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  1. Oswald Hanfling (unknown). Wort und Wirklichkeit. Kriterion 12 (1):33-36.
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  2. Oswald Hanfling (2008). How We Trust One Another. Philosophy 83 (2):161-177.
    How is the possibility of promising to be explained without circularity? Appeal is made to the role of natural inclinations in linguistic behaviour, which presupposes truth telling and promise keeping, and also to the social functions of human language which go beyond signalling and transmitting information and which are prior to any explicit conventions. Although promises are broken and lies told, we all have the right to feel resentment when these things happen.
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  3. Oswald Hanfling (2008). Moral Knowledge and Moral Uncertainty. Philosophical Investigations 31 (2):105–123.
    Applying a broadly Wittgensteinian view of knowledge and its relation to the conditions in which the word “know” is ordinarily used, the paper defends the claim that there can be knowledge in moral matters and rejects the idea that a cross‐culturally homogeneous moral language is a necessary condition for this. However, the fact that moral knowledge is available sometimes does not imply that it is available always. Taking issue in particular with Ronald Dworkin, the paper also argues that where moral (...)
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  4. Oswald Hanfling (2006). Rights and Human Rights. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 81 (58):57-.
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  5. Oswald Hanfling (2004). The Use of 'Theory' in Philosophy. In Erich Ammereller & Eugen Fisher (eds.), Wittgenstein at Work: Method in the Philosophical Investigations. Routledge.
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  6. Oswald Hanfling (2003). A Gettier Drama. Analysis 63 (3):262–263.
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  7. Oswald Hanfling (2003). Learning About Right and Wrong: Ethics and Language. Philosophy 78 (1):25-41.
    The difference between right and wrong is not something that is taught; it is, necessarily, picked up by a child in the course of learning its native language, and parents have no choice about this. In learning the meaning of ‘steal’, for example, the child learns that such actions are wrong. It also develops, through a kind of conditioning, the appropriate feelings and attitudes. The very concept of a reason has a moral content; so that, in acquiring this concept, the (...)
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  8. Oswald Hanfling (2003). Paradoxes of Aesthetic Distance. British Journal of Aesthetics 43 (2):175-186.
    A feature that contributes to the charm of much poetry is its obscurity and indirectness. We want to grasp what the poet is saying and yet, it appears, to do so only with difficulty. How is this preference to be explained? (1) It contributes to promoting an ‘aesthetic attitude’. (2) It conforms to certain general features of human psychology, including (a) a general preference for indirectness and indeterminacy and (b) the pleasure of working things out. Distance, in the relevant sense, (...)
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  9. Oswald Hanfling (2003). Wittgenstein and the Problem of Consciousness. Think 3 (3):99-106.
    You have a rich inner life of conscious experiences. For example, you have pains and other sensations. And you have sensory experiences, such as that produced by chewing on something bitter. Scientists are currently puzzling over how to explain this inner life in scientific terms. Can we, for example, consciousness by appealing to certain facts about our brains?
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  10. Oswald Hanfling (2002). Wittgenstein and the Human Form of Life. Routledge.
    The growing implications of Wittgenstein's later writings both inside as well as outside philosophy have become one of the major features of the past few years. His impact on ideas of theory and the philosophy of language is increasingly evident. Yet there remains much difficulty in understanding much of Wittgenstein's thought due to the often-unclear nature of his arguments. Oswald Hanfling, a leading commentator on Wittgenstein, offers a much-needed exploration of Wittgenstein's thought, ranging from the problem of other minds, the (...)
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  11. Oswald Hanfling (2001). Consciousness:'The Last Mystery'. In Severin Schroeder (ed.), Wittgenstein and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind. Palgrave.
     
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  12. Oswald Hanfling (2001). What is Wrong with Sorites Arguments? Analysis 61 (1):29–35.
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  13. Oswald Hanfling (2000). Philosophy and Ordinary Language: The Bent and Genius of Our Tongue. Routledge.
    Philosophy and Ordinary Language is a defense of the view that philosophy is largely about questions of language, which to a large extent means ordinary language. Oswald Hanfling, a leading expert in the development of analytic philosophy, covers a wide range of topics, including scepticism and the definition of "knowledge," free will, empiricism, "folk psychology," ordinary versus artificial logic, and philosophy versus science. He also draws on philosophers such as Austin, Wittgenstein, and Quine to explore the nature of ordinary language (...)
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  14. Oswald Hanfling (1999). Ayer. Routledge.
    Philosophy is one of the most intimidating and difficult of disciplines, as any of its students can attest. This book is an important entry in a distinctive new series from Routledge: The Great Philosophers . Breaking down obstacles to understanding the ideas of history's greatest thinkers, these brief, accessible, and affordable volumes offer essential introductions to the great philosophers of the Western tradition from Plato to Wittgenstein. In just 64 pages, each author, a specialist on his subject, places the philosopher (...)
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  15. Oswald Hanfling (1999). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3):134-136.
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  16. Oswald Hanfling (1999). The Institutional Theory: A Candidate for Appreciation? British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (2):189-194.
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  17. Oswald Hanfling (1998). The Reality of Dreams. Philosophical Investigations 21 (4):338-344.
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  18. Oswald Hanfling (1997). A.J. Ayer Analysing What We Mean.
     
