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Paul Needham [79]P. Needham [9]
  1.  53
    Paul Needham (2011). Microessentialism: What is the Argument? Noûs 45 (1):1-21.
    According to microessentialism, it is necessary to resort to microstructure in order to adequately characterise chemical substances such as water. But the thesis has never been properly supported by argument. Kripke and Putnam, who originally proposed the thesis, suggest that a so-called stereotypical characterisation is not possible, whereas one in terms of microstructure is. However, the sketchy outlines given of stereotypical descriptions hardly support the impossibility claim. On the other hand, what naturally stands in contrast to microscopic description is description (...)
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  2.  38
    Paul Needham (2002). The Discovery That Water is H2O. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 16 (3):205 – 226.
    What are the criteria determining the individuation of chemical kinds? Recent philosophical discussion, which puts too much emphasis on microstructure, seems to presuppose a reductionist conception not motivated by the scientific facts. The present article traces the development of the traditional notion of a substance with the rise of modern chemistry from the end of the 18th century with a view to correcting this speculative distortion.
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  3.  84
    Paul Needham (2000). What is Water? Analysis 60 (1):13–21.
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  4. Robin Findlay Hendry & Paul Needham (2007). Le Poidevin on the Reduction of Chemistry. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 58 (2):339 - 353.
    In this article we critically evaluate Robin Le Poidevin's recent attempt to set out an argument for the ontological reduction of chemistry independently of intertheoretic reduction. We argue, firstly, that the argument he envisages applies only to a small part of chemistry, and that there is no obvious way to extend it. We argue, secondly, that the argument cannot establish the reduction of chemistry, properly so called.
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  5. Paul Needham (2007). Macroscopic Mixtures. Journal of Philosophy 104 (1):26-52.
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  6.  54
    Paul Needham (2009). Reduction and Emergence: A Critique of Kim. Philosophical Studies 146 (1):93 - 116.
    In a recent critique of the doctrine of emergentism championed by its classic advocates up to C. D. Broad, Jaegwon Kim (Philosophical Studies 63:31–47, 1999) challenges their view about its applicability to the sciences and proposes a new account of how the opposing notion of reduction should be understood. Kim is critical of the classic conception advanced by Nagel and uses his new account in his criticism of emergentism. I question his claims about the successful reduction achieved in the sciences (...)
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  7.  42
    Paul Needham (2010). Nagel's Analysis of Reduction: Comments in Defense as Well as Critique. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 41 (2):163-170.
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  8.  12
    Rom Harré, Paul Needham, Eric Scerri & Alan Chalmers (2010). A Revisionist History of Atomism. Metascience 19 (3):349-371.
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  9.  25
    P. Needham (2010). Substance and Time. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):485-512.
    ‘Water is H 2 O’ is naturally construed as an equivalence. What are the things to which the two predicates ‘is water’ and ‘is H 2 O’ apply? The equivalence presupposes that substance properties are distinguished from phase properties. A substance like water (H 2 O) exhibits various phases (solid, liquid, gas) under appropriate conditions, and a given (say liquid) phase may comprise several substances. What general features distinguish substance from phase properties? I tackle these questions on the basis of (...)
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  10.  15
    Paul Needham (2008). Is Water a Mixure Bridging the Distinction Between Physical and Chemical Properties. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (1):66-77.
    Two inter-linked theses are defended in this paper. One is the Duhemian theme that a rigid distinction between physical and chemical properties cannot be upheld. Duhem maintained this view not because the latter are reducible to the former, but because if physics is to remain consistent with chemistry it must prove possible to expand it to accommodate new features, and a rigid distinction would be a barrier to this process. The second theme is that naturally occurring isotopic variants of water (...)
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  11. P. Needham (2013). Process and Change: From a Thermodynamic Perspective. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (2):395-422.
    The creators of equilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics developed a conception of processes which bears on metaphysical discussions of change, occurrents, and continuants and merits the attention of contemporary analytic metaphysicians. It concerns the macroscopic domain, from which metaphysicians normally take their examples, and is unjustly ignored on the grounds that it is not ‘fundamental science’. Why this often-voiced view should disqualify just thermodynamics, and not the broad range of considerations normally raised, is a moot point. But even if there were (...)
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  12.  36
    Paul Needham (2008). Resisting Chemical Atomism: Duhem's Argument. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):921-931.
