185 found
Sort by:
  1.  122 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (1978). Why Astrology is a Pseudoscience. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:223 - 234.
    Using astrology as a case study, this paper attempts to establish a criterion for demarcating science from pseudoscience. Numerous reasons for considering astrology to be a pseudoscience are evaluated and rejected; verifiability and falsifiability are briefly discussed. A theory is said to be pseudoscientific if and only if (1) it has been less progressive than alternative theories over a long period of time, and faces many unsolved problems, but (2) the community of practitioners makes little attempt to develop the theory (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2.  120 DLs
    Baljinder Sahdra & Paul R. Thagard (2003). Self-Deception and Emotional Coherence. Minds and Machines 13 (2):213-231.
    This paper proposes that self-deception results from the emotional coherence of beliefs with subjective goals. We apply the HOTCO computational model of emotional coherence to simulate a rich case of self-deception from Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter.We argue that this model is more psychologically realistic than other available accounts of self-deception, and discuss related issues such as wishful thinking, intention, and the division of the self.
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3.  82 DLs
    Jing Zhu & Paul Thagard (2002). Emotion and Action. Philosophical Psychology 15 (1):19 – 36.
    The role of emotion in human action has long been neglected in the philosophy of action. Some prevalent misconceptions of the nature of emotion are responsible for this neglect: emotions are irrational; emotions are passive; and emotions have only an insignificant impact on actions. In this paper we argue that these assumptions about the nature of emotion are problematic and that the neglect of emotion's place in theories of action is untenable. More positively, we argue on the basis of recent (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4.  75 DLs
    Allison Barnes & Paul R. Thagard (1997). Empathy and Analogy. Dialogue 36 (4):705-720.
    We contend that empathy is best viewed as a kind of analogical thinking of the sort described in the multiconstraint theory of analogy proposed by Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard (1995). Our account of empathy reveals the Theory-theory/Simulation theory debate to be based on a false assumption and formulated in terms too simple to capture the nature of mental state ascription. Empathy is always simulation, but may simultaneously include theory-application. By properly specifying the analogical processes of empathy and their constraints, (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5.  74 DLs
    Paul Thagard (ed.) (2007). Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science. North-Holland.
    Psychology is the study of thinking, and cognitive science is the interdisciplinary investigation of mind and intelligence that also includes philosophy, artificial intelligence, neuroscience, linguistics, and anthropology. In these investigations, many philosophical issues arise concerning methods and central concepts. The Handbook of Philosophy of Psychology and Cognitive Science contains 16 essays by leading philosophers of science that illuminate the nature of the theories and explanations used in the investigation of minds. Topics discussed include representation, mechanisms, reduction, perception, consciousness, language, emotions, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6.  69 DLs
    Allison Barnes & Paul Thagard (1996). Emotional Decisions. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum 426--429.
  7.  68 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (1978). The Best Explanation: Criteria for Theory Choice. Journal of Philosophy 75 (2):76-92.
    accounts will be sensitive to thes objections — that successive theories tend to fail to have the logical relations of contradiction and explanation as a special case or an approximation. Although Carnap does not pursue this all the way to the observational level as Kuhn and Feyerabend do, these problems do arise for him on the theoretical level. But science typically has some cumulative development on this level as well as on the observational one. If these problems are to be (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8.  64 DLs
    Paul Thagard (1994). Mind, Society, and the Growth of Knowledge. Philosophy of Science 61 (4):629-645.
    Explanations of the growth of scientific knowledge can be characterized in terms of logical, cognitive, and social schemas. But cognitive and social schemas are complementary rather than competitive, and purely social explanations of scientific change are as inadequate as purely cognitive explanations. For example, cognitive explanations of the chemical revolution must be supplemented by and combined with social explanations, and social explanations of the rise of the mechanical world view must be supplemented by and combined with cognitive explanations. Rational appraisal (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9.  61 DLs
    Larry Laudan, Arthur Donovan, Rachel Laudan, Peter Barker, Harold Brown, Jarrett Leplin, Paul Thagard & Steve Wykstra (1986). Scientific Change: Philosophical Models and Historical Research. Synthese 69 (2):141 - 223.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10.  61 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (1997). Coherent and Creative Conceptual Combinations. In T.B. Ward, S.M Smith & J. Viad (eds.), Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. American Psychological Association
    Conceptual combinations range from the utterly mundane to the sublimely creative. Mundane combinations include a myriad of adjective-noun and noun-noun juxtapositions that crop up in everyday speaking and writing, such as blue car, cooked carrots, and radio phone. Creative combinations include some of the most important theoretical constructions in science, such as sound wave, bacterial infection, and natural selection. Both mundane and creative conceptual combinations are essential to our attempts to make sense of the world and people's utterances about it. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11.  60 DLs
    Paul Thagard & Terrence C. Stewart (2011). The AHA! Experience: Creativity Through Emergent Binding in Neural Networks. Cognitive Science 35 (1):1-33.