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  19. Oswald Hanfling (1997). Peter Singer, Rethinking Life and Death, Oxford University Press, 1995, 256, Price£ 7.99 (Pb). Philosophical Investigations 20 (4).
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  20. Oswald Hanfling (1997). 'Is', 'Ought' and the Voluntaristic Fallacy. Philosophy 72 (282):537 - 548.
    The view that ‘ought’ cannot be deduced from ‘is’, credited to Hume as a major insight into the nature of morality, is surprisingly easy to refute. What they are doing is evil. Therefore, they ought not to do it. Here we have a case of deducing ‘ought’ from ‘is’. The conclusion follows, because ‘ought not’ is analytic to ‘evil’. ‘Ah, but that's just what is wrong with the example: the premise is not a pure “is”; it contains an “ought”, though (...)
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  21. Oswald Hanfling (1996). Fact, Fiction and Feeling. British Journal of Aesthetics 36 (4):356-366.
    I consider and reject two kinds of solution of the problem of feelings about fictional objects: that the relevant beliefs are not really different as between fiction and fact; and that the relevant feelings are not 'really the same'. The problem should be seen in the context of different phases in acquiring the relevant feeling-concepts and I distinguish three such phases. The first is necessarily 'presentational': the child is presented with suitable objects or pictures and responds with appropriate feelings, without (...)
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  22. Oswald Hanfling (1996). Critical Notice. Philosophical Investigations 19 (2):164-177.
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  23. Oswald Hanfling (1995). Art, Artifact and Function. Philosophical Investigations 18 (1):31-48.
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  24. Oswald Hanfling (1995). Changing the Subject. Philosophy 70 (273):448 - 452.
    The question I set myself in ‘Loving my neighbour, loving myself’ was whether the injunction to love one's neighbour as oneself makes sense. I said explicitly that I was concerned with ‘love’ in the modern English sense and not with ancient words whose meaning might differ from that of the modern word. Nevertheless two critics think my argument fails because I do not consider other meanings of ‘love’ that have been or might be invoked in understanding the injunction. According to (...)
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  25. Oswald Hanfling (1993). Healthy Scepticism? Philosophy 68 (263):91 - 93.
    In his article ‘Healthy Scepticism’, James Franklin gives an admirable survey of thirteen kinds of attempts to refute what he calls ‘symmetry arguments for scepticism’, finding all of them inadequate. The symmetry argument that he proposes to test is given as follows: Firstly, it is possible that what we perceive is entirely an illusion created by a deceitful demon. Second, there is no reason to prefer the realist hypothesis to this one.
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  26. Oswald Hanfling (1993). Loving My Neighbour, Loving Myself. Philosophy 68 (264):145 - 157.
    The biblical injunction to love one's neighbour has long been regarded as a central pillar of morality. It is taken to be an ideal which gives direction to our moral aspirations, even though most of us find it difficult to live up to, owing to our selfish natures. But the difficulties I wish to raise are of a logical kind, as distinct from those depending on personal character. They fall under three headings: the first concerns the scope of ‘my neighbour’, (...)
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  27. Oswald Hanfling (1993). "Thinking", a Widely Ramified Concept. Philosophical Investigations 16 (2):101-115.
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  28. Oswald Hanfling (ed.) (1992). Philosophical Aesthetics: An Introduction. Open University.
    This volume contains surveys of the main issues in philosophical aesthetics, as discussed by thinkers from ancient Greece to modern times.
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  29. Oswald Hanfling (ed.) (1991). Life and Meaning: A Philosophical Reader. Wiley-Blackwell.
     