    Late nineteenth‐century opponents of atomism questioned whether the evidence required any notion of an atom. In this spirit, Duhem developed an account of the import of chemical formulas that is clearly neutral on the atomic question rather than antiatomistic. The argument is supplemented with specific inadequacies of atomic theories of chemical combination and considerably strengthened by the theory of chemical combination provided by thermodynamics. Despite possible counterevidence available at the time, which should have tempered some of Duhem's concluding remarks, there (...)
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  13.  21
    Paul Needham (2012). Natural Kind Thingamajigs. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (1):97 - 101.
    I criticize the treatment of natural kinds as some sort of object, advocated in a recent paper by Alexander Bird. The arguments he gives for regimenting an illustrative statement featuring chemical kinds in his preferred manner are not conclusive, and his criticisms of an alternative strategy involving universally quantified sentences fail. This is important because of the widespread but poorly supported assumption that expressions of natural kinds should be treated as singular referring terms.
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  14. Theresa Smith, Nicholas Pickwoad, Paul Needham, Manfred Mayer, Oliver Hahn, Irene Brückle & Horst Bredekamp (2014). Introduction. In Paul Needham, Irene Brückle & Horst Bredekamp (eds.), A Galileo Forgery: Unmasking the New York Sidereus Nuncius. De Gruyter 9-14.
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  15.  17
    P. Needham (2002). Duhem's Theory of Mixture in the Light of the Stoic Challenge to the Aristotelian Conception. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 33 (4):685-708.
    The bulk of Duhem's writing which bears on the understanding of mixtures suggests he adopted an Aristotelian position which he opposed only to the atomic view. A third view from antiquity-that of the Stoics-seems not to be taken into account. But his lines of thought are not always as explicit as could be wished. The Stoic view is considered here from a perspective which Duhem might well have adopted. This provides a background against which his somewhat unorthodox Aristotelianism might be (...)
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  16. Paul Needham (1991). Duhem and Cartwright on the Truth of Laws. Synthese 89 (1):89 - 109.
    Nancy Cartwright has drawn attention to how explanations are actually given in mathematical sciences. She argues that these procedures support an antirealist thesis that fundamental explanatory laws are not true. Moreover, she claims to be be essentially following Duhem's line of thought in developing this thesis. Without wishing to detract from the importance of her observations, it is suggested that they do not necessarily require the antirealist thesis. The antirealist interpretation of Duhem is also disputed. It is argued that Duhemian (...)
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  17.  28
    P. Needham (1998). Duhem's Physicalism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (1):33-62.
    Duhem is often described as an anti-realist or instrumentalist. A contrary view has recently been expressed by Martin (1991) (Pierre Duhem: Philosophy and History in the Work of a Believing Physicist (La Salle, IL: Open Court)), who suggests that this interpretation makes it difficult to understand the vantage point from which Duhem argues in La science allemande (1915) that deduction, however impeccable, cannot establish truths unless it begins with truths. In the same spirit, the present paper seeks to establish that (...)
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  18. Paul Needham (2006). Ontological Reduction: A Comment on Lombardi and Labarca. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):73-80.
    In a recent article in this journal (Foundations of Chemistry, 7 (2005), 125–148) Lombardi and Labarca call into question a thesis of ontological reduction to which several writers on reduction subscribe despite rejecting a thesis of epistemological reduction. Lombardi and Labarca advocate instead a pluralistic ontology inspired by Putnam’s internal realism. I suggest that it is not necessary to go so far, and that a more critical view of the ontological reduction espoused by the authors they criticise circumvents the need (...)
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  19.  21
    Paul Needham (2004). When Did Atoms Begin to Do Any Explanatory Work in Chemistry? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (2 & 3):199 – 219.
    During the 19th century atomism was a controversial issue in chemistry. It is an oversimplification to dismiss the critics' arguments as all falling under the general positivist view that what can't be seen can't be. The more interesting lines of argument either questioned whether any coherent notion of an atom had ever been formulated or questioned whether atoms were ever really given any explanatory role. At what point, and for what reasons, did atomistic hypotheses begin to explain anything in chemistry? (...)
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  20.  93
    Paul Needham (1999). Reduction and Abduction in Chemistry-a Response to Scerri. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 13 (2):169 – 184.
    Eric Scerri has proposed an account of how reduction might be understood in chemistry. He claims to build on a general aspect of Popper's views which survives his otherwise heavy criticism, namely adherence to actual scientific practice. This is contrasted with Nagel's conception, which Scerri takes to be the philosopher's standard notion. I argue that his proposal, interesting though it is, is not so foreign to ideas in the tradition within which Nagel wrote as Scerri would have us believe. Moreover, (...)
