Search results for 'Origins of life' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Context of Human Life (2001). Section I Interpreting Illness and Medicine in the Context of Human Life: Experience Vs. Objectivity. In Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka & Evandro Agazzi (eds.), Life Interpretation and the Sense of Illness Within the Human Condition. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1.score: 600.0
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  2. Goodness Of Life (2013). The Badness of Death and the Goodness of Life. In Fred Feldman Ben Bradley (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Death.score: 570.0
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  3. Isaac Salazar-Ciudad (2013). Evolution in Biological and Non-Biological Systems: The Origins of Life. Biological Theory 7 (1):26-37.score: 153.0
    A replicator is simply something that makes copies of itself. There are hypothetical replicators (e.g., self-catalyzing chemical cycles) that are suspected to be unable to exhibit heritable variation. Variation in any of their constituent molecules would not lead them to produce offspring with those new variant molecules. Copying, such as in DNA replication or in xerox machines, allows any sequence to be remade and then sequence variations to be inherited. This distinction has been used against non-RNA-world hypotheses: without RNA replication (...)
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  4. David Penny (2005). An Interpretive Review of the Origin of Life Research. Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):633-671.score: 126.0
    Life appears to be a natural property of matter, but the problem of its origin only arose after early scientists refuted continuous spontaneous generation. There is no chance of life arising ‘all at once’, we need the standard scientific incremental explanation with large numbers of small steps, an approach used in both physical and evolutionary sciences. The necessity for considering both theoretical and experimental approaches is emphasized. After describing basic principles that are available (including the Darwin-Eigen cycle), the (...)
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  5. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka (ed.) (2000). The Origins of Life. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 125.0
    Understanding life through its origins reveals the groundwork underlying the differentiations of its autonomous generative matrixes. Following the primogenital matrix of generation, the three generative matrixes of the specifically human sense of life establish humanness within the creative human condition as the existential sphere of sharing-in-life.
     
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  6. J. Ricard (2009). Complexity, Emergence and the Origins of Life. In Maryvonne Gérin & Marie-Christine Maurel (eds.), Origins of Life: Self-Organization and/or Biological Evolution? Edp Sciences. 105--115.score: 120.0
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  7. Juan Manuel Torres (1996). Competing Research Programmes on the Origin of Life. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 27 (2):325-346.score: 119.0
    During the course of its short history the discipline concerned with the origin of life has given birth to several scientific programmes in the Lakatosian sense, two of the most prominent and widespread being those initiated by Oparin (life began from protein entities) and Muller-Haldane (life began from genetic entities). The present paper sets down the bases for the rational reconstruction of both views by identifying their hard core and some of their successive developments. An assessment is (...)
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  8. Mark Jackson (2012). The Pursuit of Happiness The Social and Scientific Origins of Hans Selye's Natural Philosophy of Life. History of the Human Sciences 25 (5):13-29.score: 119.0
    In 1956, Hans Selye tentatively suggested that the scientific study of stress could ‘help us to formulate a precise program of conduct’ and ‘teach us the wisdom to live a rich and meaningful life’. Nearly two decades later, Selye expanded this limited vision of social order into a full-blown philosophy of life. In Stress without Distress, first published in 1974, he proposed an ethical code of conduct designed to mitigate personal and social problems. Basing his arguments on contemporary (...)
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  9. Attila Grandpierre (2013). The Origin of Cellular Life and Biosemiotics. Biosemiotics (3):1-15.score: 111.0
    Recent successes of systems biology clarified that biological functionality is multilevel. We point out that this fact makes it necessary to revise popular views about macromolecular functions and distinguish between local, physico-chemical and global, biological functions. Our analysis shows that physico-chemical functions are merely tools of biological functionality. This result sheds new light on the origin of cellular life, indicating that in evolutionary history, assignment of biological functions to cellular ingredients plays a crucial role. In this wider picture, even (...)
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  10. Christophe Malaterre (2010). Lifeness Signatures and the Roots of the Tree of Life. Biology and Philosophy 25 (4):643-658.score: 110.7
    Do trees of life have roots? What do these roots look like? In this contribution, I argue that research on the origins of life might offer glimpses on the topology of these very roots. More specifically, I argue (1) that the roots of the tree of life go well below the level of the commonly mentioned ‘ancestral organisms’ down into the level of much simpler, minimally living entities that might be referred to as ‘protoliving systems’, and (...)