    Many kinds of creativity result from combination of mental representations. This paper provides a computational account of how creative thinking can arise from combining neural patterns into ones that are potentially novel and useful. We defend the hypothesis that such combinations arise from mechanisms that bind together neural activity by a process of convolution, a mathematical operation that interweaves structures. We describe computer simulations that show the feasibility of using convolution to produce emergent patterns of neural activity that can support (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12.  58 DLs
    Paul Thagard (1989). Explanatory Coherence (Plus Commentary). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (3):435-467.
    This target article presents a new computational theory of explanatory coherence that applies to the acceptance and rejection of scientific hypotheses as well as to reasoning in everyday life, The theory consists of seven principles that establish relations of local coherence between a hypothesis and other propositions. A hypothesis coheres with propositions that it explains, or that explain it, or that participate with it in explaining other propositions, or that o8'cr analogous explanations. Propositions are incoherent with each other if they (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13.  54 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (1990). Concepts and Conceptual Change. Synthese 82 (2):255-74.
    This paper argues that questions concerning the nature of concepts that are central in cognitive psychology are also important to epistemology and that there is more to conceptual change than mere belief revision. Understanding of epistemic change requires appreciation of the complex ways in which concepts are structured and organized and of how this organization can affect belief revision. Following a brief summary of the psychological functions of concepts and a discussion of some recent accounts of what concepts are, I (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14.  53 DLs
    P. Thagard & C. P. Shelley (1997). Abductive Reasoning: Logic, Visual Thinking, and Coherence. In [Book Chapter].
    This paper discusses abductive reasoning---that is, reasoning in which explanatory hypotheses are formed and evaluated. First, it criticizes two recent formal logical models of abduction. An adequate formalization would have to take into account the following aspects of abduction: explanation is not deduction; hypotheses are layered; abduction is sometimes creative; hypotheses may be revolutionary; completeness is elusive; simplicity is complex; and abductive reasoning may be visual and non-sentential. Second, in order to illustrate visual aspects of hypothesis formation, the paper describes (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15.  51 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (2006). Desires Are Not Propositional Attitudes. Dialogue 45 (1):151-156.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16.  48 DLs
    Paul Thagard (2003). Conceptual Change. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group
  17.  47 DLs
    Paul Thagard (2009). Why Cognitive Science Needs Philosophy and Vice Versa. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):237-254.
    Contrary to common views that philosophy is extraneous to cognitive science, this paper argues that philosophy has a crucial role to play in cognitive science with respect to generality and normativity. General questions include the nature of theories and explanations, the role of computer simulation in cognitive theorizing, and the relations among the different fields of cognitive science. Normative questions include whether human thinking should be Bayesian, whether decision making should maximize expected utility, and how norms should be established. These (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18.  46 DLs
    Paul Thagard (1998). Explaining Disease: Correlations, Causes, and Mechanisms. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 8 (1):61-78.
    Why do people get sick? I argue that a disease explanation is best thought of as causal network instantiation, where a causal network describes the interrelations among multiple factors, and instantiation consists of observational or hypothetical assignment of factors to the patient whose disease is being explained. This paper first discusses inference from correlation to causation, integrating recent psychological discussions of causal reasoning with epidemiological approaches to understanding disease causation, particularly concerning ulcers and lung cancer. It then shows how causal (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19.  45 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (1986). Parallel Computation and the Mind-Body Problem. Cognitive Science 10 (3):301-18.
    states are to be understood in terms of their functional relationships to other mental states, not in terms of their material instantiation in any particular kind of hardware. But the argument that material instantiation is irrelevant to functional..
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20.  38 DLs
    Paul Thagard, Evolution, Creation, and the Philosophy of Science.
    Debates about evolution and creation inevitably raise philosophical issues about the nature of scientific knowledge. What is a theory? What is an explanation? How is science different from non- science? How should theories be evaluated? Does science achieve truth? The aim of this chapter is to give a concise and accessible introduction to the philosophy of science, focusing on questions relevant to understanding evolution by natural selection, creation, and intelligent design. For the questions just listed, I state what I think (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21.  37 DLs
    Paul Thagard & Jing Zhu, Acupuncture, Incommensurability, and Conceptual Change.
