Search results for 'Parsimony' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Plutynski Anya (2005). Parsimony and the Fisher–Wright Debate. Biology and Philosophy 20 (4):697-713.score: 24.0
    In the past five years, there have been a series of papers in the journal Evolution debating the relative significance of two theories of evolution, a neo-Fisherian and a neo-Wrightian theory, where the neo-Fisherians make explicit appeal to parsimony. My aim in this paper is to determine how we can make sense of such an appeal. One interpretation of parsimony takes it that a theory that contains fewer entities or processes, (however we demarcate these) is more parsimonious. On (...)
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  2. Craig DeLancey (2011). Does a Parsimony Principle Entail a Simple World? Metaphysica 12 (2):87-100.score: 24.0
    Many scholars claim that a parsimony principle has ontological implications. The most common such claim is that a parsimony principle entails that the “world” is simple. This ontological claim appears to often be coupled with the assumption that a parsimony principle would be corroborated if the “world” were simple. I clarify these claims, describe some minimal features of simplicity, and then show that both these claims are either false or they depend upon an implausible notion of simplicity. (...)
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  3. Sam Cowling (2013). Ideological Parsimony. Synthese 190 (17):3889-3908.score: 24.0
    The theoretical virtue of parsimony values the minimizing of theoretical commitments, but theoretical commitments come in two kinds: ontological and ideological. While the ontological commitments of a theory are the entities it posits, a theory’s ideological commitments are the primitive concepts it employs. Here, I show how we can extend the distinction between quantitative and qualitative parsimony, commonly drawn regarding ontological commitments, to the domain of ideological commitments. I then argue that qualitative ideological parsimony is a theoretical (...)
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  4. Fabio Paglieri & John Woods (2011). Enthymematic Parsimony. Synthese 178 (3):461 - 501.score: 24.0
    Enthymemes are traditionally defined as arguments in which some elements are left unstated. It is an empirical fact that enthymemes are both enormously frequent and appropriately understood in everyday argumentation. Why is it so? We outline an answer that dispenses with the so called "principle of charity", which is the standard notion underlying most works on enthymemes. In contrast, we suggest that a different force drives enthymematic argumentation—namely, parsimony, i.e. the tendency to optimize resource consumption, in light of the (...)
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  5. Richard L. Lippke (2009). Retributive Parsimony. Res Publica 15 (4):377-395.score: 24.0
    Retributive approaches to the justification of legal punishment are often thought to place exacting and unattractive demands on state officials, requiring them to expend scarce public resources on apprehending and punishing all offenders strictly in accordance with their criminal ill deserts. Against this caricature of the theory, I argue that retributivists can urge parsimony in the use of punishment. After clarifying what parsimony consists in, I show how retributivists can urge reductions in the use of punishment in order (...)
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  6. Michael Huemer (2009). When is Parsimony a Virtue? Philosophical Quarterly 59 (235):216-236.score: 18.0
    Parsimony is a virtue of empirical theories. Is it also a virtue of philosophical theories? I review four contemporary accounts of the virtue of parsimony in empirical theorizing, and consider how each might apply to two prominent appeals to parsimony in the philosophical literature, those made on behalf of physicalism and on behalf of nominalism. None of the accounts of the virtue of parsimony extends naturally to either of these philosophical cases. This suggests that in typical (...)
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  7. Daniel Nolan (1997). Quantitative Parsimony. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (3):329-343.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I motivate the view that quantitative parsimony is a theoretical virtue: that is, we should be concerned not only to minimize the number of kinds of entities postulated by our theories (i. e. maximize qualitative parsimony), but we should also minimize the number of entities postulated which fall under those kinds. In order to motivate this view, I consider two cases from the history of science: the postulation of the neutrino and the proposal of Avogadro's (...)