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  11. John S. Wilkins, Ian Musgrave & Clem Stanyon (2012). Selection Without Replicators: The Origin of Genes, and the Replicator/Interactor Distinction in Etiobiology. Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):215-239.score: 110.0
    Genes are thought to have evolved from long-lived and multiply-interactive molecules in the early stages of the origins of life. However, at that stage there were no replicators, and the distinction between interactors and replicators did not yet apply. Nevertheless, the process of evolution that proceeded from initial autocatalytic hypercycles to full organisms was a Darwinian process of selection of favourable variants. We distinguish therefore between Neo-Darwinian evolution and the related Weismannian and Central Dogma divisions, on the one (...)
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  12. Gerard Jagers op Akkerhuis (2011). Explaining the Origin of Life is Not Enough for a Definition of Life. Foundations of Science 16 (4):327-329.score: 108.3
    The comments focus on a presumed circular reasoning in the operator hierarchy and the necessity of understanding life’s origin for defining life. Below it is shown that its layered structure prevents the operator hierarchy from circular definitions. It is argued that the origin of life is an insufficient basis for a definition of life that includes multicellular and neural network organisms.
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  13. Roger White (2007). Does Origins of Life Research Rest on a Mistake? Noûs 41 (3):453–477.score: 104.0
    This disagreement extends to the fundamental details of physical and biochemical theories. On the other hand, (2) There is almostuniversal agreementthatlife did notfirstcome aboutmerely by chance. This is not to say that all scientists think that life’s existence was inevitable. The common view is that given a fuller understanding of the physical and biological conditions and processes involved, the emergence of life should be seen to be quite likely, or at least not very surprising. The view which is (...)
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  14. Francisco J. Varela, Jean-Pierre Dupuy & Elias L. Khalil (1994). Understanding Origins: Contemporary Views on the Origin of Life, Mind and Society. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 16 (2):355.score: 100.0
     
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  15. Marcello Barbieri (2012). Code Biology – A New Science of Life. Biosemiotics 5 (3):411-437.score: 99.7
    Systems Biology and the Modern Synthesis are recent versions of two classical biological paradigms that are known as structuralism and functionalism, or internalism and externalism. According to functionalism (or externalism), living matter is a fundamentally passive entity that owes its organization to external forces (functions that shape organs) or to an external organizing agent (natural selection). Structuralism (or internalism), is the view that living matter is an intrinsically active entity that is capable of organizing itself from within, with purely internal (...)
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  16. Stanley Salthe (2005). Energy and Semiotics: The Second Law and the Origin of Life. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 1 (1):128-145.score: 99.7
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  17. Malcolm S. Gordon (1999). The Concept of Monophyly: A Speculative Essay. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 14 (3):331-348.score: 99.0
    The concept of monophyly is central to much of modern biology. Despite many efforts over many years, important questions remain unanswered that relate both to the concept itself and to its various applications. This essay focuses primarily on four of these: i) Is it possible to define monophyly operationally, specifically with respect to both the structures of genomes and at the levels of the highest phylogenetic categories (kingdoms, phyla, classes)? ii) May the mosaic and chimeric structures of genomes be sufficiently (...)
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  18. Simon Woods (2008). Best Interests: Puzzles and Plausible Solutions at the End of Life. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 16 (3):279-287.score: 99.0
    This paper argues that the concept of best interests in the context of clinical decisions draws on concepts rooted in the philosophical discipline of axiology. Reflection on the philosophical origins enables a distinction to be drawn between those interests related to clinical goals and those global interests that are axiological in nature. The implication of this distinction is most clearly seen in the context of end of life decisions and it is argued here that greater weight ought to (...)
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  19. Hugo Nurnberg & Douglas P. Lackey (2010). The Ethics of Life Insurance Settlements: Investing in the Lives of Unrelated Individuals. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 96 (4):513 - 534.score: 97.0
    Life insurance settlements, or life settlements, are life insurance policies owned by investor-beneficiaries on the lives of unrelated individuals. With life settlements, investors make substantial payments to the insured individuals upon purchasing such policies, pay any remaining premius, and collect the death benefits upon the demise of the insured individuals. Transactions involving life settlements seem poised to become a major source of profits for investment banks, comparable in dollar amount to subprime mortgages. With life (...)