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  30. Oswald Hanfling (1991). Machines as Persons? Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 29:25-34.
    The subject of this symposium is sometimes introduced by asking whether machines could think. This way of introducing it may be misleading, for it may seem as if it were merely about a particular activity, called ‘thinking’. The question would then seem to have the same character as ‘Can machines make a noise?’. But thinking is not something that can be treated in isolation from other personal qualities. What we need to consider is whether, or to what extent, a machine (...)
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  31. Oswald Hanfling (1990). 'I Heard a Plaintive Melody': ( Philosophical Investigations, P. 209). Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 28:117-133.
    Asked about Wittgenstein's contribution to aesthetics, one might think first of all of his discussion of ‘family resemblance’ concepts, in which he argued that the various instances of games, for example, need not have any feature or set of features in common, in virtue of which they are all called games; the concept of a game can function perfectly well without any such set of conditions. This insight was soon applied to the much debated quest for a definition of the (...)
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  32. Oswald Hanfling (1990). What Is Wrong with the Paradigm Case Argument? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 91:21 - 38.
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  33. Oswald Hanfling (1989). The Meaning of Life. Cogito 3 (1):63-67.
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  34. Oswald Hanfling (1989). Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy. State University of New York Press.
    The book exposes common misunderstandings about Wittgenstein, and examines in detail the celebrated 'private language' argument.
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  35. Oswald Hanfling (1988). No Title Available: New Books. [REVIEW] Philosophy 63 (244):279-281.
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  36. Oswald Hanfling (1988). Wilson, John and Roger Straughan Philosophers on Education. [REVIEW] Philosophy 63:279.
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  37. Oswald Hanfling (1988). Philosophers on Education Edited by R. Straughan and J. Wilson London: Macmillan, 1987, X + 180 Pp., £27.50. [REVIEW] Philosophy 63 (244):279-.
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  38. Oswald Hanfling (ed.) (1987/1988). Life and Meaning: A Reader. B. Blackwell in Association with the Open University.
  39. Oswald Hanfling (1987). MALCOLM, NORMAN Nothing is Hidden: Wittgenstein's Criticism of His Early Thought. [REVIEW] Philosophy 62:529.
     
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  40. Oswald Hanfling (1987). SCHEFFLER, ISRAEL Of Human Potential. [REVIEW] Philosophy 62:250.
     
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  41. Oswald Hanfling (1987/1988). The Quest for Meaning. Open University.
     
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  42. Oswald Hanfling (1987). How Is Scepticism Possible? Philosophy 62 (242):435 - 453.
    Philosophy unties the knots in our thinking, which we have tangled up in an absurd way; but to do that, it must make movements which are just as complicated as the knots. 1 A claim to know can be contradicted in various ways. Which of them does the sceptic have in mind when he denies that we can know—for example, that the sun will rise tomorrow? Does he mean, perhaps, that the proposition is false—that the sun will not rise tomorrow? (...)
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  43. Oswald Hanfling (1987). Of Human Potential By Israel Scheffler London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985, Xiii+141 Pp., £14.95. [REVIEW] Philosophy 62 (240):250-.
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  44. Oswald Hanfling (1986). Alfred Jules Ayer. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 20:259-.
    Alfred Jules Ayer was born in London and educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford. He attended sessions of the logical positivist ‘Vienna Circle’ in 1932, and taught at Oxford from 1933 until joining the Army in 1940. His Language, Truth and Logic was published in 1936, and The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge in 1940. After war service he returned to Oxford in 1945, and became Grote Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Logic at University College, London, the following (...)
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  45. Oswald Hanfling (1986). Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures 20:261-283.
    This is a critical discussion of ayer's famous book. The main topics are: (a) "the criterion of verifiability": whether assertion, Recommendation, Etc.; the meaning of 'verify'; problems of application. (b) analysis and reduction, Including: physical objects; the past; other minds; mathematics and logic; ethics. (c) the nature of philosophy and relation to ordinary language.
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  46. Oswald Hanfling (1985). A Situational Account of Knowledge. The Monist 68 (1):40-56.
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  47. Oswald Hanfling (1985). Was Wittgenstein a Sceptic? Philosophical Investigations 8 (January):1-16.
    According to kripke, Wittgenstein denied certain beliefs about meaning and other minds. But who holds these beliefs? we do "not" believe that "all future applications" of a word are "determined"; nor that "i give directions to myself"; nor that something has to "constitute" meaning. Such beliefs are distortions by realist philosophers; it needs no sceptic to deny them. Wittgenstein's "sympathy with the solipsist" is an illusion, Due to misreadings (and mistranslations) of the text. Wittgenstein's position is clear and does not (...)
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  48. Oswald Hanfling (1984). What Does the Private Language Argument Prove? Philosophical Quarterly 34 (137):468-481.
  49. Oswald Hanfling (1984). Can There Be a Method of Doubt? Philosophy 59 (230):505 - 511.
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  50. Oswald Hanfling (1984). Scientific Realism and Ordinary Usage. Philosophical Investigations 7 (3):187-205.
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