of Leibniz and the corresponding transformation of his philosophical ideas in terms of a two-phase relationship. Between 1667 and 1700/01, the author suggests, Leibniz was heavily influenced by the Jesuits' promulgation of China as a certain benevolent despotism compatible with both Christian charity and the rule of the Platonic philosopher-king. In contrast, the author argues, the development of Leibniz's ideas about organism between 1700/01 and 1716 was decisively inspired by the Chinese cosmic view (...)
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  40. Gareth B. Matthews (1985). The Idea of a Psychological Organism. Behaviorism 13 (1):37-52.score: 18.0
    Each of the following might be considered both necessary and sufficient for an organism to count as a psychological organism: (a) being able to do something that requires a psychological theory to explain; (b) being capable of having experiences; (c) being motivated; (d) behaving in ways that are the joint outcome of the organism's beliefs and desires; (e) being capable of instrumental learning, or operant conditioning; (f) being susceptible to classical conditioning. This paper takes up each of (...)
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  41. Eric Katz (1985). Organism, Community, and The. Environmental Ethics 7 (3):241-256.score: 18.0
    Holistic accounts of the natural environment in environmental ethics fail to stress the distinction between the concepts of comnlunity and organism. Aldo Leopold’s “Land Ethic” adds to this confusion, for it can be interpreted as promoting either a community or an organic model of nature. The difference between the two concepts lies in the degree of autonomy possessed by constituent entities within the holistic system. Members within a community are autonomous, while the parts of an organism are not. (...)
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  42. Thomas Pradeu (2010). What is an Organism? An Immunological Answer. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32:247--267.score: 15.0
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  43. Juan Pascual-Leone (1976). The Forms of Knowing in the Psychological Organism: Reflections on Royce and Rozeboom (Eds.), Psychology of Knowing. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 6 (2):175-181.score: 15.0
  44. Sewall Wright (1953). Gene and Organism. American Naturalist 87 (832):5-18.score: 15.0
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  45. Hans Jonas (1965). Spinoza and the Theory of Organism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 3 (1):43-57.score: 15.0
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  46. Jaak Panksepp (2005). Emotional Dynamics of the Organism and its Parts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):212-213.score: 15.0
    Emotion-science without basic brain-science is only superficially satisfying. Dynamic systems approaches to emotions presently provide a compelling metaphor that raises more difficult empirical questions than substantive scientific answers. How might we close the gap between theory and empirical observations? Such theoretical views still need to be guided by linear cross-species experimental approaches more easily implement in the laboratory.
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  47. Steven M. Rosen (1999). Evolution of Attentional Processes in the Human Organism. Group Analysis 32 (2):243-253.score: 15.0
    This article explores the evolution of human attention, focusing particularly on the phylogenetic and ontogenetic implications of the work of the American social psychiatrist Trigant Burrow. Attentional development is linked to the emergence of visual perspective, and this, in turn, is related to Burrow's notion of `ditention' (divided or partitive attention). Burrow's distinction between `ditention' and `cotention' (total organismic awareness) is examined, and, expanding on this, a threefold pattern of perceptual change is identified: prototention-->ditention-->cotention. Next, ditentive visual perspective is related (...)
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  48. Sabina Leonelli & Rachel A. Ankeny (2012). Re-Thinking Organisms: The Impact of Databases on Model Organism Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):29-36.score: 15.0
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  49. Karl W. Deutsch (1951). Mechanism, Organism, and Society: Some Models in Natural and Social Science. Philosophy of Science 18 (3):230-252.score: 15.0
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  50. Claus Emmeche, A-Life, Organism and Body: The Semiotics of Emergent Levels.score: 15.0
    1Center for the Philosophy of Nature and Science Studies (University of Copenhagen), Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark ( http://www.nbi.dk/~emmeche/ ). Published pp. 117-124 in: Mark Bedeau, Phil Husbands, Tim Hutton, Sanjev Kumar and Hideaki Suzuki (eds.): Workshop and Tutorial Proceedings. Ninth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems (Alife IX).
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