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  8. Alan Baker (2003). Quantitative Parsimony and Explanatory Power. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2):245-259.score: 18.0
    The desire to minimize the number of individual new entities postulated is often referred to as quantitative parsimony. Its influence on the default hypotheses formulated by scientists seems undeniable. I argue that there is a wide class of cases for which the preference for quantitatively parsimonious hypotheses is demonstrably rational. The justification, in a nutshell, is that such hypotheses have greater explanatory power than less parsimonious alternatives. My analysis is restricted to a class of cases I shall refer to (...)
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  9. Richard C. Richards (2002). Kuhnian Values and Cladistic Parsimony. Perspectives on Science 10 (1):1-27.score: 18.0
    : According to Kuhn, theory choice is not governed by algorithms, but by values, which influence yet do not determine theory choice. Cladistic hypotheses, however, seem to be evaluated relative to a parsimony algorithm, which asserts that the best phylogenetic hypothesis is the one that requires the fewest character changes. While this seems to be an unequivocal evaluative rule, it is not. The application of the parsimony principle is ultimately indeterminate because the choice and individuation of characters that (...)
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  10. Thomas D. Bontly (2005). Modified Occam's Razor: Parsimony, Pragmatics, and the Acquisition of Word Meaning. Mind and Language 20 (3):288–312.score: 18.0
    Advocates of linguistic pragmatics often appeal to a principle which Paul Grice called Modified Occam's Razor: 'Senses are not to be multiplied beyond necessity'. Superficially, Grice's principle seems a routine application of the principle of parsimony ('Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity'). But parsimony arguments, though common in science, are notoriously problematic, and their use by Griceans faces numerous objections. This paper argues that Modified Occam's Razor makes considerably more sense in light of certain assumptions about (...)
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  11. Elliott Sober (1996). Parsimony and Predictive Equivalence. Erkenntnis 44 (2):167 - 197.score: 18.0
    If a parsimony criterion may be used to choose between theories that make different predictions, may the same criterion be used to choose between theories that are predictively equivalent? The work of the statistician H. Akaike (1973) is discussed in connection with this question. The results are applied to two examples in which parsimony has been invoked to choose between philosophical theories-Shoemaker's (1969) discussion of the possibility of time without change and the discussion by Smart (1959) and Brandt (...)
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  12. Elliott Sober (2002). Instrumentalism, Parsimony, and the Akaike Framework. Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S112-S123.score: 18.0
    Akaike’s framework for thinking about model selection in terms of the goal of predictive accuracy and his criterion for model selection have important philosophical implications. Scientists often test models whose truth values they already know, and they often decline to reject models that they know full well are false. Instrumentalism helps explain this pervasive feature of scientific practice, and Akaike’s framework helps provide instrumentalism with the epistemology it needs. Akaike’s criterion for model selection also throws light on the role of (...)
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  13. Elliott Sober (1987). Parsimony, Likelihood, and the Principle of the Common Cause. Philosophy of Science 54 (3):465-469.score: 18.0
    The likelihood justification of cladistic parsimony suggested in Sober (1984) is here shown to be incomplete. Even so, cladistic parsimony remains a counter-example to the principle of the common cause formulated by Reichenbach (1956) and Salmon (1975, 1979, 1984).
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  14. Carolyn Suchy-Dicey (2012). Inductive Parsimony and the Methodological Argument. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):605-609.score: 18.0
    Studies on so-called Change Blindness and Inattentional Blindness have been taken to establish the claim that conscious perception of a stimulus requires the attentional processing of that stimulus. One might contend, against this claim, that the evidence only shows attention to be necessary for the subject to have access to the contents of conscious perception and not for conscious perception itself. This “Methodological Argument” is gaining ground among philosophers who work on attention and consciousness, such as Christopher Mole. I find (...)
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  15. Elliott Sober (2009). Parsimony Arguments in Science and Philosophy—A Test Case for Naturalism P. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 83 (2):117 - 155.score: 18.0
    Parsimony arguments are advanced in both science and philosophy. How are they related? This question is a test case for Naturalismp, which is the thesis that philosophical theories and scientific theories should be evaluated by the same criteria. In this paper, I describe the justifications that attach to two types of parsimony argument in science. In the first, parsimony is a surrogate for likelihood. In the second, parsimony is relevant to estimating how accurately a model will (...)
