Search results for 'Original' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Terence Rajivan Edward, Non-Social Human Beings in the Original Position.
    This paper argues that Rawls must commit himself to non-social human beings to defend his original position procedure.
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  2. Bas van der Vossen (2009). What Counts as Original Appropriation? Politics, Philosophy and Economics 8 (4):355-373.
    I here defend historical entitlement theories of property rights against a popular charge. This is the objection that such theories fail because no convincing account of original appropriation exists. I argue that this argument assumes a certain reading of historical entitlement theory and I spell out an alternative reading against which it misfires. On this reading, the role of acts of original appropriation is not to justify but to individuate people’s holdings. I argue that we can identify which (...)
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  3.  34
    Jeffrey Reiman (2011). Is Racial Profiling Just? Making Criminal Justice Policy in the Original Position. Journal of Ethics 15 (1/2):3 - 19.
    The justice of racial profiling is addressed in the original position first for a society without racism, then for a society marked by racism. In the first case, the practice is argued to be just if carried out respectfully and expeditiously and likely to contribute to effective crime control. Thus it is not intrinsically racist. Addressing the second case, the idea that the harms of racial profiling are modest because expressive is critiqued. The practice is shown to carry the (...)
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  4.  66
    Michael C. Rea (2007). The Metaphysics of Original Sin. In Peter Van Inwagen & Dean Zimmerman (eds.), Persons: Human and Divine. Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press ; 319--356.
    This paper argues that there is no straightforward conflict between the traditional Christian doctrine of original sin and the thesis that a person P is morally responsible for the obtaining of a state of affairs S only if S obtains (or obtained) and P could have prevented S from obtaining.
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  5.  21
    Geoffrey Rees (2003). The Anxiety of Inheritance: Reinhold Niebuhr and the Literal Truth of Original Sin. Journal of Religious Ethics 31 (1):75 - 99.
    Widely regarded as the most influential proponent of the truth of original sin in the twentieth century, Reinhold Niebuhr worked hard to excise any "literalistic" element from his interpretation of the doctrine. In his attempt to "correct" the Augustinian tradition on original sin by purging it of all "literalistic errors," however, Niebuhr assumed as his starting point the most characteristically modern objection to the doctrine: that birth is a thoroughly natural, animal, and morally meaningless event. As a result, (...)
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  6.  21
    Francisco Castilla Urbano (2007). The State of Nature, the Original Position and the Problem of Historical Memory. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 24:171-192.
    The comparison between the concept state of nature, as it appears in the contractualist theories of XVII and XVIII centuries, and the original position of the the- ory of justice by John Rawls, reveals the assumptions, difficulties and limitations of the latter. In spite of its claims, the original position does not justify the search and existence of a well ordered society, and it is far away from reach the brightness and coherence with which their predecessors (...)
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  7.  11
    Denis Coitinho Silveira (2011). Posição original e equilíbrio reflexivo em John Rawls: o problema da justificação. Trans/Form/Ação 32 (1):139-157.
    O objetivo deste artigo é estabelecer algumas considerações sobre o papel dos procedimentos de posição original e equilíbrio reflexivo na teoria da justiça como equidade de John Rawls, nas obras A Theory of Justice, Political Liberalism e Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. Eu pretendo mostrar que Rawls faz uso de um modelo coerentista-pragmático de justificação dos princípios de justiça em um âmbito público, que é não-fundacionalista em razão da interconexão entre estes procedimentos.
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  8.  14
    James Stillwaggon (2014). The Problem of Propagation: Original Sin as Inherited Discourse. Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (1):61-73.
    As Modernist doctrines emphasizing the unity and agency of the educated self are increasingly set up as the straw men of contemporary educational discourses, premodern and Medieval theories of selfhood tend to disappear from the horizon of educational thought altogether. In this essay, in order to subvert this overcoming of our intellectual past, I examine Thomas Aquinas’ reading of the doctrine of original sin. Relying on Graham McAleer’s claim that Aquinas’ metaphysical theory sanctifies the body, I argue that Aquinas’ (...)