    This paper is an investigation of the degree of incommensurability between Western scientific medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, focusing on the practice and theory of acupuncture. We describe the structure of traditional Chinese medicine, oriented around such concepts as yin, yang, qi, and xing, and discuss how the conceptual and explanatory differences between Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine generate impediments to their comparison and evaluation. We argue that the linguistic, conceptual, ontological, and explanatory impediments can to a large extent (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22.  37 DLs
    Paul Thagard, Coherence and Analogy Articles.
    Barnes, A. and P. Thagard (1997) Empathy and analogy . Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review , 36: 705-720. HTML Croft, D., & Thagard, P. (2002). Dynamic imagery: A computational model of motion and visual analogy. In L. Magnani and N. Nersessian (Eds.), Model-based reasoning: Science, technology, values . New York: Kluwer/Plenum, 259-274. PDF only. HTML description of program and code for DIVA.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23.  36 DLs
    P. Thagard (1996). The Concept of Disease: Structure and Change. Philosophical Explorations 29:445-478.
    By contrasting Hippocratic and nineteenth century theories of disease, this paper describes important conceptual changes that have taken place in the history of medicine. Disease concepts are presented as causal networks that represent the relations among the symptoms, causes, and treatment of a disease. The transition to the germ theory of disease produced dramatic conceptual changes as the result of a radically new view of disease causation. An analogy between disease and fermentation was important for two of the main developers (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24.  35 DLs
    Paul Thagard (2009). Hanne Andersen, Peter Barker and Xian Chen the Cognitive Structure of Scientific Revolutions. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (4):843-847.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25.  35 DLs
    Paul Thagard, Conceptual Change in the History of Science: Life, Mind, and Disease.
    Biology is the study of life, psychology is the study of mind, and medicine is the investigation of the causes and treatments of disease. This chapter describes how the central concepts of life, mind, and disease have undergone fundamental changes in the past 150 years or so. There has been a progression from theological, to qualitative, to mechanistic explanations of the nature of life, mind and disease. This progression has involved both theoretical change, as new theories with greater explanatory power (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26.  35 DLs
    Paul Thagard (2005). Testimony, Credibility, and Explanatory Coherence. Erkenntnis 63 (3):295 - 316.
    This paper develops a descriptive and normative account of how people respond to testimony. It postulates a default pathway in which people more or less automatically respond to a claim by accepting it, as long as the claim made is consistent with their beliefs and the source is credible. Otherwise, people enter a reflective pathway in which they evaluate the claim based on its explanatory coherence with everything else they believe. Computer simulations show how explanatory coherence can be maximized in (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27.  34 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (1989). Connectionism and Epistemology: Goldman on Winner-Take-All Networks. Philosophia 19 (2-3):189-196.
    This paper examines Alvin Goldman's discussion of acceptance and uncertainty in chapter 15 of his book, Epistemology and Cognition. Goldman discusses how acceptance and rejection of beliefs might be understood in terms of "winner-take-all" connectionist networks. The paper answers some of the questions he raises in his epistemic evaluation of connectionist programs. The major tool for doing this is a connectionist model of explanatory coherence judgments (Thagard, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1989). Finally, there is a discussion of problems for Goldman's (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28.  34 DLs
    Elijah Millgram & Paul Thagard (1996). Deliberative Coherence. Synthese 108 (1):63 - 88.
    Choosing the right plan is often choosing the more coherent plan: but what is coherence? We argue that coherence-directed practical inference ought to be represented computationally. To that end, we advance a theory of deliberative coherence, and describe its implementation in a program modelled on Thagard's ECHO. We explain how the theory can be tested and extended, and consider its bearing on instrumentalist accounts of practical rationality.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29.  34 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (2002). How Molecules Matter to Mental Computation. Philosophy of Science 69 (3):497-518.
    Almost all computational models of the mind and brain ignore details about neurotransmitters, hormones, and other molecules. The neglect of neurochemistry in cognitive science would be appropriate if the computational properties of brains relevant to explaining mental functioning were in fact electrical rather than chemical. But there is considerable evidence that chemical complexity really does matter to brain computation, including the role of proteins in intracellular computation, the operations of synapses and neurotransmitters, and the effects of neuromodulators such as hormones. (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30.  33 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (1991). Philosophical and Computational Models of Explanation. Philosophical Studies 64 (October):87-104.
