The main goal of quantum logic is the bottom-up reconstruction of quantum mechanics in Hilbert space. Here we discuss the question whether quantum logic is an empirical structure or a priori valid. There are good reasons for both possibilities. First, with respect to the possibility of a rational reconstruction of quantum mechanics, quantum logic follows a priori from quantum ontology and can thus not be considered as a law of nature. Second, since quantum logic allows for a reconstruction of quantum (...) mechanics, self-referential consistency requires that the empirical content of quantum mechanics must be compatible with the presupposed quantum ontology. Hence, quantum ontology contains empirical components that are also contained in quantum logic. Consequently, in this sense quantum logic is also a law of nature. (shrink)
Since the advent of Modern Physics in 1905, we observe an increasing activity of “interpreting” the new theories. We mention here the theories of Special Relativity, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. However, similar activities for the theories of Classical Physics were not known. We ask for the reasons for the different ways to treat classical physics and modern physics. The answer, that we provide here is very surprising: the different treatments are based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the theories of (...) classical physics. (shrink)
In modern physics, the constant "c" plays a twofold role. On the one hand, "c" is the well known velocity of light in an empty Minkowskian space—time, on the other hand "c" is a characteristic number of Special Relativity that governs the Lorentz transformation and its consequences for the measurements of space—time intervals. We ask for the interrelations between these two, at first sight different meanings of "c". The conjecture that the value of "c" has any influence on the structure (...) of space—time is based on the operational interpretation of Special Relativity, which uses light rays for measurements of space—time intervals. We do not follow this way of reasoning but replace it by a more realistic approach that allows to show that the structure of the Minkowskian space—time can be reconstructed already on the basis of a restricted classical ontology (Mittelstaedt, Philosophie der Physik und der Raum-Zeit, Mannheim: BI-Wissenschaftsverlag, 1988 and Mittelstaedt, Kaltblütig: Philosophie von einem rationalen Standpunkt, Stuttgart: S. Hirzel Verlag, pp. 221-240, 2003), and that without any reference to the propagation of light. However, the space—time obtained in this way contains still an unknown constant. We show that this constant agrees numerically with "c" but that it must conceptually clearly be distinguished from the velocity of light. Hence, we argue for a clear distinction between the two faces of "c" and for a dualism of space—time and matter. (shrink)
Classical mechanics in phase space as well as quantum mechanics in Hilbert space lead to states and observables but not to objects that may be considered as carriers of observable quantities. However, in both cases objects can be constituted as new entities by means of invariance properties of the theories in question. We show, that this way of reasoning has a long history in physics and philosophy and that it can be traced back to the transcendental arguments in Kant’s critique (...) of pure reason. (shrink)
Kant’s theory of arithmetic is not only a central element in his theoretical philosophy but also an important contribution to the philosophy of arithmetic as such. However, modern mathematics, especially non-Euclidean geometry, has placed much pressure on Kant’s theory of mathematics. But objections against his theory of geometry do not necessarily correspond to arguments against his theory of arithmetic and algebra. The goal of this article is to show that at least some important details in Kant’s theory of arithmetic can (...) be picked up, improved by reconstruction and defended under a contemporary perspective: the theory of numbers as products of rule following construction presupposing successive synthesis in time and the theory of arithmetic equations, sentences or “formulas”—as Kant says—as synthetic a priori. In order to do so, two calculi in terms of modern mathematics are introduced which formalise Kant’s theory of addition as a form of synthetic operation. (shrink)
This paper is concerned with the problem of the validity of Leibniz's principle of the identity of indiscernibles in physics. After briefly surveying how the question is currently discussed in recent literature and which is the actual meaning of the principle for what concerns physics, we address the question of the physical validity of Leibniz's principle in terms of the existence of a sufficient number of naming predicates in the formal language of physics. This approach allows us to obtain in (...) a formal way the result that a principle of the identity of indiscernibles can be justified in the domain of classical physics, while this is not the case in the domain of quantum physics. (shrink)
The weak objectification of physical properties is shown to yield the same probabilistic implications as strong objectification and can therefore be refuted on the basis of suitable interference experiments. An alternative test of hypothetical objectification statements, as they occur in the EPR experiment, is based on joint probabilities and the ensuing Bell inequalities. Quantum mechanics turns out to be partially compatible with Bell's inequalities even in cases where weak objectification is excluded by interference.