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  9.  18
    Simone de La Tour & Kevin de La Tour (2011). Original Mind and Cosmic Consciousness in the Co-Creative Process. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 6 (1):57-74.
    This article will investigate the issue of accessing benxin 本心 (original mind), subsequent operation from Self and, in that process, union with the greater universe or benti 本体 (original substance)—a state expressed in the West as cosmic consciousness. It is proposed that this allows one to participate as a partner in the creative process of one’s own life and the surrounding world. The equally important question of how to gain contact with original mind will also be addressed, (...)
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  10.  4
    Fabrício Pontin (2013). Economia Política e as raízes da posição original em Rawls (English version). Doispontos 10 (1).
    O impacto e a relevância da teoria econômica para o desenvolvimento de A Theory of Justice são, frequentemente, deixados de lado na imensa literatura a respeito das obras de John Rawls. Ainda assim, entender os elementos de economia política na obra de Rawls é fundamental para a compreensão dos motivos pelos quais ele abandonará uma abordagem utilitarista para a filosofia política e, consequentemente , par a noss o entendimento das principais questões que dão origem à noção de justiça como equidade. (...)
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  11.  15
    Zhihong Hu (2008). The Obscuration and Rediscovery of the Original Confucian Thought of Moral Politics: Deciphering Work on the Guodian, Shangbo and the Transmitted Versions of Ziyi. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (4):535-557.
    By analyzing the author of Ziyi 缁衣 (Black Costumes) as well as Ziyi’s transmission and evolution by studying and analyzing the ancient text, one can see that Ziyi was a work of Zisi or the Zisi and Mencius School. Comparing the similarities and differences between the transmitted version of Ziyi and its Guodian 郭店 and Shangbo 上博 versions, one finds that the original version of Ziyi had been significantly revised by Confucian classics teachers in the unstable political and social (...)
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  12.  10
    Shiling Xiang (2008). A Study on the Theory of “Returning to the Original” and “Recovering Nature” in Chinese Philosophy. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (4):502-519.
    The approach of returning to the original and recovering nature is a typical characteristic of Chinese philosophy. It was founded by the Daoist School and followed by both Daoist and Confucian schools. The precondition of returning to the original and recovering nature is the stillness and goodness within nature integrated into a whole afterwards. Its implementation includes not only returning to the original root so as to achieve the philosophical aim but also restoration to the original (...)
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  13. Bas van der Vossen (2015). Imposing Duties and Original Appropriation. Journal of Political Philosophy 23 (1):64-85.
  14.  58
    Bas Vossen (2014). Imposing Duties and Original Appropriation. Journal of Political Philosophy 22 (2):64-85.
  15.  15
    Patricia A. Williams (2000). Sociobiology and Original Sin. Zygon 35 (4):783-812.
  16.  4
    William Farfán Moreno (2010). La posición original de The Law of Peoples de John Rawls como postura etnocéntrica rortiana. Logos 17:115-131.
    John Rawls’ main purpose in The Law of Peoples is to extend his social contract theory to the peoples’ society, establishing the general principles that should be accepted by liberal and non-liberal societies, regulating the relationships between peoples. This paper pretends to analyze and demonstrate that Rawls’ law of peoples is considered to be an ethnocentrically theory, and therefore, difficult as a regular proposal for today’s world.
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  17.  3
    Robert G. Crowder, Michael Cole & Richard Boucher (1968). Extinction and Response Competition in Original and Interpolated Learning of a Visual Discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):422.
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  18.  2
    George E. Briggs (1957). Retroactive Inhibition as a Function of the Degree of Original and Interpolated Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (1):60.
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  19.  2
    D. McNicol & J. J. Gosbell (1974). Effects of Context and Imagery on Original and Interpolated Learning: Confusion of List Markers, or Reduction of Interference? Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):1006.