  31.  33 DLs
    Abninder Litt, Chris Eliasmith, Fred Kroon, Steven Weinstein & Paul Thagard (2006). Is the Brain a Quantum Computer? Cognitive Science 30 (3):593-603.
    We argue that computation via quantum mechanical processes is irrelevant to explaining how brains produce thought, contrary to the ongoing speculations of many theorists. First, quantum effects do not have the temporal properties required for neural information processing. Second, there are substantial physical obstacles to any organic instantiation of quantum computation. Third, there is no psychological evidence that such mental phenomena as consciousness and mathematical thinking require explanation via quantum theory. We conclude that understanding brain function is unlikely to require (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32.  32 DLs
    Paul Thagard, Cognitive Science. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary investigation of mind and intelligence, embracing psychology, neuroscience, anthropology, artificial intelligence, and philosophy. There are many important philosophical questions related to this investigation, but this short chapter will focus on the following three. What is the nature of the explanations and theories developed in cognitive science? What are the relations among the five disciplines that comprise cognitive science? What are the implications of cognitive science research for general issues in the philosophy of science? I will (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33.  32 DLs
    Keith J. Holyoak & Paul Thagard (1995). Mental Leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. MIT Press.
    Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard provide a unified, comprehensive account of the diverse operations and applications of analogy, including problem solving, ...
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34.  32 DLs
    Paul Thagard & R. Zhu (2003). Acupuncture, Incommensurability, and Conceptual Change. In Gale M. Sinatra & Paul R. Pintrich (eds.), Intentional Conceptual Change. L. Erlbaum 79--102.
  35.  30 DLs
    Paul Thagard & Craig Beam (2004). Epistemological Metaphors and the Nature of Philosophy. Metaphilosophy 35 (4):504-516.
    This paper examines some of the most important metaphors and analogies that epistemologists have used to discuss the structure and validity of knowledge. After reviewing foundational, coherentist, and other metaphors for knowledge, we discuss the metaphilosophical significance of the prevalence of such metaphors. We argue that they support a view of philosophy as akin to science rather than poetry or rhetoric. Keywords: epistemology, metaphor, analogy, metaphilosophy, foundations, coherence.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36.  30 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (1990). Philosophy and Machine Learning. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 20 (2):261-76.
    This article discusses the philosophical relevance of recent computational work on inductive inference being conducted in the rapidly growing branch of artificial intelligence called machine learning.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37.  29 DLs
    Paul Thagard (2010). Explaining Economic Crises: Are There Collective Representations? Episteme 7 (3):266-283.
    This paper uses the economic crisis of 2008 as a case study to examine the explanatory validity of collective mental representations. Distinguished economists such as Paul Krugman and Joseph Stiglitz attribute collective beliefs, desires, intentions, and emotions to organizations such as banks and governments. I argue that the most plausible interpretation of these attributions is that they are metaphorical pointers to a complex of multilevel social, psychological, and neural mechanisms. This interpretation also applies to collective knowledge in science: scientific communities (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38.  29 DLs
    Paul Thagard (2006). How to Collaborate: Procedural Knowledge in the Cooperative Development of Science. Southern Journal of Philosophy 44 (S1):177-196.
    A philosopher once asked me: “Paul, how do you collaborate?” He was puzzled about how I came to have more than two dozen co-authors over the past 20 years. His puzzlement was natural for a philosopher, because co-authored articles and books are still rare in philosophy and the humanities, in contrast to science where most current research is collaborative. Unlike most philosophers, scientists know how to collaborate; this paper is about the nature of such procedural knowledge. I begin by discussing (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39.  29 DLs
    Paul Thagard, Chris Eliasmith, Paul Rusnock & Cameron Shelley (2002). Epistemic Coherence. In R. Elio (ed.), Common sense, reasoning, and rationality. Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science (Vol. 11). Oxford University Press 104-131.
    Many contemporary philosophers favor coherence theories of knowledge (Bender 1989, BonJour 1985, Davidson 1986, Harman 1986, Lehrer 1990). But the nature of coherence is usually left vague, with no method provided for determining whether a belief should be accepted or rejected on the basis of its coherence or incoherence with other beliefs. Haack's (1993) explication of coherence relies largely on an analogy between epistemic justification and crossword puzzles. We show in this paper how epistemic coherence can be understood in terms (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40.  28 DLs
    Paul Thagard (1997). Collaborative Knowledge. Noûs 31 (2):242-261.