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  16. Andris Ambainis, John Case, Sanjay Jain & Mandayam Suraj (2004). Parsimony Hierarchies for Inductive Inference. Journal of Symbolic Logic 69 (1):287-327.score: 18.0
    Freivalds defined an acceptable programming system independent criterion for learning programs for functions in which the final programs were required to be both correct and "nearly" minimal size, i.e., within a computable function of being purely minimal size. Kinber showed that this parsimony requirement on final programs limits learning power. However, in scientific inference, parsimony is considered highly desirable. A lim-computablefunction is (by definition) one calculable by a total procedure allowed to change its mind finitely many times about (...)
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  17. Roy Sorensen (2013). Parsimony for Empty Space. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 92 (2):1-16.score: 18.0
    Ockham's razor is popularly phrased as a prohibition against multiplying entities beyond necessity. This prohibition should extend to the receptacle for these entities. To state my thesis more positively and precisely, both qualitative and quantitative parsimony apply to space, time, and possibility. All other things equal, we ought to prefer a hypothesis that postulates less space. Smaller is better. Admittedly, scientists are ambivalent about economizing on the void. They praise simplicity. Yet astronomers have a history of helping themselves to (...)
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  18. Kevin de Queiroz & Steven Poe (2001). Philosophy and Phylogenetic Inference: A Comparison of Likelihood and Parsimony Methods in the Context of Karl Popper's Writings on Corroboration. Systematic Biology 50 (3):305-321.score: 18.0
    Advocates of cladistic parsimony methods have invoked the philosophy of Karl Popper in an attempt to argue for the superiority of those methods over phylogenetic methods based on Ronald Fisher's statistical principle of likelihood. We argue that the concept of likelihood in general, and its application to problems of phylogenetic inference in particular, are highly compatible with Popper's philosophy. Examination of Popper's writings reveals that his concept of corroboration is, in fact, based on likelihood. Moreover, because probabilistic assumptions are (...)
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  19. Safa Zaki & Joe Cruz (2010). Parsimony and the Triple-System Model of Concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):230-231.score: 18.0
    Machery's dismissive position on parsimony requires that we examine especially carefully the data he provides as evidence for his complex triple-system account. We use the prototype-exemplar debate as an example of empirical findings which may not, in fact, support a multiple-systems account. We discuss the importance of considering complexity in scientific theory.
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  20. Jonathan Tallant (2013). Quantitative Parsimony and the Metaphysics of Time: Motivating Presentism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (3):688-705.score: 16.0
    In this paper I argue that presentism—the view that only present objects exist—can be motivated, at least to some degree, by virtue of the fact that it is more quantitatively parsimonious than rival views.
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  21. Elliott Sober, The Contest Between Parsimony and Likelihood.score: 15.0
    Philosophy Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; E-mail: esober@stanford.edu; and Philosophy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA; E-mail: ersober@wisc.edu..
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  22. Elliott Sober (1981). The Principle of Parsimony. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 32 (2):145-156.score: 15.0
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  23. Olivier Rieppel (2007). Parsimony, Likelihood, and Instrumentalism in Systematics. Biology and Philosophy 22 (1):141-144.score: 15.0
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  24. Albert O. Hirschman (1985). Against Parsimony: Three Easy Ways of Complicating Some Categories of Economic Discourse. Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):7-21.score: 15.0
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  25. John Hubbard, Parsimony and the Mind.score: 15.0
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  26. Elliott Sober (2012). Anthropomorphism, Parsimony, and Common Ancestry. Mind and Language 27 (3):229-238.score: 15.0
    I consider three theses that are friendly to anthropomorphism. Each makes a claim about what can be inferred about the mental life of chimpanzees from the fact that humans and chimpanzees both have behavioral trait B and humans produce this behavior by having mental trait M. The first thesis asserts that this fact makes it probable that chimpanzees have M. The second says that this fact provides strong evidence that chimpanzees have M. The third claims that the fact is evidence (...)