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  20.  1
    W. N. Kellogg (1938). Evidence for Both Stimulus-Substitution and Original Anticipatory Responses in the Conditioning of Dogs. Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (2):186.
  21.  1
    Don Lewis, Dorothy E. McAllister & Jack A. Adams (1951). Facilitation and Interference in Performance on the Modified Mashburn Apparatus: I. The Effects of Varying the Amount of Original Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (4):247.
  22.  1
    Jack Richardson (1956). Retention of Concepts as a Function of the Degree of Original and Interpolated Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (5):358.
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  23.  1
    Benton J. Underwood (1954). Studies of Distributed Practice: XII. Retention Following Varying Degrees of Original Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (5):294.
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  24. Richard Oxenberg, Original Sin: The Divergent Doctrines of Augustine and Tillich.
    In this paper I provide a comparative analysis of Augustine's and Paul Tillich's doctrines of Original Sin. I argue that Augustine's doctrine is deeply flawed in ways corrected for by Tillich.
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  25.  13
    Francis Hutcheson (2008). An Inquiry Into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue: In Two Treatises. Liberty Fund.
    Introduction -- Note on the texts -- An inquiry into the original of our ideas of beauty and virtue -- Treatise I -- An inquiry concerning beauty, order, & c. -- Treatise II -- An inquiry concerning the original of our ideas of virtue or moral good.
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  26.  2
    E. Bruce Brooks & A. Taeko Brooks (1998). The Original Analects: Sayings of Confucius and His Successors. Columbia University Press.
    This new translation presents the _Analects_ in a revolutionary new format that, for the first time in any language, distinguishes the original words of the Master from the later sayings of his disciples and their followers, enabling readers to experience China's most influential philosophical work in its true historical, social, and political context.
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  27. John Schneider (2012). The Fall of "Augustinian Adam": Problems of Original Fragility and Supralapsarian Purpose. Zygon 47 (4):949-969.
    This essay is framed by conflict between Christianity and Darwinian science over the history of the world and the nature of original human personhood. Evolutionary science narrates a long prehuman geological and biological history filled with vast amounts, kinds, and distributions of apparently random brutal and pointless suffering. It has also unveiled an original human person with animal psychosomatic heredity. This narrative seems to discredit Christianity's metanarrative of the Fall—Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained. The author contends that the (...)
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  28. L. Wenar (1998). Original Acquisition of Private Property. Mind 107 (428):799-820.
    Suppose libertarians could prove that durable, unqualified private property rights could be created through 'original acquisition' of unowned resources in a state of nature. Such a proof would cast serious doubt on the legitimacy of the modern state. It could also render the approach to property rights that I favour irrelevant. I argue here that none of the familiar Lockean-libertarian arguments for a strong natural right to acquisition succeed, and that any successful argument for grounding a (...)
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  29.  13
    Craig V. VanSandt, Mukesh Sud & Christopher Marmé (2009). Enabling the Original Intent: Catalysts for Social Entrepreneurship. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (3):419 - 428.
    As capitalist economies have shifted their primary focus from providing goods and services for all, to concentrating wealth at the top echelons of societies, social entrepreneurs have been one source of re-capturing the original intent of capitalism. Social entrepreneurs have combined the efficiency and effectiveness of business organizations with the social concerns of many non-profit and governmental agencies. As a result, social entrepreneurship is viewed as having significant potential for alleviating many of the social ills we now face. To (...)
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  30. Karl E. Peters (2010). Why Zygon? The Journal's Original Visions and the Future of Religion-and-Science. Zygon 45 (2):430-436.
    This essay briefly examines the original visions of Zygon , how they helped explain the publication of a new journal, and what they imply for where we might be going today.
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  31.  1
    Harold D. Roth (ed.) (1999). Original Tao: Inward Training and the Foundations of Taoist Mysticism. Columbia University Press.