    Collaboration is ubiquitous in the natural and social sciences. How collaboration contributes to the development of scientific knowledge can be assessed by considering four different kinds of collaboration in the light of Alvin Goldman's five standards for appraising epistemic practices. A sixth standard is proposed to help understand the importance of theoretical collaborations in cognitive science and other fields. I illustrate the application of these six standards by describing two recent scientific developments in which collaboration has been important, the bacterial (...)
    Direct download (13 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41.  27 DLs
    Paul Thagard (1990). The Conceptual Structure of the Chemical Revolution. Philosophy of Science 57 (2):183-209.
    This paper investigates the revolutionary conceptual changes that took place when the phlogiston theory of Stahl was replaced by the oxygen theory of Lavoisier. Using techniques drawn from artificial intelligence, it represents the crucial stages in Lavoisier's conceptual development from 1772 to 1789. It then sketches a computational theory of conceptual change to account for Lavoisier's discovery of the oxygen theory and for the replacement of the phlogiston theory.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42.  27 DLs
    L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (eds.) (1999). Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery. Kluwer/Plenum.
    The book Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery, aims to explain how specific modeling practices employed by scientists are productive methods of ...
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43.  26 DLs
    Paul Thagard & Scott Findlay (2011). Changing Minds About Climate Change: Belief Revision, Coherence, and Emotion. In Erik J. Olson Sebastian Enqvist (ed.), Belief Revision Meets Philosophy of Science. Springer 329--345.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44.  26 DLs
    Paul Thagard, How to Make Decisions: Coherence, Emotion, and Practical Inference.
    Students face many important decisions: What college or university should I attend? What should I study? What kind of job should I try to get? Which people should I hang out with? Should I continue or break off a relationship? Should I get married? Should I have a baby? What kind of medical treatment should I use? A theory of practical reasoning should have something to say about how students and other people can improve their decision making.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45.  25 DLs
    Paul R. Thagard (2002). The Passionate Scientist: Emotion in Scientific Cognition. In Peter Carruthers, Stephen P. Stich & Michael Siegal (eds.), The Cognitive Basis of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 235.
    Since Plato, most philosophers have drawn a sharp line between reason and emotion, assuming that emotions interfere with rationality and have nothing to contribute to good reasoning. In his dialogue the Phaedrus, Plato compared the rational part of the soul to a charioteer who must control his steeds, which correspond to the emotional parts of the soul (Plato 1961, p. 499). Today, scientists are often taken as the paragons of rationality, and scientific thought is generally assumed to be independent of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46.  25 DLs
    Paul Thagard (2010). The Brain and the Meaning of Life. Princeton University Press.
    The book integrates decades of multidisciplinary research, but its clear explanations and humor make it accessible to the general reader.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47.  25 DLs
    Paul Thagard, Legal Decision Making: Explanatory Coherence Vs. Bayesian Networks.
    Reasoning by jurors concerning whether an accused person should be convicted of committing a crime is a kind of casual inference. Jurors need to decide whether the evidence in the case was caused by the accused’s criminal action or by some other cause. This paper compares two computational models of casual inference: explanatory coherence and Bayesian networks. Both models can be applied to legal episodes such as the von Bu¨low trials. There are psychological and computational reasons for preferring the explanatory (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48.  24 DLs
    Paul Thagard, How Cognition Meets Emotion: Beliefs, Desires, and Feelings as Neural Activity.
    Deep appreciation of the relevance of emotion to epistemology requires a rich account of how emotional mental states such as happiness, sadness and desire interact with cognitive states such as belief and doubt. Analytic philosophy since Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell has assumed that such mental states are propositional attitudes, which are relations between a self and a proposition, an abstract entity constituting the meaning of a sentence. This chapter shows the explanatory defects of the doctrine of propositional attitudes, and (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49.  24 DLs
    Paul Thagard & Cameron Shelley, Emotional Analogies and Analogical Inference.
    Despite the growing appreciation of the relevance of affect to cognition, analogy researchers have paid remarkably little attention to emotion. This paper discusses three general classes of analogy that involve emotions. The most straightforward are analogies and metaphors about emotions, for example "Love is a rose and you better not pick it." Much more interesting are analogies that involve the transfer of emotions, for example in empathy in which people understand the emotions of others by imagining their own emotional reactions (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50.  23 DLs
    Paul Thagard (2010). Why Wasn't O.J. Convicted? Emotional Coherence in Legal Inference. Cognition and Emotion 17 (3):361-383.
1 — 50 / 185