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  21.  5
    Paul Needham (2004). Has Daltonian Atomism Provided Chemistry with Any Explanations? Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1038-1047.
    Philosophers frequently cite Dalton?s chemical atomism, and its 19th century developments, as a prime example of inference to the best explanation. This was a controversial issue in its time. But the critics are dismissed as positivist-inspired antirealists with no interest in explanation. Is this a reasonable assessment?
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  22. Anastasios Brenner, Paul Needham, David Stump & Robert Deltete (2011). New Perspectives on Pierre Duhem's The Aim and Structure of Physical Theory. Metascience 20 (1):1-25.
    New perspectives on Pierre Duhem’s The aim and structure of physical theory Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11016-010-9467-3 Authors Anastasios Brenner, Department of Philosophy, Paul Valéry University-Montpellier III, Route De Mende, 34199 Montpellier cedex 5, France Paul Needham, Department of Philosophy, University of Stockholm, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden David J. Stump, Department of Philosophy, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton Street, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA Robert Deltete, Department of Philosophy, Seattle University, 901 12th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98122-1090, USA Journal Metascience (...)
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  23. Paul Needham, The Phase Rule and the Notion of Substance.
    In response to difficulties in understanding the notion of chemical substance at issue in Gibbs’ phase rule, there is a long tradition of reformulating the simple statement of the rule. The leading idea is to rewrite the rule with a term for the number of substances actually present and to introduce additional terms making explicit the various kinds of restrictions which in the original formulation are taken to be incorporated into Gibbs’ notion of the number of independent substances. Although the (...)
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  24. Paul Needham (2010). Transient Things and Permanent Stuff. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 88 (1):147 – 166.
    A view of individuals as constituted of quantities of matter, both understood as continuants enduring over time, is elaborated in some detail. Constitution is a three-place relation which can't be collapsed to identity because of the place-holder for a time and because individuals and quantities of matter have such a radically different character. Individuals are transient entities with limited lifetimes, whereas quantities are permanent existents undergoing change in physical and chemical properties from time to time. Coincidence, considered as a matter (...)
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  25.  10
    Paul Needham (2006). Substance and Modality. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):829-840.
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  26.  32
    Paul Needham (2007). Duhem, Pierre-Maurice-Marie. In Noretta Koertge (ed.), New Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Thomson Gale
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  27.  11
    Paul Needham (2004). Has Daltonian Atomism Provided Chemistry with Any Explanations? Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1038-1047.
    Philosophers frequently cite Dalton's chemical atomism, and its nineteenth century developments, as a prime example of inference to the best explanation. This was a controversial issue in its time. But the critics are dismissed as positivist‐inspired antirealists with no interest in explanation. Is this a reasonable assessment?
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  28.  5
    Paul Needham (forthcoming). Determining Sameness of Substance. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv050.
    The idea that the extension of a chemical substance is fixed by determining what stands in the relation of being the same substance to a paradigm sample plays a substantial role in chemistry, and procedures of identification that don’t make direct use of the method can be traced back to ones that do. But paradigm samples are not typically selected by ostension, as in Putnam’s version of this procedure. The relevance of ostension is questioned after a discussion of the establishment (...)
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  29.  24
    Paul Needham (2000). Duhem and Quine. Dialectica 54 (2):109–132.
    The rejection of the idea that the so‐called Duhem‐Quine thesis in fact expresses a thesis upheld by either Duhem or Quine invites a more detailed comparison of their views. It is suggested that the arguments of each have a certain impact on the positions maintained by the other. In particular, Quine's development of his notion of ontological commitment is enlisted in the interpretation of Duhem's position. It is argued that this counts against the instrumentalist construal usually put on what Duhem (...)
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  30.  39
    Hasok Chang, Jeremiah James, Paul Needham, Kostas Gavroglu & Ana Simões (2013). Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Quantum Chemistry. Metascience 22 (3):523-544.
  31.  12
    Paul Needham (2009). An Aristotelian Theory of Chemical Substance. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 12:149-164.
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  32.  17
    Paul Needham (2005). Mixtures and Modality. Foundations of Chemistry 7 (1):103-118.
    Some points are made aboutsubstance properties in their role ofintroducing mass terms. In particular, twoconditions of distributivity and cumulativityof mass predicates expressing these propertiesare not the independent pair they first appearto be. A classification of macroscopicsubstance concepts is developed. This needs tobe complemented in some way by the introductionof a modal qualification reminiscent ofAristotle's distinction between actual andpotential presence of substances in a mixture. Consideration of the latter feature hasprompted Joe Earley to raise the question ofwhether there is any salt (...)