    Revolutionizing received opinion of Taoism's origins in light of historic new discoveries, Harold D. Roth has uncovered China's oldest mystical text--the original expression of Taoist philosophy--and presents it here with a complete translation and commentary. Over the past twenty-five years, documents recovered from the tombs of China's ancient elite have sparked a revolution in scholarship about early Chinese thought, in particular the origins of Taoist philosophy and religion. In _Original Tao,_ Harold D. Roth exhumes the seminal text (...)
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  32. Marek Żukowski (2006). Separability of Quantum States Vs. Original Bell (1964) Inequalities. Foundations of Physics 36 (4):541-545.
    All separable states satisfy all Bell-type inequalities, which involve as their assumption only existence of local realistic (local hidden variable) models of the correlations of spatially separated systems, observed by two or more observers making independent decisions on what to measure (free will). The recent observation by Loubenets, that some separable states do not satisfy the original Bell inequality (1964) has no consequences whatsoever for the studies of the relation of separability with local realism. The original Bell inequality (...)
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  33.  72
    James R. O'Shea (2012). The 'Theory Theory' of Mind and the Aims of Sellars' Original Myth of Jones. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):175-204.
    Recent proponents of the ‘theory theory’ of mind often trace its roots back to Wilfrid Sellars’ famous ‘myth of Jones’ in his 1956 article, ‘Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind’. Sellars developed an account of the intersubjective basis of our knowledge of the inner mental states of both self and others, an account which included the claim that such knowledge is in some sense theoretical knowledge. This paper examines the nature of this claim in Sellars’ (...) account and its relationship to more recent debates concerning ‘theory of mind’, in particular the theory theory. A close look reveals that Sellars’ original view embodied several distinctions that would enable more recent theory theorists to accommodate certain phenomenological objections that have been raised against that outlook. At the heart of the philosophical issue is an overlooked complexity involved in Sellars’ account of the ‘theory/observation’ distinction, involving a conception of the distinction that is both independently plausible and a key to the issue in dispute. (shrink)
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  34.  33
    James R. O'Shea (2012). ''The 'Theory Theory' of Mind and the Aims of Sellars' Original Myth of Jones'. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 11 (2):175-204.
    Recent proponents of the ‘theory theory’ of mind often trace its roots back to Wilfrid Sellars’ famous ‘myth of Jones’ in his 1956 article, ‘Empiricism and the Philosophy of Mind’. Sellars developed an account of the intersubjective basis of our knowledge of the inner mental states of both self and others, an account which included the claim that such knowledge is in some sense theoretical knowledge. This paper examines the nature of this claim in Sellars’ (...) account and its relationship to more recent debates concerning ‘theory of mind’, in particular the theory theory. A close look reveals that Sellars’ original view embodied several distinctions that would enable more recent theory theorists to accommodate certain phenomenological objections that have been raised against that outlook. At the heart of the philosophical issue is an overlooked complexity involved in Sellars’ account of the ‘theory/observation’ distinction, involving a conception of the distinction that is both independently plausible and a key to the issue in dispute. (shrink)
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  35. Mark Greenberg, The Meaning of Original Meaning.
    The view (most prominently advocated by Justice Scalia) that original meaning entails the constitutionality of original practices has strong intuitive appeal and has been broadly assumed by originalists and nonoriginalists alike. But the position is mistaken. We suggest that a failure to distinguish between two different notions of meaning accounts for the position's wide currency. According to the first notion, the meaning of a term is roughly what a dictionary definition attempts to convey--the semantic or linguistic understanding necessary (...)
     
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  36.  44
    Katarina Perovic (2014). The Import of the Original Bradley's Regress(Es). Axiomathes 24 (3):375-394.
    Much of the recent metaphysical literature on the problem of the relational unity of complexes leaves the impression that Bradley (or some Bradleyan argument) has uncovered a serious problem to be addressed. The problem is thought to be particularly challenging for trope theorists and realists about universals. In truth, there has been little clarity about the nature and import of the original Bradley’s regress arguments. In this paper, I offer a careful analysis and reconstruction of the arguments in Bradley’s (...)