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  20. Sophia Connell (2003). Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Sciences. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (3):509-513.score: 93.0
  21. W. K. C. Guthrie (1957/1986). In the Beginning: Some Greek Views on the Origins of Life and the Early State of Man. Greenwood Press.score: 93.0
  22. Scott Carson (2002). Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Science (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (3):391-392.score: 93.0
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  23. S. Follinger (2002). James G. Lennox, Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Science. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 16 (3):297-299.score: 93.0
     
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  24. James G. Lennox (2001). Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Science. Cambridge University Press.score: 93.0
    In addition to being one of the world's most influential philosophers, Aristotle can also be credited with the creation of both the science of biology and the philosophy of biology. He was the first thinker to treat the investigations of the living world as a distinct inquiry with its own special concepts and principles. This book focuses on a seminal event in the history of biology - Aristotle's delineation of a special branch of theoretical knowledge devoted to the systematic investigation (...)
     
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  25. Michael W. Tkacz (2003). Lennox, James G. Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Science. Review of Metaphysics 56 (3):662-663.score: 93.0
  26. David L. O'Hara (2009). Review: H.G. Callaway (Ed.) R.W. Emerson, The Conduct of Life, A Philosophical Reading. [REVIEW] Newsletter of the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy 37 (108).score: 92.0
    In the last few years H.G. Callaway has produced several helpful editions of some important texts by Emerson. Emerson's Conduct of Life was originally published in 1860, and it has appeared in a number of editions since then, but Callaway's edition has several noteworthy features that cause it to stand out from the crowd and make it an important contribution to Emerson studies. This is a rare volume that will serve students, academic philosophers, and causal readers alike: a critical (...)
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  27. Rob Hengeveld (2011). Definitions of Life Are Not Only Unnecessary, but They Can Do Harm to Understanding. Foundations of Science 16 (4):323-325.score: 92.0
    In my response to the paper by Jagers op Akkerhuis, I object against giving definitions of life, since they bias anything that follows. As we don’t know how life originated, authors characterise life using criteria derived from present-day properties, thus emphasising widely different ones, which gives bias to their further analysis. This makes their results dependent on their initial suppositions, which introduces circularity in their reasoning.
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  28. F. J. Varela (1992). Whence Perceptual Meaning? A Cartography of Current Ideas. Red. FJ Varela I JP Dupuy. Understanding Origins: Contemporary Views on the Origin of Life. [REVIEW] Mind, and Society. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 130.score: 91.0
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  29. Radim Kočandrle & Karel Kleisner (2013). Evolution Born of Moisture: Analogies and Parallels Between Anaximander's Ideas on Origin of Life and Man and Later Pre-Darwinian and Darwinian Evolutionary Concepts. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (1):103-124.score: 90.3
    This study focuses on the origin of life as presented in the thought of Anaximander of Miletus but also points to some parallel motifs found in much later conceptions of both the pre-Darwinian German romantic science and post-Darwinian biology. According to Anaximander, life originated in the moisture associated with earth (mud). This moist environment hosted the first living creatures that later populated the dry land. In these descriptions, one can trace the earliest hints of the notion of environmental (...)
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  30. Lewis White Beck (1984). Plurality of Worlds. The Origins of the Extra-Terrestrial Life Debate From Democritus to Kant. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 22 (3):365-366.score: 90.0
  31. Wendy A. Horwitz (1996). Developmental Origins of Environmental Ethics: The Life Experiences of Activists. Ethics and Behavior 6 (1):29 – 53.score: 90.0
    Twenty-nine environmental activists (mean age, 49.8) responded in writing to questions on influences that gave rise to environmental ethics in their own lives. Answers represented all phases of the lifespan. Through a qualitative analysis, six principle themes emerged: (a) deep environmental concern and an affiliation with nature often began in early childhood; (b) a combination of intellectual or academic and direct experiences with nature contributed to the development of environmental ethics; (c) familial and extra familial models were influential; (d) for (...)