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  33.  4
    P. Needham (2000). What is Water? Analysis 60 (1):13-21.
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  34. Paul Needham (1996). Substitution: Duhem's Explication of a Chemical Paradigm. Perspectives on Science 4:408-433.
     
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  35.  14
    Paul Needham (1996). Macroscopic Objects: An Exercise in Duhemian Ontology. Philosophy of Science 63 (2):205-224.
    Aristotelian ideas are presented in a favorable light in Duhem's historical works surveying the history of the notion of chemical combination (1902) and the development of mechanics (1903). The importance Duhem was later to ascribe to Aristotelian ideas as reflected in the weight he attached to medieval science is well known. But the Aristotelian influence on his own mature philosophical perspective, and more particularly on his concern for logical coherence and the development of his ontological views, is not generally acknowledged. (...)
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  36.  27
    Paul Needham (1993). Stuff. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71 (3):270 – 290.
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  37.  40
    Michael Weisberg, Paul Needham & Robin Hendry, Philosophy of Chemistry. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  38.  16
    P. Needham (1996). Aristotelian Chemistry: A Prelude to Duhemian Metaphysics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (2):251-269.
    In 1904 Joachim published an influential paper dealing with 'Aristotle's Conception of Chemical Combination' which has provided the basis of much more recent studies. About the same time, Duhem developed what he regarded as an essentially Aristotelian view of chemistry, based on his understanding of phenomenological thermodynamics. He does not present a detailed textual analysis, but rather emphasises certain general ideas. Joachim's classic paper contains obscurities which I have been unable to fathom and theses which do not seem to be (...)
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  39.  38
    Michael Weisberg & Paul Needham (2010). Matter, Structure, and Change: Aspects of the Philosophy of Chemistry. Philosophy Compass 5 (10):927-937.
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  40.  7
    Paul Needham (1988). Causation: Relation or Connective? Dialectica 42 (3):201-220.
    SummaryDavidson's account of singular causal statements as expressing relations between events together with his views on event identity lead to inferences involving causal statements which many of his critics find counterintuitive. These are sometimes said to be avoided on Kim's view of events, in terms of which this line of criticism is often formulated. It is argued that neither Davidson nor Kim offer a satisfactory account of events — an essential prerequisit for the relational theory — and an account of (...)
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  41. Paul Needham (2000). Hot Stuff. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 76:421-446.
     
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  42.  7
    Paul Needham (2004). Om Reduktion. SATS 5 (2).
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  43.  12
    Mark Newman, Raffaella Campaner, Maria Carla Galavotti, Open Biomedical Ontologies, Sabina Leonelli, Nathalie Gontier, Natural Kind Thingamajigs, Paul Needham & Alexander Bird (2012). International Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Philosophy of Science 26 (1).
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  44.  6
    Paul Needham (1979). Critical Notice. Synthese 40 (2):389-408.
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  45.  36
    Paul Needham (2003). Maureen Christie: The Ozone Layer. A Philosophy of Science Perspective. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 5 (3):253-261.
  46.  13
    Paul Needham (2014). Nineteenth-Century Chemical Theory: Correction of a Misunderstanding. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (2):165-167.
    I reply in this short note to some criticisms that Alan Rocke has recently made in this journal.
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  47.  14
    Paul Needham (2014). Unearthing a Buried Memory. Metascience 23 (1):87-91.
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  48.  16
    Paul Needham (2013). Hydrogen Bonding: Homing in on a Tricky Chemical Concept. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):51-65.
    The history of the hydrogen bond provides a good example of the of an important chemical concept. It illustrates the interplay between empirical and theoretical approaches to the problem of delimiting what has proved to be quite an elusive notion, with chemists whittling away at the particular sorts of case with a view to obtaining a precise, unitary concept. Even though there is a return to a more theoretically inspired notion in more recent research, empirical characterisations remain a feature of (...)
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  49.  29
    Paul Needham (2004). Continuants and Processes in Macroscopic Chemistry. Axiomathes 14 (1-3):237-265.
    Chemistry deals with substances and their transformations. School chemistry provides a picture of this in terms of small balls called atoms and ball-and-stick structures called molecules which, despite its crudity, has been taken to justifiably reflect a reductionist conception of macroscopic concepts like the chemical substances and chemical reactions. But with the recent interest in chemistry within the philosophy of science, an extensive and determined criticism has developed of the idea that the macroscopic world has been, or is likely to (...)
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  50. P. Needham (1981). Temporal intervals and temporal order. Logique Et Analyse 24 (93):51.
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