In a quantum mechanical two-slit experiment one can observe a single photon simultaneously as particle (measuring the path) and as wave (measuring the interference pattern) if the path and the interference pattern are measured in the sense of unsharp observables. These theoretical predictions are confirmed experimentally by a photon split-beam experiment using a modified Mach—Zehnder interferometer.
The principle of excluded middle is the logical interpretation of the law V ≤ A v ヿA in an orthocomplemented lattice and, hence, in the lattice of the subspaces of a Hilbert space which correspond to quantum mechanical propositions. We use the dialogic approach to logic in order to show that, in addition to the already established laws of effective quantum logic, the principle of excluded middle can also be founded. The dialogic approach is based on the very conditions under (...) which propositions can be confirmed by measurements. From the fact that the principle of. excluded middle can be confirmed for elementary propositions which are proved by quantum mechanical measurements, we conclude that this principle is inherited by all finite compound propositions. For this proof it is essential that, in the dialog-game about a connective, a finite confirmation strategy for the mutual commensurability of the subpropositions is used. (shrink)
The logic of quantum physical propositions can be established by means of dialogs which take account of the general incommensurability of these propositions. Investigated first are meta-propositions which state the formal truth of object-propositions. It turns out that the logic of these meta-propositions is equivalent to ordinary logic. A special class of meta-propositions which state the material truth of object-propositions may be considered as quantum logical modalities. It is found that the logic of these modalities contains all the quantum logical (...) restrictions and thus differs essentially from the modal calculi of ordinary logic. (shrink)
Reichenbach, Grünbaum, and others have argued that special relativity is based on arbitrary conventions concerning clock synchronizations. Here we present a mathematical framework which shows that this conventionality is almost equivalent to the arbitrariness in the choice of coordinates in an inertial system. Since preferred systems of coordinates can uniquely be defined by means of the Lorentz invariance of physical laws irrespective of the properties of light signals, a special clock synchronization—Einstein's standard synchrony—is selected by this principle. No further restrictions (...) conerning light signal synchronization, as proposed, e.g., by Ellis and Bowman, are required in order to refute conventionalism in special relativity. (shrink)
Compound propositions which can successfully be defended in a quantumdialogue independent of the elementary propositions contained in it, must have this property also independent of the mutual elementary commensur-abilities. On the other hand, formal commensurabilities must be taken into account. Therefore, for propositions which can be proved by P, irrespective of both the elementary propositions and of the elementary commensur-abilities, there exists a formal strategy of success. The totality of propositions with a formal strategy of success in a quantum dialogue (...) form the effective quantum logic. The propositions of the effective quantum logic can be derived from a calculus Q eff which is — on the other hand — equivalent to a lattice L qi.Propositions about measuring results are above all time dependent propositions A(S;t). In a dialogue, different partial propositions will have in general different time values. If one can (accidentally) win a material dialogue, this dialogue can be related to a single time value. For the propositions of the effective quantum logic there exist formal strategies of success, independent of the elementary propositions contained in it. All partial propositions appearing in the dialogue are formally commensurable. Therefore the propositions of effective quantum logic which can be proved by formal dialogues can always be related to a single time. They present a description of the system S considered in which all partial propositions can be related jointly to the state of S.Therefore in the effective quantum logic we have — in the limit of equal time values — a situation which corresponds conceptually to the description of the system (S; ψ) in Hilbert space. Consequently, one would expect that also the lattice L qi — except from the tertium non datur 8 — agrees with the lattice L q of subspaces of Hilbert space. It has been shown that these lattices are in fact isomorphic. (shrink)
The logic of quantum mechanical propositions—called quantum logic—is constructed on the basis of the operational foundation of logic. Some obvious modifications of the operational method, which come from the incommensurability of the quantum mechanical propositions, lead to the effective quantum logic. It is shown in this paper that in the framework of a calculization of this effective quantum logic the negation of a proposition is uniquely defined (Theorem I), and that a weak form of the quasimodular law can be derived (...) (Theorem II). Taking account of the definiteness of truth values for quantum mechanical propositions, the calculus of full quantum logic can be derived (Theorem III). This calculus represents an orthocomplemented quasimodular lattice which has as a model the lattice of subspaces of Hilbert space. (shrink)