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  37.  9
    Alfons Söllner (2004). Hannah Arendt's The Origins of Totalitarianism in its Original Context. European Journal of Political Theory 3 (2):219-238.
    The objective of this article is to contribute to an understanding of Hannah Arendt’s special place in present-day political theory by means of a contrast between her Origins of Totalitarianism and four important political science studies of National Socialism and totalitarianism, three written by authors who shared the status of involuntary emigrant with Arendt, that are offered as constituting the original context of her work. A critical appreciation of the seminal works by Ernst Fraenkel, Franz L. Neumann, Sigmund Neumann, (...)
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  38.  2
    Justin A. Jungé & Daniel C. Dennett (2010). Multi-Use and Constraints From Original Use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):277-278.
    Anderson's theory is plausible and largely consistent with the data. However, it remains underspecified on several fronts, and we highlight areas for potential improvement. Reuse is described as duplicating a functional component, preserving one function and tinkering to add another function. This is a promising model, but Anderson neglects other reasonable alternatives and we highlight several. Evidence cited in support of reuse fails to uniquely support it among a broader set of multi-use theories. We suggest that a more stringent criterion (...)
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  39.  8
    Hugo Omar Seleme (2004). Posición Original, Equilibrio Reflexivo y Deontologismo. Análisis Filosófico 24 (1):83-110.
    Un aspecto poco estudiado del argumento de Michael Sandel en contra del carácter neutral de la justicia como equidad, es el modo en que funda sus conclusiones en el entendimiento que tiene de otros tres aspectos de la concepción rawlsiana de justicia: su carácter deontológico, el equilibrio reflexivo, y la posición original. Nuestro objetivo es mostrar que Sandel no ha cometido cuatro errores independientes, sino que poseer un entendimiento equivocado del carácter deontológico de la teoría lo ha llevado a (...)
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  40.  9
    Andrew Norman (1997). Regress and the Doctrine of Epistemic Original Sin. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (189):477-494.
    Existing solutions to the epistemic regress problem, and the theories of justification built upon them, are inadequate, for they fail to diagnose the root source of the problem. The problem is rooted in our attachment to a pernicious dogma of modern epistemology: the idea that a judgement must be supported by some kind of reason or evidence to be justified. The epistemic analogue of the doctrine of original sin, this idea renders every judgement in need of redemption – guilty (...)
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  41.  47
    Laurence Goldstein (2002). How Original a Work is the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus? Philosophy 77 (3):421-446.
    Wittgenstein's Tractatus is widely regarded as a masterpiece, a brilliant, if flawed attempt to achieve an ‘unassailable and definitive … final solution’ to a wide range of philosophical problems. Yet, in a 1931 notebook, Wittgenstein confesses: ‘I think there is some truth in my idea that I am really only reproductive in my thinking. I think I have never invented a line of thinking but that it was always provided for me by someone else’. This disarming self-assessment is, I believe (...)
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  42.  2
    Oliver Mathieu (2015). Beyond Mere Conjectures: Young’s Method of Original Composition. British Journal of Aesthetics 55 (4):465-479.
    Frequently quoted in the context of contemporary philosophical reflections on ‘artistic creativity’, Edward Young’s Conjectures on Original Composition are generally read as articulating an anti‐traditionalist account of genius. Against this reading, I argue that Young does not reject the value of traditional models and conventions, but rather means to insist on the artist’s capacity to determine such values through her natural capacity for autonomous critical thinking. I support this claim by showing how he draws from Neo‐Platonism and the experimental (...)
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  43.  49
    Zhang Pengwei, Guo Qiyong & Wang Bei (2008). New Insight Into Mencius' Theory of the Original Goodness in Human Nature. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (1):27 - 38.