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  27. Martin Tweedale (1992). Ockham's Supposed Elimination of Connotative Terms and His Ontological Parsimony. Dialogue 31 (03):431-.score: 15.0
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  28. C. K. Brampton (1964). Nominalism and the Law of Parsimony. The Modern Schoolman 41 (3):273-281.score: 15.0
  29. Cindy D. Stern (1989). Paraphrase and Parsimony. Metaphilosophy 20 (1):34–42.score: 15.0
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  30. Everett J. Nelson (1936). A Note on Parsimony. Philosophy of Science 3 (1):62-66.score: 15.0
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  31. Elliott Sober (2002). Reconstructing the Character States of Ancestors: A Likelihood Perspective on Cladistic Parsimony. The Monist 85 (1):156 - 176.score: 15.0
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  32. Lewis White Beck (1943). The Principle of Parsimony in Empirical Science. Journal of Philosophy 40 (23):617-633.score: 15.0
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  33. A. E. Heath (1920). Logical Atomism and the Law of Parsimony. The Monist 30 (2):309-310.score: 15.0
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  34. John Laird (1920). Logical Atomism and the Law of Parsimony. The Monist 30 (2):307-309.score: 15.0
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  35. John J. Shepherd (1974). Panpsychism and Parsimony. Process Studies 4 (1):3-10.score: 15.0
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  36. John Laird (1919). The Law of Parsimony. The Monist 29 (3):321-344.score: 15.0
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  37. David Boonin-Vail (1993). Response: Parsimony Made Simple: Rosenfeld on Harrison and Animal Pain. Between the Species 9 (3):5.score: 15.0
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  38. Toni Vogel Carey (2010). Parsimony, In As FewWords As Possible. Philosophy Now 81:6-8.score: 15.0
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  39. Thierry Nouspikel & Philip C. Hanawalt (2003). When Parsimony Backfires: Neglecting DNA Repair May Doom Neurons in Alzheimer's Disease. Bioessays 25 (2):168-173.score: 15.0
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  40. George Schlesinger (1971). Induction and Parsimony. American Philosophical Quarterly 8 (2):179 - 185.score: 15.0
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  41. Lisa A. Williams & David DeSteno (2010). Pride in Parsimony. Emotion Review 2 (2):180-181.score: 15.0
    Tracy, Shariff, and Cheng (2010) present a timely and eloquent review of the current research on the emotion pride in terms of a naturalist framework. The present commentary not only echoes arguments relating to pride’s adaptive function, but also highlights some points of theoretical clarification. Specifically, we question the necessity of the naturalist approach and the emphasis on two facets of pride.
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  42. Irwin S. Bernstein (2000). The Law of Parsimony Prevails. Missing Premises Allow Any Conclusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.score: 15.0
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  43. Catherine Z. Elgin (1997). The Power of Parsimony. Philosophia Scientiae 2 (1):89-104.score: 15.0
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  44. A. E. Heath (1919). The Principle of Parsimony and Ethical Neutrality. The Monist 29 (3):448-450.score: 15.0
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  45. John Hell (1983). Belief Accripton, Parsimony, and Rationality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):365.score: 15.0
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  46. Owen N. Hillman (1934). Professor Savery's Views on Parsimony. Philosophical Review 43 (4):406-410.score: 15.0
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  47. Robert P. Rosenfeld (1993). Parsimony, Evolution, and Animal Pain. Between the Species 9 (3):4.score: 15.0
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  48. Baker Alan (2003). Quantitative Parsimony and Explanatory Power. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 54 (2).score: 15.0
     
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  49. Thomas Bontly (2005). Modified Occam's Razor: Parsimony Arguments and Pragmatic Explanations. Mind and Language 20:288-312.score: 15.0
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