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  32. Michael Bishop (1996). Biology, Ethics, and the Origins of Life. Teaching Philosophy 19 (3):302-304.score: 90.0
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  33. Ronald F. Fox (1997). The Origins of Life: What One Needs to Know. Zygon 32 (3):393-406.score: 90.0
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  34. Ross L. Stein (2006). An Inquiry Into the Origins of Life on Earth- a Synthesis of Process Thought in Science and Theology. Zygon 41 (4):995-1016.score: 90.0
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  35. M. B. B. (1977). The Problem of Life. An Essay in the Origins of Biological Thought. Review of Metaphysics 30 (3):535-536.score: 90.0
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  36. Angelo Caranfa (1986). Plurality of Worlds: The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate From Democritus to Kant. History of European Ideas 7 (3):303-304.score: 90.0
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  37. Frank E. Crawley & Barbara A. Salyer (1995). Origins of Life Science Teachers' Beliefs Underlying Curriculum Reform in Texas. Science Education 79 (6):611-635.score: 90.0
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  38. Melvin Calvin (1983). Mineral Origins of Life Genetic Takeover and the Mineral Origins of Life A. G. Cairns-Smith. Bioscience 33 (9):596-596.score: 90.0
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  39. J. L. Fox (1974). Origins of Life The Origins of Life on the Earth Stanley L. Miller Leslie E. Orgel. Bioscience 24 (8):465-465.score: 90.0
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  40. Francis Heylighen (2000). Complexity and Evolution, by Max Pettersson, The Major Transitions in Evolution, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry, The Origins of Life From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language, by John Maynard Smith and E�Rs Szathm�Ry. Complexity 6 (1):53-57.score: 90.0
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  41. Deborah Kw Modrak (2002). James J. Lennox, Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology. Studies in the Origins of Life Science Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 22 (3):197-199.score: 90.0
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  42. Matteo Mossio, The Problem of the Increase and Maintenance of Complexity in the Debate on the Origins of Life.score: 90.0
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  43. N. W. Pirie (1985). Problems and Paradigms: Parochial, Visionary and Factual Thinking on the Origins of Life. Bioessays 2 (4):180-181.score: 90.0
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  44. Amanda Rees (2006). Ecology, Biology and Social Life: Explaining the Origins of Primate Sociality. History of Science 44:409-434.score: 90.0
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  45. Peter Schuster (2010). Origins of Life: Concepts, Data, and Debates. Complexity 15 (3):7-10.score: 90.0
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  46. Iris Fry (1995). Are the Different Hypotheses on the Emergence of Life as Different as They Seem? Biology and Philosophy 10 (4):389-417.score: 89.3
    This paper calls attention to a philosophical presupposition, coined here the continuity thesis which underlies and unites the different, often conflicting, hypotheses in the origin of life field. This presupposition, a necessary condition for any scientific investigation of the origin of life problem, has two components. First, it contends that there is no unbridgeable gap between inorganic matter and life. Second, it regards the emergence of life as a highly probable process. Examining several current origin-of-life (...)
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  47. R. C. Carrier (2004). The Argument From Biogenesis: Probabilities Against a Natural Origin of Life. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (5):739-764.score: 89.3
    No evidence exists that the accidental origin of life is too improbable to have occurred naturally, but there are numerous attempts to argue so. Dizzying statistics are cited to show that a god had to be responsible. This paper identifies the Argument from Biogenesis, then explains why all these arguments so far fail, and what would actually have to be done to make such an argument succeed. Describes seven general types of error, with examples. Includes a table of forty-seven (...)
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  48. Heike Baranzke (2012). "Sanctity-of-Life"—A Bioethical Principle for a Right to Life? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):295 - 308.score: 89.0
    For about five decades the phrase "sanctity-of-life" has been part of the Anglo-American biomedical ethical discussion related to abortion and end-of-life questions. Nevertheless, the concept's origin and meaning are unclear. Much controversy is based on the mistaken assumption that the concept denotes the absolute value of human life and thus dictates a strict prohibition on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, I offer an analysis of the religious and philosophical history of the idea of "sanctity-of-life." (...)
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  49. A. Lazcano (2009). Complexity, Self-Organization and the Origin of Life: The Happy Liaison? In Maryvonne Gérin & Marie-Christine Maurel (eds.), Origins of Life: Self-Organization and/or Biological Evolution? Edp Sciences. 13--22.score: 88.0
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  50. Francisco J. Varela & Jean-Pierre Dupuy (forthcoming). Understanding Origins. Contemporary Views on the Origin of Life. Mind and Society. Dordrecht, Boston, London.score: 88.0
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