    In Mencius' theory of the original goodness in human nature, fate is the original source of xing (nature). Heart is the appearance of nature. There are two aspects to nature and heart: ti (form) and yong (function). From the perspective of form, nature is liangzhi (the goodness in conscience) and liangneng (the inborn ability to be good) in human beings and heart is human's conscience and original heart. From the perspective of function, nature is the four things (...)
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  44.  51
    Aldo Schiavello (2011). Neil MacCormick's Second Thoughts on Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory. A Defence of the Original View. Ratio Juris 24 (2):140-155.
    This paper offers a diachronic reconstruction of MacCormick's theory of law and legal argumentation: In particular, two related points will be highlighted in which the difference between the perspective upheld in Legal Reasoning and Legal Theory and the later writings is particularly marked. The first point concerns MacCormick's gradual break with legal positivism, and more specifically the thesis that the implicit pretension to justice of law proves legal positivism false in all its different versions. The second point concerns MacCormick's acceptance (...)
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  45.  64
    Charles Muller, Cultivating Original Enlightenment: Wonhyo's Exposition of the Vajrasamadhi-Sutra, by Robert E. Buswell, Jr.
    This is a review of the book Cultivating Original Enlightenment: Wŏnhyo's Exposition of the Vajrasamādhi-Sūtra, by Robert E. Buswell, Jr., published by the Univeristy of Hawaii Press. This volume, the first to be published in the Collected Works of Wŏnhyo series, contains the translation of a single text by Wŏnhyo, the Kŭmgang Sammaegyŏng Non.
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  46.  9
    Józef Życiński & Alicja Baczyńska (2008). Mitochondrial Eve or Eve, the First Mother? Original Sin From the Perspective of Evolutionary Anthropology. Dialogue and Universalism 18 (9-10):13-25.
    Discussions on original sin conduced over the last 50 years yield the conclusion that the second half of the 20th century brought about the most far-reaching changes in the perception of original sin since the times of St. Augustine. In spite of these profound changes, the matter in question continues to give rise to controversies. Thus, Alfred Vanneste considers the omission of monogenism in the Catechism of the Catholic Church 2 to be a gross oversight on the part (...)
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  47.  10
    D. Benatar (2007). Grim News From the Original Position: A Reply to Professor Doyal. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (10):577-577.
    In his review of my book, Better never to have been, Len Doyal suggests, contrary to my view, that rational beings in the original position might prefer coming into existence to the alternative of never existing, if their lives were to include enough good and not too much bad. I argue, in response, that Professor Doyal fails to make his case.
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  48.  7
    Martin Moo (1999). The Original Time of Heaven in Ancient Chinese Thought. Contemporary Chinese Thought 30 (4):62-64.
    Saint Augustine said, in a certain place: "I know what Time is, but when anybody asks me to explain what it is, I cannot answer." I make it my own, this humble confession of one of the greatest thinkers in the early Christian West, when I am asked now to speak and reflect on "The Time of Heaven in Chinese Ancient Philosophy." With this Augustinian reservation, I will try to respond to Dr. Zhang's inspiring presentation of this theme. For philosophers, (...)
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  49.  14
    Russell Disilvestro (2005). Human Embryos in the Original Position? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (3):285 – 304.
    Two different discussions in John Rawls' A Theory of Justice lead naturally to a rather conservative position on the moral status of the human embryo. When discussing paternalism, he claims that the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves in case they end up as incapacitated or undeveloped human beings when the veil of ignorance is lifted. Since human embryos are examples of such beings, the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves (...)
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  50.  5
    Elnora Gondin & Osvaldino Gondin (2011). Posição original: um recurso procedimental puro. Conjectura: Filosofia E Educação 16 (1):168-181.
    O objetivo do presente artigo é mostrar que a posição original é um recurso heurístico, para que as questões de justiça sejam pensadas. A posição original é um procedimento que faz parte das condições de elegibilidade dos princípios de justiça. Esse artifício é definido como procedimentalismo puro; aquele cujos procedimentos justos garantem resultados justos.
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